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to venture into the cavern.

The Stoic assures one knows what place it holds in Eng. them that such an accident is nothing, but a lish philosophy: Hutcheson, Price mere å tro ponguévov. The Baconian, who has no such fine word at his command, contents Ferguson, Wollaston, Adam Smith, himself with devising a safety-lamp. They Bentham, Reid, and many others, have find a shipwrecked merchant wringing his hands filled the last century with dissertations on the shore. His vessel with an inestimable and discussions on the rule of duty, caigo has just gone down, and he is reduced in a moment from opulence to beggary. The and the faculty which discovers our Stoic exhorts him not to seek happiness in duty; and Macaulay's Essays are a Alings which lie without himself, and repeats new example this national and dom. he whole chapter of Epictetus, apos Tous TÌM inant inclination: his biographies are απορίαν δεδoικότας. The Baconian constructs 2. diving-bell, goes down in it, and returns with less portraits than judgments. What would be easy to multiply illustrations of the and dishonesty of the personage he dethe most precious effects from the wreck. It strictly is the degree of uprightness difference between the philosophy of thorns and the philosophy of fruit, the philosophy of words scribes, that is the important question and the philosophy of works." +

for him; he makes all other questions It is not for me to discuss these refer to it; he applies himself through. opinions ; it is for the reader to blame out pnly to justify, excuse, accuse, or or praise them, if he sees fit: I do not condemn. If he speaks of Lord Clive, wish to criticise doctrines, but to depict Addison, Milton, or any other man, he

Warren Hastings, Sir William Temple, a man; and truly nothing could be more striking than this absolute scorn devotes himself first of all to measure for speculation, and this absolute love exactly the number and greatness of

their faults and virtues; he interrupts for the practical. Such a mind is entirely suitable to the national genius : himself, in the midst of a narration, to in England a barometer is still called examine whether the action, which he a philosophical instrument ; philosophy siders it as a legist and a moralist, ac

is relating, is just or unjust; he con. is there a thing unknown. The Eng: cording to positive and natural law; lish have moralists, psychologists, but no metaphysicians : if there is one. Ilic opinion, the examples which sur

he takes into account the state of pub. Hamilton, for instance-he is a skeptic rounded the accused, the principles he in metaphysics; he has only read the German philosophers to refute them; ceived; he bases his opinion on analo

professed, the education he has rehe regards speculative philosophy as an extravagance of visionaries, and is gies drawn from ordinary life, from the compelled to apologize to his readers history of all peoples, the laws of all for the strangeness of his subject, when countries; he brings forward so many he tries to make them understand proofs, such certain facts, such conclu. somewhat of Hegel's conceptions. The

sive reasonings, that the best advocate positive and practical English, excel- might find a model in him; and when lent politicians, administrators, fighters, think we are listening to the summing

at last he pronounces judgment, we and workers, are no more suited than the ancient Romans for the abstrac- up of a judge. If he analyzes a litera. tions of subtle dialectics and grand sys stance-he empanels before the reader

ture that of the Restoration, for intems; and Cicero, too, once excused himself, when he tried to expound to it appear at the bar, and reads the in

a sort of jury to judge it. He makes -his audience of senators and public dictment; he then presents the plea of men, the deep and audacious deduc- the defenders, who try to excuse its tions of the Stoics.

levities and indecencieš: at last he beIII.

gins to speak in his turn, and proves

that the arguments set forth are not The only part of philosophy which applicable to the case in question; tha: pleases men of this kind is morality, the accused writers have labored effect because like them it is wholly practical, ually and with premeditation, to corrupt and only attends to actions. Nothing morals ; that they not only employed else was studied at Rome, and every unbecoming words, but that they design• Macaulay's Works; Essay on Bacon, vi. edly, and with deliberate intent, repre.

sented unbecoming things; that they

always took care to conceal the hate-For lack of natiral theology they have fulness of vice, to render virtue ridicu- a positive theology, and deniand from lous, to make adultery fashionable and the Bible the metaphysics not supplied a necessary exploit of a man of taste ; by reason. Macaulay is a Protestant that this intention was all the more and though a very candid and liberal manifest from its being in the spirit of man, he at times retains the English the times, and that they were pander- prejudices against the Roman-Catholic ing to a crime of their age. If I dare religion.* Popery in England alway employ, like Macaulay, religious com- passes for an impious idolatry and for parisons, I should say that his criticism a degrading servitude. After two rey. was like the Last Judgment, in which olutions, Protestantism, allied to liberty the diversity of talents, characters, seemed to be the religion of liberty ranks, employments, will disappear be- and Roman-Catholicism, allied to des. fore the consideration of virtue and potism, seemed the religion of despot. vice, and where there will be no more ism: the two doctrines have both as. artists, but a judge of the righteous sumed the name of the cause which and the wicked.

they supported. To the first has been In France, criticism has a freer gait; transferred the love and veneration it is less subservient to morality, and which were felt for the rights which it more akin to art. When we try to re- defended; on the second has been late a life, or paint the character of a poured the scorn and hatred which man, we more readily consider him as were felt for the slavery which it would a simple subject of painting or science: have introduced : political passions we only think of displaying the various have inflamed religious beliefs; Prot. feelings of his heart, the connection of estantism has been confounded with his ideas and the necessity of his ac the victorious fatherland, Roman-Cath. tions; we do not judge hím, we only olicism with the conquered enemy : wish to represent him to the eyes, and prejudices survive when the strife is make him intelligible to the reason. ended, and to this day English ProtWe are spectators, and nothing more. estants do not feel for the doctrines of What matters it if Peter or Paul is a Roman-Catholics the same good-will or rascal? that is the business of his con- impartiality which French Roman. temporaries: they suffered from his Catholics feel for the doctrines of Prot. vices, and ought to think only of de-estants. spising and condemning him. Now we But these English opinions are mod. are beyond his reach, and hatred has erated in Macaulay by an ardent love disappeared with danger. At this dis- for justice. He is a liberal in the tance, and in the historic perspective, largest and best sense of the word. I see in him but a mental machine, He demands that all citizens should be provided with certain springs, animated equal before the law, that men of all by a primary impulse, affected by sects should be declared capable to fu various circumstances. I calculate the all public functions—that Roman Cath. play of his motives; I feel with him the olics and Jews may, as well as Lutherimpact of obstacles; I see beforehand ans, Anglicans, and Calvinists, sit in the curve which his motion will trace Parliament. He refutes Mr. Gladstone out; I feel for him neither aversion

*“ Charles himself, and his creature Lardy aor disgust; I have left these feelings while they abjured the innocent badges of on the tlıreshold of history, and I taste Popery, retained all its worst vices,--a coin the very deep and pure pleasure of see- preference of form to substance, a childish pas

plete subjection

of reason to authority a weak ing a soul act after a definite law, in a sion for mummeries, an idolatrous veneration fixed groove, with all the variety of for the priestly character, and, above all, human passions, with the succession merciless intolerance.”-Macaulay, v. 24; M and constraint, which the inner struc

“ It is difficult to relace without a pityine ture of man imposes on the external smile, that in the sacrifice of the mass, Loyola development of his passions.

saw transubstantiation take place, and that, as In a country where men are so much he stood praying on the steps of the Church of

St. Dominic, he saw the Trinity in Unity, and occupied by morality, and so little by wept aloud with joy and wonder." – Macaulay philosophy, there is much religion. I vi. 468 ; Ranke, History of the Popes.

ton.

and the partisans of State religion with and to decide for themselves, it adds to incomparable ardor and eloquence, their dignity and intelligence; because abundance of proof, and force of argu- in assuring internal peace and continu ment; he clearly proves that the State ous progress, it guarantees the land is only a secular association, that its against bloody revolutions and silent de end is wholly temporal, that its single cay. All these advantages are perpetuai object is to protect the life, liberty, and ly present to his eyes; and whoever atproperty of the ci.izens ; that in en- tacks the liberty, which forms their trusting to it the ciefence of spiritual foundation, becomes at once his enemy. nterests, we overturn the order of Macaulay cannot look calmly on the chings; and that to attribute to it a re- oppression of man; every outrage on ligious belief, is as though a man, walk. human will hurts him like a personal ing with his feet, should also confide to outrage. At every step bitter words nis feet the care of seeing and hearing. escape him, and the stale adulation This question has often been discussed of courtiers, which he meets with, 'n France; it is so to this day; but no brings to his lips a sarcasm the more one has brought to it more common violent from being the more deserved. sense, more practical reasoning, more Pitt, he says, at college wrote Latin palpable arguments. Macaulay with verses on the death of George I. In draws the discussion from the region this piece “the Muses are earnestly of metaphysics ; he leads it back to the entreated to weep over the urn of earth; he brings it home to all minds; Cæsar: for Cæsar, says the poet, loved he takes his proofs and examples from the muses; Cæsar, who could not read the best known facts of ordinary life; a line of Pope, and who loved nothing he addresses the shopkeeper, the citi- but punch and fat women. Else zen, the artist, the scholar, every one ; where, in the biography of Miss Bur. he connects the truth, which he asserts, ney, he relates how the the poor young with the familiar and intimate truths lady, having become celebrated by her which no one can help admitting, and two first novels, received as a reward, which are believed with all the force of and as a great favor, a place of keeper experience and habit; he carries off of the robes of Queen Charlotte ; how, and conquers cur belief by such solid worn out with watching, sick, nearly reasons, that his adversaries will thank dying, she asked as a favor the permis. him for convincing them; and if by sion to depart; how“ the sweet queen chance a few amongst us have need of was indignant at this impertinence, una lesson on tolerance, they had better able to understand that any one could relook for it in Macaulay's Éssay on that fuse to die in and for her service, or that subject.

a woman of letters should prefer health,

life, and glory, to the honor of folding IV.

her Majesty's dresses. But it is when

Macaulay comes to the history of the Tais love of justice becomes a pas- Revolution that he hauls to justice and sion when political liberty is at stake ; vengeance those men who violated the this is the sensitive point; and when rights of the public, who hated and be. we touch it, we touch the writer to the trayed the national cause, who outquick. Macaulay loves it interestedly, raged liberty. He does not speak as hecause it is the only guarantee of the a historian, but as a contemporary; it properties, happiness, and life of indi- seems as though his life and his honor çiduals; he loves it from pride, be were at stake, that he pleaded for himcause it is the honor of man: he loves self, that he was a member of the Long it from patriotism, because it is a lega- Parliament, that he heard at the door cy left by preceding generations ; be the muskets and swords of the guards cause for two hundred years a succession sent to arrest Pym and Flampden. : M. of upright and great men have defend- Gaizot has related the same history; ed it against all attacks, and preserved but we recognize in his book the calm it in all dangers ; because it has made judgment and impartial emotion of a the power and glory of England ; be

* Macaulay, vi. 39; An Essay on With cause in teaching the citizens to will | F'itt, Earld Chatham.

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philosopher. He does not condemn their prince should again require a supply and the actions of Strafford or Charles; he again repay it with a perjury? They were com explains them; he shows in Strafford pelled to choose whether they would trust a ty

rant or conquer him. think that they the imperious character, the domineer- chose wisely and nobly. ing genius which feels itself born to " The advocates of Charles, like the advo command and to crush opposition, whelming evidence is produced, gen: -ally de

cates of other malefactors against wh: m over whom an invincible bent rouses against cline all controversy about the facts, as content the law or the right which restrains themselves with calling testimony to turacter him, who oppresses from a sort of in- He had so many private virtues ! ner craving, and who is made to govern Oliver Cromwell, his bitterest ener vs them

James the Second no private virtu.o? Wa as a sword is to strike. He shows in selves being judges, destitute of print virtues i Charles the innate respect for royalty, And what, after all, are the virtues es cribed to the belief in divine right, the rooted con

Charles? A religious zeal, not more skacere thay viction that every remonstrance or de minded, and a few of the ordinary household

that of his son, and fully as weak a d narrow mand is an insult to his crown, an out- decencies which half the tombstoi us in Eng rage on his rights, an impious and crimi- land claim for those who lie beneat thun. nal sedition. Thenceforth we see in the good father! A good husband! Ample apolostrife of king and Parliament but the gies indeed for fifteen years of wersecution,

tyranny, and falsehood ! strife of two doctrines; we cease to take “We charge him with having broken his an interest in one or the other, to take an coronation oath ; and we are told that he kept interest in both; we are spectators of a given up his people to the mercil-ss initions

his marriage vow! We accuse bom of luring drama; we are no longer judges at a of the most hot-headed and hard-bsarted if pretrial. But it is a trial which Macaulay lates; and the defence is, that he took his little conducts before us; he takes a side in son on his knee and kissed him! We ceusure it ; his account is the address of a pub- tion of Right, after having, for wood and valu.

him for having violated the articles of the Petilic prosecutor before the court, the able consideration, promised to observe them; most entrancing, the most acrimonious, and we are informed that he was accustomed to the best reasoned, that was ever writ-hear prayers at six o'clock in that morning! It

is to such considerations as these, together ten. He approves of the condemna- with his Vandyke dress, his handsome face, tion of Strafford; he honors and ad- and his peaked beard, that he owes, we verily mires Cromwell; he exalts the charac- believc, most of his popularity with the present ter of the Puritans; he praises Hamp

generation. den to such a degree, that he calls him derstand the common phrase, a good man, but

“ For ourselves, we own that we do not unthe equal of Washington; he has no a bad king. We can as easily conceive a good words scornful and insulting enough man and an unnatural father, or a good map for Laud; and what is more terrible, mating the character of an individual, leave

and a treacherous friend. We cannot, in estieach of his judgments is justified by as out nf our consideration his conduct in the most many quotations, authorities, historic important of all human relations; and if in that precedents, arguments,

conclusive relation we find him to have been selfish, cruel, proofs, as the vast erudition of Hallam him a bad man, in spite of all his temperance at

and deceitful, we shall take the liberty to call or the calm dialectics of Mackintosh table, and all his regularity at chapel." . could have assembled. Judge of this This is for the father; now the son transport of passion and this withering will receive something. The reader logic by a single passage:

will perceive, by the furious invective, “For more than ten years the people had what excessive rancor the government een the rights which were theirs by a double of the Stuarts left in the heart of a claim, by immemorial inheritance and by, repatriot, a Whig, a Protestant, and an cent purchase, infringed by the perfidious King who had recognized them. At length circum

Englishman stances compelled Charles to summon another “Then came those days, never to be reca ad parüament: another chance was given to our without a blush, the days of servitude without fathers : were they to throw it away as they loyalty and sensuality, without love, of dwarfish had thrown away the former? Were they talents and gigantic vices, the paradise of cold again to be cozened by le Roi le veut ! Were hearts and narrow minds, the golden age of they again to advance their money on pledges the coward, the bigot, and the slave. The whích had been forfeited over and over again ? King, cringed to his rival that he might trampie Were they to lay a second Petition of Right at on his people, sank into a viceroy of France, the foot of the throne, to grant another lavish and pocketed, with complacent infamy, her de aid in exchange for another unmeaning cere grading insults, and her more degrading gold mony, and then to take their departure, till, after ten years more of fraud and oppression,

* Macaulay, v. 27; Milton.

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The caresses of harlots, and the jests of buf. | ideas of every species ; but is erudi foons, regulated the policy of the state. The tion is as well tempered as his philosa government had just ability enough to deceive, and just religior enough to persecute. The phy, and both constitute a coin worthy principles of liberty were the scoff of every of circulatior amongst all thinking grinning courtier, and the Anathema Marana- minds. We feel that he believes noththa of every fawning dean. In every high ing without reason ; that if we doubted place, worship was paid to Charles and James, Belial and Moloch; and England propitiated one of the facts which he advances, or those obscere and cruel idols with the blood of one of the views which he propounds, her best and bravest children. Crime succeed we should at once encounter a multied to crime, and disgrace to disgrace, till the race accursed of God and man was a second tude of authentic documents and a ser. time driven forth, to wander on the face of the ried phalanx of convincing arguments. varth, and to be a by-word and a shaking of the In France and Germany we are 100 head to the nations."' *

much accustomed to receive hypoth: This piece, with all the biblical meta eses for historic laws, and doubtful phors, which has preserved something anecdotes for attested events. We toc of the tone of Miston and the Puritan often see whole systems established, prophets, shows to what an issue the from day to day, according to the cavarious tendencies of this great mind price of a writer, a sort of castles in the were turning-what was its bent-how air, whose regular arrangement simuthe practical spirit, science and historic lates the appearance of genuine editalent, the unvaried presence of moral fices, and which vanish at a breath, and religious ideas, love of country when we come to touch them. We and justice, concurred to make of Ma. have all made theories, in a fireside caulay the historian of liberty.

discussion, in case of need, when for

lack of argument we required some V.

fictitious reasoning, like those Chinese In this his talent assisted him; for placed amongst their troops formidable

generals who, to terrify their enemies, his opinions are akin to his talent. What first strikes us in him is the have judged men at random, under the

monsters of painted cardboard. We extreme solidity of his mind. He proves impression of the moment, on a deall that he says, with astonishing vigor tached action, an isolated document; and authority. We are almost certain and we have dressed them up with r.ever to go astray in following him. vices or virtues, folly or genius, withIf he cites a witness, he begins by out controlling by logic or criticism the measuring the veracity and intelligence hazardous decisions to which our preof the authors quoted, and by correct- cipitation had carried us.

Thus we ing the errors they may have commit- feel a deep satisfaction and a sort of ted, through negligence or partiality. internal peace, on leaving so many If he pronounces a judgment, he relies doctrines of ephemeral bloom in oui on the most certain facts, the clearest books or reviews, to follow the steady principles, the simplest and most logi- gait of a guide so clear sighted, recal deductions. If he develops an ar. Hective, instructed, able to lead us gument, he never loses himself in a di- aright.' We understand why the Eng. gression ; he always has his goal be: lish accuse the French of being friv. fore his eyes ; he advances towards it olous, and the Germans of being chi. by the surest and straightest road. If merical. Macaulay brings to the moral he rises to general considerations he sciences that spirit of circumspection, nounts step by step through all the that desire for certainty, and that in grades of generalization, without omit- stinct of truth, which make up the ting one; he feels his way every in practical mind, and which from the stant; he neither adds nor subtracts time of Bacon have constituted the from facts; he desires at the cost of scientific merit and power of his na. every precaution and research, to ar- tion. If art and beauty loose by this, rive at the precise truth. He knows truth and certainty are gained ; ar no an infinity of details of every kind; he one, for instance, would blame our ay owns a great number of philosophic thor for inserting the following dem ɔn * Macaulay, v. 35 ; Milton.

stration in the life of Addison

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