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$ 2.-THE Artist.

PAGU

"II. The artist-Idea of pure art-Wherein satire injures art-Whereir it diminishes the

interest-Wherein it falsifies the characters-Comparison of Thackeray and

Balzac-Valérie Marneffe and Rebecca Sharp...

611

Artainment of pure art- Portrait of Henry Esmond- Historical talent of Thack-
eray-Conception of ideal man..

673
Literature is a definition of man-The definition according to Thackeray-Wherein
it differs from the truth..

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HITRODUCTION OF GERMAN IDEAS IN EUROPE AND ENGLAND-GERMAN

STUDIES OF CARLYLB.

Appearance of original forms of mind-How they act and result-Artistic genius

of the Renaissance-Oratorical genius of the classic age--Philosophical genius
of the modern age--Probable analogy of the three ages...........

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PAOL

Wherein consists the modern and German form of mind--How the aptitude for

opiversal ideas has renewed the science of language, mythology, æsthetics,
nistory, exegesis, theology, and metaphysics—How the metaphysical bent has
transformed poetry::

656

Capital idea derived thence-Conception of essential and complimentary parts

New conception of nature and man.....

66

Inconvenience of this aptitude--Gratuitous hypothesis and vague abstraction
Transient discredit of German speculations.

662
How each nation may reforge them-Ancient examples: Spain in the sixteenth

and seventeenth centuries-The Puritans and Jansenists in the seventeenth
century-France in the eighteenth century-By what roads these ideas may
enter France-Positivism-Criticism

661
By what roads these ideas may enter England-Exact and positive mind-Ion
passioned and poetic inspiration-Road followed by Carlyle..

667

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$ 3.-PHILOSOPHY, MORALITY, AND CRITICISM.

HIS METHOD IS MORAL, NOT SCIENTIFIC-WHERRIN HE RESEMBLES THE

PURITANS-SARTOR RESARTUS.

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CHAPTER V.

Philosophy.--Stuart Mill,

Philosophy in England--Organization of positive science-Lack of general ideas 679

Why metaphysics are wanting-Authority of religion....

675
Indications and splendor of free thought-New exegesis-Stuart Mill His works

---His order of mind-To what school of philosophers he belongs-Value of
higher speculation in human civilization....

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$ 1.-EXPERIENCE.

Object of logic-Wherein it is distinguished from psychology and metaphysics.... 677
What is a judgment?-What do we know of the external and

inner worlds ?--The
whole object of science is to add or connect facts

The system based on this view of the nature of our knowledge..

.................... 690

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PASL

Theory of definitions Its importanco-Refutation of the old theory There ire

no definitions of things, but of names only..

68

Theory of proof-Ordinary theory-Its refutation-What is the really funda-
mental part of a syllogism?..

681
Theory of axioms-Ordinary theory- Its refutation-Axioms are only truths of
experience of a certain class.

683
Theory of induction—The cause of a fact is only its invariable antecedent-

Experience alone proves the stability of the laws of nature-What is a law?-
By what methods are laws discovered ?-The methods of agreement, of dif-
ferences, of residues, of concomitant variations..

685
Examples and applications—Theory of dew....

682
Deduction-Its province and method...

69c

Comparison of the methods of induction deduction--Ancient employment of

the first-Modern use of the second-Sciences requiring the first-Sciences

requiring the second-Positive character of Mill's work-His predecessors. 69€

Limits of our knowledge-It is not certain that all events happen according to laws

-Chance in nature..

691

XI.

Poetry.--Tennyson.

Talent and work-First attempts-Wherein he was opposed to preceding poets-

Wherein he carried on their spirit......
First period—Female characters-Delicacy and refinement of sentiment and style

- Variety of his emotions and of his subjects--Literary curiosity and poetic
dilettantism-The Dying Swan-The Lotos-Eaters...

701

Second period—Popularity, good fortune, and life-Permanent sensibility and

virgin freshness of the poetic temperament-Wherein he is at one with nature

-Locksley Hall-Change of subject and style-Violent outbreak and personal

feeling-Maud..

704

Return of Tennyson to his first style-In Memoriam-Elegance, coldness, and

lengthiness of this poem-The subject and the talent must harmonize-What
subjects agree with the dilettante artist- The Princess-Comparison with As
You Like It-Fanciful and picturesque world-How Tennyson repeats the

dreams and the style of the Renaissance..
How Tennyson repeats the ingenuousness and simplicity of the old cpic-The

Idylls of the King Why he has restored the epic of the Round Table-Purity
and elevation of his models and his poetry-Elaine Morte d'Arthur-Want
of individual and absorbing passion-Flexibility and disinterestedness of his
mind-Talent for metamorphosis, embellishment, and refinement.

79

His public Society in England Country comfort - Elegance-Education-Habits

--Wherein Tennyson suits such a society-Society in France-Parisian life-

Its pleasures--Display-Conversation-Boldness of mind-Wherein Alfred de

Musset suits such a society-Comparison of the two societies and of the two

poets

711

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then bistorian might place himself for a given period, say a series of ages, or in the name

soul, or with some particular people ; he might study, describe, relate, all the evento, all the transformations, all the revolutions which had been accomplished in the interna. man; and when he had finished his work, he would have a history of civilization amongst the people and in the period he had selected.-Guizot, Civilization in Europe, p. 25.

HISTORY has been transformed, within / into existence all alone. It is but a a hundred years in Germany, within mould, like a fossil shell, an imprint, sixty years in France, and that by the like one of those shapes embossed in study of their literatures.

stone by an animal which lived and It was perceived that a literary work perished. Under the shell there was is not a mere individual play of imagin- an animal, and behind the document ation, the isolated caprice of an excited there was a man. Why do you study brain, but a transcript of contemporary the shell, except to bring before you manners, a manifestation of a certain the animal ? So you study the docukind of mind. It was concluded that ment only to know the man. The shell we might recover, from the monuments and the document are lifeless wrecks, of literature, a knowledge of the man- valuable only as. a clue to the entire ner in which men thought and felt cen- and living existence. We must get turies ago. The attempt was made, hold of this existence, endeavor to reand it succeeded.

create it. It is a mistake to study the Pondering on these modes of feeling document, as if it were isolated. This and thought, men decided that they were were to treat things like a simple facts of the highest kind. They saw scholar, to fall into the error of the chat these facts bore reference to the bibliomaniac. Neither mythology nor most important occurrences, that they languages exist in themselves; but only explained and were explained by them, men, who arrange words and imagery that it was necessary thenceforth to according to the necessities of their give them a rank, and a most impor- organs and the original bent of their tant rank, in history. This rank they intellects. A dogma is nothing in it. have received, and from that moment self; look at the people who have history has undergone a complete made it,-a portrait, for instance, of the change : in its subject-matter, its sys- sixteenth century, say the stern powerlem, its machinery, the appreciation of ful face of an English archbishop or laws and of causes. It is this change, martyr. Nothing exists except through such as it is and must be, that we shall some individual man; it is this indi.

; bere endeavor to exhibit.

vidual with whom we must become ac

quainted. When we have established I.

the parentage of dogmas, or the classi

fication of poems, or the progress of What is your first remark on turning constitutions, or the transformation of over the great, stiff leaves of a folio, idioms, we have only cleared the soil : the yellow sheets of a manuscript,

;-a genuine history is brought into exist. poem, a code of laws, a confession of ence only when the historian begins to faith? This, you say, did not come unravel, across the lapse of time, the

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living nan, toiling, impassioned, en- | their genealogies on their fingers is trenched in his customs, with his voice order to obtain the right of sittir. and features, his gestures and his dress, down in the presence of tłe King o distinct and complete as he from whom Queen. On that head consult St. Sa we have just parted in the street. Let mon and the engravings of Pérelle, as us endeavor, then, to annihilate as far for the present age you have consulted as possible this great interval of time, Balzac and the water-colors of Eugène which prevents us from seeing man Lami. Similarly, when we read a with our eyes, with the eyes of our Greek tragedy, our first care should be bead. What have we under the fair to realize to ourselves the Greeks, that glazed pages of a modern poem? A is, the men who live half naked, in the modern poet, who has studied and gymnasia, or in the public squares travelled, a man like Alfred de Musset, under a glowing sky, face to face with Victor Hugo, Lamartine, or Heine, in the most beautiful and the most noble a black coat and gloves, welcomed by landscapes, bent on making their the ladies, and making every evening bodies lithe and strong, on conversing, his fifty bows and his score of bon- discussing, voting, carrying on patri. mots in society, reading the papers in otic piracies, nevertheless lazy and tem the morning, lodging as a rule on a perate, with three urns for their furni. second floor; not over gay, because he ture, two anchovies in a jar of oil for has nerves, and especially because, in their food, waited on by slaves, so as this dense democracy where we choke to give them leisure to cultivate their one another, the discredit of the dig- understanding and exercise their limbs, nities of office has exaggerated his pre- with no desire beyond that of having tensions while increasing his impor- the most beautiful town, the most tance, and because the keenness of his beautiful processions, the most beauti feelings in general disposes him some ful ideas, the most beautiful men. On what to believe himself a deity. This this subject, a statue such as the Meis what we take note of under modern leager or the Theseus of the Parthenon, Meditations or Sonnets. Even so, or still more, the sight of the Mediterunder a tragedy of the seventeenth cen- ranean, blue and lustrous as a silken tury we have a poet, like Racine for in- tunic, and the islands that stud it with stance, elegant, staid, a courtier, a fine their massive marble outlines : add to talker, with a majestic wig and rib- these twenty select phrases from Plato boned shoes, at heart a royalist and a and Aristophanes, and they will teach Christian, who says, “ God has been you much more than a multitude of sò gracious to me, that in whatever dissertations and commentaries. Y And company I find myself I never have so again, in order to understand an occasion to blush for the gospel or the Indian Purana, begin by imagining ta xing;

"* clever at entertaining the yourself the father of a family, who, prince, and rendering for him into good having seen a son on his son's knees," French the “old French of Amyot ; "retires, according to the law, into soli very respectful to the great, always tude, with an axe and a pitcher under • knowing his place; as assiduous a banyan tree, by the brook-side, talks and reserved at Marly as at Versailles, no more, adds fast to fast, dwells naked amidst the regular pleasures of polished between four fires, and under that ter and ornate nature, amidst the saluta- rible sun, which devours and renews cons, graces, airs, and fopperies of the without end all things living; who, for braided lords, who rose early in the weeks at a time, fixes his imagination morning to obtain the promise of being first upon the feet of Brahma, next appointed to soine office in case of the upon his knee, next upon his thigk, death of the present hoider, and next upon his navel, and so on, untii

, amongst charming ladies who count beneath the strain of this intense medi

tation, hallucinations begin to appear, • Mary Wollstonecraft, in her Historical until all the forms of existence, mingled and Moral View of the French Revolution, p; and transformed the one with the other, 25, says, in quoting this passage, “What could be expected from the courtier who could write quaver before a sight dazzled and gid in these terms to Madame de Maintenon. -TR. Idy, until the motionless nan, catching

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