History of Semiconductor Engineering
Springer Science & Business Media, 28 июл. 2007 г. - Всего страниц: 387
performing ?rms were curtailed following the stock market decline and the subsequent economic slowdown of 2001 and 2002. The Federal Government was once the main source of the nation’s R&D funds, funding as much as 66. 7 percent of all U. S. R&D in 1964. The Federal share ?rst fell below 50 percent in 1979, and after 1987 it fell steadily, dr- ping from 46. 3 percent in that year to 25. 1 percent in 2000 (the lowest it has ever been since 1953). Adjusting for in?ation, Federal support decreased 18 percent from 1987 to 2000, although in nominal terms, Federal support grew from $58. 5 billion to $66. 4 billion during that period. Growth in industrial funding generally outpaced growth in Federal support, leading to the decline in Federal support as a proportion of the total. Fig. 2. Doctorates awarded in Engineering, Physics, and Mathematics: 1995–2002 [Source: National Science Foundation NSF 04–303 (October 2003)] Figure 1 explains the most signi?cant change in the industry which occurred in the early sixties. The industry, with pressure from Wall Street, could not ?nance long-range and risky basic research. The objective of basic research is to gain more comprehensive knowledge or understanding of the subject under study without speci?c applications in mind. Basic research advances scienti?c knowledge but does not have speci?c immediate commercial objectives. Basic research can fail and often will not bring results in a short period of time.
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Grown Junction and Diffused Transistors
Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories
Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation Subsidiary of Fairchild Camera and Instrument Company
Driving the Company Out of Business
Integrated Circuits outside Fairchild Semiconductor
Linear Integrated Circuits PreWidlar Era Prior to 1963
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alloy aluminum Amelco amplifier Autonetics Bardeen base became Beckman Bell Laboratories Bell Labs Bob Noyce Bob Widlar Brattain Cogar collector components creative crystal developed device diffusion diode Division Electronics emitter engineers equipment etch facility Fairchild Camera Fairchild Semiconductor Fujitsu gate germanium Gordon Moore Hogan idea integrated circuits Intel Intersil Jack Jay Last Jean Hoerni Jerry Sanders John junction transistor Kilby Kilby’s Kurt later layer Lehovec linear integrated circuits Longo manager manufacturing mask memory mesa transistor metal Micrologic Morgan Sparks MOS transistor Mostek Motorola Mountain View N-MOS Noyce’s operation oxide P-MOS P-N junction P-type patent application Physics planar process planar transistor problems production resistors Robert Noyce semiconductor business semiconductor industry Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory Shockley’s shown in Fig silicon Sporck Sprague surface Sylvania Talbert temperature Texas Instruments thickness tube U.S. Patent voltage wafer Wanlass wanted Western Electric Westinghouse
Стр. 2 - With the advent of the transistor and the work in semiconductors generally, it seems now possible to envisage electronic equipment in a solid block with no connecting wires. The block may consist of layers of insulating, conducting, rectifying and amplifying materials, the electrical functions being connected directly by cutting out areas of the various layers".
Стр. 11 - Our species is the only creative species, and it has only one creative instrument, the individual mind and spirit of a man. Nothing was ever created by two men. There are no good collaborations, whether in music, in art, in poetry, in mathematics, in philosophy. Once the miracle of creation has taken place, the group can build and extend it, but the group never invents anything. The preciousness lies in the lonely mind of a man.
Стр. 10 - The innovator makes enemies of all those who prospered under the old order, and only lukewarm support is forthcoming from those who would prosper under the new.
Стр. ix - Development is systematic use of the knowledge and understanding gained from research, directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including design and development of prototypes and processes.
Стр. 1 - Who controls the past controls the future; who controls the present controls the past/
Стр. ix - The objective of basic research is to gain more comprehensive knowledge or understanding of the subject under study, without specific applications in mind. Basic research is defined as research that advances scientific knowledge but does not have specific immediate commercial objectives, although it may be in fields of present or potential commercial interest.