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in any one, who accepts the typical meaning, given by Holy Scripture to certain acts or events, to interpret, without any reference to this authenticated meaning, other language of the Divine Record, framed upon those same events. Having the comment supplied to us in the one case, we are no longer at liberty, (if we would,) to disregard it in the other. Thus, since the passage of the Red Sea is typical of Baptism, the overwhelming of the enemy in the sea, of the effacing of sin and the deliverance from Satan, then, when the prophet Micah (after the manner of the prophets,) parallels the future deliverance with the past, the days of the Gospel with “ the days of their coming out of “ the land of Egypt';" and then prophesies that God would “ cast ? all their iniquities into the depth of the sea ;" on no consistent system of interpretation can he be understood otherwise that he was in the Ancient Church, as prophesying of the remission of sin in Baptism'. In what way Baptism may be available to the baptized for sins afterwards committed, what further privileges it may introduce them to, is obviously a further and secondary question. Whatever privileges may be wrapt up in Baptism, the primary meaning of the prophet's declaration must be the plenary destruction of our enemies through that which the passage of the Red Sea denoted, i. e. as we know from Holy Scripture itself, the sacrament of Baptism. Yet it is from neg. lecting so obvious a rule, that the modern unsacramental theory, without compunction, effaces from the Old Testament the predictions of our Lord's Ordinances ; claims, without hesitation, for the older dispensation, the privileges of the New; and then for

1 vii. 15.

2 Ver. 19. 3“ Micah prophesies of the grace of Baptism." Jer. ad Oc. So also S. Basil in Ps. 28. 8 8. " And their" (the Jews'] “ sins the LORD cast into the depth of “ the sea, but ours He effaces through the holy and Divine bath, whereof the “ Red Sea, according to the Divine apostle, was a type, passing through which

they were freed from the Egyptian bondage. According to that type let us “ also, freed from the tyranny of the devil, through the holy bath, be careful for

our salvation," &c. Theodoret ad loc. Its language is used in an ancient MS. of the Greek Liturgy. (Ass. ii. 131.) See also S. Ambrose, below, p. 379.

EZEKIEL UNDER THAT OF LEVITICAL WASHINGS.

371

and "

itself, under the New, these same full privileges, without any reference to the ordinances to which they are annexed. Thus, when Ezekiel, a priest, prophesies, " Then will I sprinkle clean water

upon you, and ye shall be clean ; a new heart also will I give

you, and a new spirit will I put within you ; and I will put " My Spirit within you,” he is plainly to be understood, (as Antiquity understood him) to be foretelling the birth" of water, and " of the Spirit,” which effaces in us the stains of our old nature,

renews us in the image of Him Who created us.” Thus each part of this prophecy has its fulfilment: he plainly refers to the Levitical washings, whereof he was a minister, and so points to some act corresponding with them ; but foretells, that it shall not be, like these,-unprofitable ; but that when bedewed withi the water, their “ consciences” should be “ sprinkled" also ; that they should be sprinkled not with the water only, but with water accompanied by the Spirit. The prophet thus provided a remedy for the difficulties of Nicodemus; and Masters in Israel, who, with Nicodemus, might otherwise have stumbled at the birth of " water and the Spirit," had its meaning laid up for them in their own prophets. St. Jerome? gives the connection of the passage very clearly : " Which when I had seen, not for their

sakes, but for My Holy Name (for I am Creator of all) I “ spared them, and sanctified them, and restored them to their “ former glory, so as to 'pour upon' those who believed, and

were converted from erring, the clean water' of saving Baptism, and to cleanse them from their abominations and all their

errors, and to give them a 'new heart,' that they should believe “ on the Son of God, and a new spirit,' whereof David speaks'. “ And it is to be considered, that the new heart,' and new spi" rit,' are given through the affusion and aspersion of water. " But when a new heart,' and 'new spirit,' shall have been given, " then shall all hardness, which is compared to a stone, be taken away from the heart of the Jew, that for

stony heart,' there " should be a • heart of flesh,' tender and soft, which can receive “ the Spirit of God within it, and be inscribed with wholesome “ words. Then shall they walk in the commands of the LORD, * xxxvi. 25-27.

2 Ad loc.

3 Ps. li. 12.

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" and keep His judgments, and dwell," &c. And Theodoret ,
“ • Pure water,' he calls the water of regeneration, wherein being

baptized, we received remission of sins; and what follows con-
“ firms this: ' And I will give you a new heart,' hereby denoting
“ the change of mind; for the mind shall incline to the better,

not, according to the former wont, to the worst."

On the same ground, since the many Levitical baptisms for the
cleansing of the flesh shadowed forth the one, which “ cleansed
“ both flesh and spirit,” David's prayer, “wash me throughly
" from my wickedness, and cleanse me from my sin," and his
prophecy of God's future blessing, “ Thou shalt purge me with
" hyssop, and I shall be clean ; Thou shall wash me, and I shall
“ be whiter than snow," being in the language of the symbols of
the law, are plainly to be understood of that which those symbols
foretold. The Ancient Church, then, doubted not at all, but
that David meant the same as St. Paul, and finding no remedy

1 Ad loc. The passage is quoted by the Council under S. Cyprian, Ep. 70 (69),
and alleged by S. Cyprian himself, in proof of the validity of aspersion, Ep. 76
(75), " Nor ought it to trouble any, that the sick, when they obtain the grace of
" the LORD, are seen to receive it by aspersion or affusion; since lloly Scrip-

ture by the prophet Ezekiel says, 'I will sprinkle clean water upon you,'
[combining the passage with the Levitical aspersions, Numb. xix. 12, 13;

viii.
6, 7; xix. 9.] “Whence," he adds, " it appears that water when sprinkled also,
" suffices for the saving laver." S. Gregory of Nyssa, speaking of Baptism, says,
“ Ezekiel writing more clearly and perspicuously than either (Is. i. Ps. xxxii.)
“promises that excellent promise.” (De Bapt. CHRISTI, p. 377.) St. Jerome
(ad Ocean.) cites it in proof of the completeness of the remission in Baptisın,
" Let us hear Ezekiel, the son of man, how he speaks of His virtue, Who was
“10 be the Son of Man-In that he saith, ' I will cleanse you from all sins,'

none is excluded." It is quoted by St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Lect. jii. 10 ;
xvi. 30; and S. Cyril of Alexandria, in connection with the Levitical washings.
(Glaph. in Levit. i. 368.) Ezek. xxxvi. 25. is used as an antiphone in the Ro-
man Baptismal Office (Ass. ii. 21.); in the Gellone ritual an antiphone is formed
out of ver. 23—26; and ver. 25—28. are read as a lesson (ib. 54, 55.), as they
are also in the Armenian (ib. 195, 6. 206.) ; ver. 23—28. in that for Catechu.
mens in an old Office of Poictiers (ib. i. 65.), and Viete (ib. 70.); ver. 25. seq.
in another service in the same MS. (ib. 73.), and the ritual of Liège (ib. 83.).
ver. 25--29. are also a lesson in that of Card. Severini formed from ancient
sources. (ib. 91.) See also below, p. 396.

P3ALM LI-PROPHECY OF BAPTISM.

373

under the law for his grievous sins, but," knowing that the New Testament has a perfect remission of sins, desiring to be most "speedily and perfectly freed from sins, and himself also to "Teceive that compendious and bounteous cleansing, speaks thus : "'Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop,' &c. for the gift of

Baptism alone can effect this cleansing, and the Lord of the “ universe promised by the prophet Isaiah that He would give "it; for having said, 'wash you, make you clean, put away “the wickedness from your hearts;' a little after, he says, ' though

your sins be as scarlet, I will make thee white as snow;' and this “ the great David himself also foretells in the 67th [68th] Psalm, " When the Most High disperseth kings, they shall be made “ like snow in Salmon.' This then he says here also, that I need " the grace which shall be given to all men. For that only can

throughly wash me,' and give me the whiteness of snow. And, that hyssop effected no remission of sins, may be easily “ learnt from the Mosaic writings. For the murderer, and the " adulterous despoiler, the law purified not with sprinklings, but

subjected to the extremest punishment. The hyssop, then, is a “ figure of somewhat else. For in Egypt, having sprinkled the "blood of the lamb on the door-posts, they escaped the hands of “ the destroyer. But those things were types of the saving " Passion. For then also was Blood, and the saving wood, and “ salvation, bestowed on those who approach with faith.” “Holy “ David, the prophet,” says St. Ambrose , \ saw this grace in a

1 Theodoret in Ps. 50. fin.' 2 Id. on ver. 8.

3 De Sacr. iv. 1. $ 6. Again, Apol. David, g 59." He maketh not void the “ sacraments of the Old Testament, and he teaches that the Evangelic mysteries

are to be preferred: he prays to be cleansed with hyssop according to the law, " he longs to be washed according to the Gospel, and looks, if he be washed, to “ be made' whiter than snow.' Whoso wished to be cleansed by the typical "baptism, was sprinkled with the blood of a lamb by means of a bunch of hys

sop; he is,' washed,' who is cleansed in the stream of the eternal fountain ; " and he is made 'whiter than snow' whose sins are forgiven liim." And ($ 64.) “ There follows, ' Create in me a clean heart.' Elsewhere he had prayed " to be cleansed from secret faults ;' here he prays that he may have a clean “ heart' created in him, which is wrought for him who is renewed in spirit; for " in the new man there is a clean heart, the filthy horde of ancient sins having

" figure, and longed for it. Why? because snow, though white,

soon blackens and is spoiled by any defilement ; that grace 56 which thou hast received, if thou hold fast what thou hast re“ceived, will be lasting and eternal.”

“ been effaced, and no image of sin remaining impressed thereon.” Comp. de Myst. c. 7. $ 34. The Psalm is interpreted in this same way by Origen or Eusebius, ad loc. (the same words are given to both), “ Observe, again, the mystery of Christ. For the power of Baptism exceeding the purification in the law, " effecteth the cleansing of the soul also." St. Athanasius, “ He introduces a pro“phecy of the universal remission of sins through Holy Baptism, and the teach“ing of the worship in the Spirit.(ap. Caten. Corderii.) And “He mentions also the redemption through Baptism, in that he says, ' Thou shalt

sprinkle me.” (ap. Montfauc. Coll. Nov.t. 2. p. 65.) And St. Cyril of Alexandria, “When he says, 'wash me more,' he again probably refers to the mystery in “ CHRIST. For the law also had a cleansing by water, which the all-wise Paul "mentions, ' for if the blood of bulls,' &c. But the type was insufficient for the " washing away of sin, and was practised only for the cleansing of the flesh; but “ that power which we have of Christ and through Holy Baptism, far excel" ling the cleansing in the law, washeth yet more, or rather effects an entire “ cleansing.” (ap. Corder.) And Hesychius (ibid.) “ As we also in the gift of " Baptism are washed with water, but made bright through the Spirit." Add Jerome in Zech. xiii. 1. Hippolytus in Theoph. (see above, p. 360.) In the Liturgies, ver. 2. occurs as an Antiphone in an ancient MS. of the Sacramentary of Gelasius (A ss. ii. 8. not.); and ver. 8—10. are repeated in the Coptic (ib. 179.); the whole Psalm at the beginning of the Armenian (ib. 202.); and the Coptic (ib. i. 143.); as also ver. 10-12. in a prayer at the close (ii. 193.); ver. 7. in the Syriac (Apost. by Severus, ii. 274.); and the words,“ sanctify, cleanse,

purge him with Thy holy hyssop,” are taken from it; (ib. 268.“ with Thy “sin-remitting hyssop.” Apost. from Greek, by James of Edessa, ib. i. 263.) In the Maronite, our Lord Himself is " prayed" as "the Hyssop, cleansing and " whitening all stains” (ib. ii. 329.); and St. Cyril of Jerusalem, in like way, alludes to the Psalm, (Lect. iii. 1.) " Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth “ be glad' for those who are to be sprinkled with hyssop, to be cleansed with the “invisible hyssop, by His power, Who at His Passion received the hyssop and “ the reed.” Ver. 10. is inserted in the prayer for Catechumens, in the ritual in the Apostolic Constitutions : " ALMIGHTY God, unbegotten and unapproach"able, the only true God, look upon Thy servants, instructed in the Gospel " of Thy Christ, and give them 'a new heart, and renew a right spirit " within' them, that they may know and do Thy will, &c." L. viii. c. 6. And ver. 12. in the prayer just before Baptism, " that God, Who loveth mankind, " having graciously received their prayers, may' restore' to them the joy of “salvation, and stablish them with a princely spirit,' that they may never again “ be shaken.” (ib. c. 8.)

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