Cambridge University Press, 1994 - Всего страниц: 240
When people are in a certain mood, whether elated or depressed, that mood is often communicated to others. When we are talking to someone who is depressed it may make us feel depressed, whereas if we talk to someone who is feeling self-confident and buoyant we are likely to feel good about ourselves. This phenomenon, known as emotional contagion, is identified here, and compelling evidence for its effects is offered from a variety of disciplines--social and developmental psychology, history, cross-cultural psychology, experimental psychology, and psychopathology. The authors propose a simple mechanism to account for the process of contagion. They argue that people, in their everyday encounters, tend automatically and continuously to synchronize with the facial expressions, voices, postures, movements, and instrumental emotional behaviors of others. Emotional experiences are affected, moment-to-moment, by the feedback from such mimicry. In a series of orderly chapters, the authors provide observational and laboratory evidence to support their propositions. They then offer practical suggestions for clinical psychologists, physicians, husbands and wives, parents, and professionals who wish to become better at shaping the emotional tone of social encounters.
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Introduction and overview
Mechanisms of emotional contagion I Emotional mimicrysynchrony
Mechanisms of emotional contagion II Emotional experience and facial vocal and postural feedback
Evidence that emotional contagion exists
The ability to infect others with emotion
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activity affected anger angry arousal autonomic aware behavior Bernieri body Cacioppo Cappella catch clients cognitive colleagues communication condition conversation cues dancing mania depressed E. L. Doctorow Ekman Elaine Hatfield emotional contagion Emotional Contagion Scale emotional experience emotional expressions emotional reactions emotionally empathy evidence example extraverts eyes faces facial expressions facial feedback fear feel felt film friends gender gestures happy heart rate Hsee hypothesis imitation individual differences infants influenced interactions introverts James Laird John Cacioppo Laird Lanzetta laugh look ments mimicry mirror monkeys mood mothers move movements muscle nonverbal observed Oliver Sacks pain patterns Paul Ekman person physiological postures rapport response rhythms Robert Zajonc scores situation skin conductance smile Social Psychology someone SS-man stimulus studies subjects were asked susceptibility to emotional synchrony talk target therapists thought tions videotapes vocal feedback voice vulnerable to contagion women