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420

'Tis Chastity, my Brother, Chastity:
She, that has that, is clad in compleat steel,
And, like a quiver'd Nymph with arrows keen,

E' vendica la morte,
Ma più di ogn'altro, e con più saldo scudo,
L'onestate il difende:
Che sdegna alma ben nata
Più fido

guardatore Aver del proprio onore. Perhaps Milton remembered the Fathers also on the subject of Chastity. By St. Ambrofe, VIRGINITY is thus impregnably fortified, and thus divinely protected: “ Undique vallata eft muro “ caftitatis, et fepto divinæ munita protectionis." D. Ambros. Opp. vol. iii. p. 1046. edit. Paris, 1586. fol. See alfo Notes infr. at v. 440, and v. 455.

EDITOR. v. 421. — is clad in compleat steel.). This phrase is supposed to be borrowed from Hamlet. Critics must shew their reading, in quoting books : but I rather think it was a common expression for 66 armed from head to foot.” It occurs in Dekker's VNTRUSSING OF THE HUMOUROUS POET, Lond. for E. White, 1602, 4to. Signat. G.

- First, to arme our wittes
With compleat fteele of Iudgment, and our tongues

With sound artillerie of phrases, &c. This play was acted by the lord Chamberlain's servants, and the choir-boys of faint Paul's, in 1602. Hamlet appeared at least before 1598. Again, in a play, The WEAKEST GOETH TO THE WALL, 1618, 4to, Signat. H.

At his first comming, arm'd in complete feele,

Chalengd the duke Medine at his tent, &c. The first edition of this play is in 1600. 4to.

Hence an expression in our author's APOLOGY, which also confirms what is here said, g. i. “ Zeal, whose substance is ethes real,“ arming in compleat diamond, ascends his fiery chariot, &c." Pr.-W. i. 114.

WARTON. V. 422. And, like a quiver'd Nymph with arrows keen.) I make no doubt but Milton in this passage had his eye upon SPENSER's. Belphebe, whose character, arms, and manner of life, perfectly correspond with this description. What makes it the more certaip is, that Spenser intended under that personage to represent the Virtue of Chastity. THYER.

Perhaps Milton remembered a stanza in Fletcher's PURP. ISLAND, published but the preceding year. B. x. ft. 27. It is in a personification of Virgin-Chastitie.

With her, her sister went, a warlike maid,
Parthenia, all in steele and gilded arms,
In needle's stead, a mighty spear she sway'd, &c. WARTON.

May trace huge forests and unharbour'd heaths,
Infamous hills and fandy perilous wilds,
Where, through the sacred rays of Chastity, 425
No savage fierce, bandite, or mountaneer,
Will dare to soil her virgin purity :

v. 423. May trace huge forests, &c.] Shakspeare's Oberon, as Mr. Bowle observes, would breed his child-knight to “ trace “ the forests wild.” Mids. N. DR. A. ii. S. ii. In Jonson's MASQUES, a Fairy fays, vol. v. 206.

Only We are free to trace
All
his grounds, as he to chace.

WARTON. Compare Par. Reg. B. ii. 109. " tracing the defert wild.” And also Drayton, NIMPHALL. ii. edit. 1630. of Fairies.

About the field tracing

Each other in chafing. EDITOR. v. 424. Infamous hills.) Hor. Op i. iii. 20.

Infames fcopulos, Acroceraunia. Newton. v. 425. Where, through the sacred rays of Chaftity,

No savage fierce, bandite, or mountaneer,

Will dare to foil her virgin purity.) So Fletcher, FAITH: Sheph. A.i. S. i. vol. iii. p. 109. A Satyr kneels to a virgin. shepherdess in a forest.

Why should this rough thing, who never knew
Manners, nor smooth humanity, whose heats
Are rougher than himself, and more mifhapen,
Thus mildly kneel to me? Sure there's a power
In that great name of Virgin, that binds fast
All rude uncivil bloods, all appetites

That break their confines : &c. WARTON.
W.426. No savage fierce, bandite, or mountaneer. ] Tickell changed
bandite for banditti. He introduced also a similar change in
V. 441, namely, Diana for Dian.

Bandite, although not a very common word, occurs in Lovelace's LUCASTA,p.62. edit. 1659. And it is adopted from COMUS by Pope, in his Essay on Man. See Note on v. 412. of the Afhridge manuscript. Editor.

Ibid. mountaneer.] A mountaneer seems to have conveyed the idea of something very savage and ferocious. In the TemPEST, A. ii. S. iii,

Who would believe that there were mountaineers

Dewlapp'd like bulls In CYMBELINE, A. iv. S. ii.

Who cali'd me traitor, mountaineer. İn Drayton, Mus. ELYS, vol. iv.

This Čleon was a mountaineet,

And of the wilder kind. WARTON.

Yea there, where very desolation dwells
By grots and caverns Thagg’d with horrid shades,
She may pass on with unblench'd majesty, 430
Be it not done in pride, or in presumption.

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V. 428. —where very desolation dwells ] Par. Lost, B. i. 181. “ The seat of desolation.” WARTON.

v 429. By grots and caverns Magg’d with horrid Mades.] Pope appears to have adverted to this line, ELOIS. ABEL. V. 20.

Ye grots and caverns shagg’d with horrid thorn.
Again, in the same poem, v.24.

I have not yet forgot myself to stone.
Almost as evidently from our author's Il Pens, V. 42.

There held in holy passion still,

Forget thyself to marble.
Pope again, ibid. v. 244.

And low-brow'd rocks hang nodding o'er the deeps.
From L'ALLEGRO, v. 8.

There under ebon shades and low-brow'd rocks.
And in the Messiah, v. 6.

touch'd lsaiah's hallow'd lips with fire.
So, in the Ope NATIV. V.28.

touch'd with hallow'd fire. See supr. at v. 24. and 380. And infr. at v. 861, And ESSAY ON Pope, p. 307. g. vi. edit. 2.

This is the first instance of any degree even of the flightest at-
tention being paid to Milton's smaller poems by a writer of note,
since their first publication. Milton was never mentioned, or ac-
knowledged, as an English poet, till after the appearance of PARA-
DISE Lost: and, long after that time, these pieces were totally
forgotten and overlooked. It is strange that Pope, by no means
of a congenial-spirit, ihould be the first who copied Comus or
IL PENSEROSO. But Pope was a gleaner of the old English
poets; and he was here pilfering from obsolete English poetry, with-
out the least fear or danger of being detected. WARTon.
Ibid.

horrid Shades.] PAR. Lost, B. ix. 185.
Nor yet in horrid Shade, or dismal den.
And Par. Reg. B.i. 296.

A pathless desert, dulk with horrid fhades.
Compare Tallo, GIER. Lib. C. xii. 29.

Me n'andai sconosciuto, e per foresta

Caminando, di piante horrida ombrosa-EDITOR. v. 430. —with unblench'd majesty.] Unblinded, unconfounded. See Steevens's Note on Blench, in HAMLET, at the close of the fecond A&t. And Upton's Gloss. Spenser, V. Blend. And Tyrwhitt's Gloss, Ch. V. Blent. In B. and Fletcher's PilGRIM, A. iv. S. iii, vol. v. p. 516.

Sone say, no evil thing that walks by night,
In fog, or fire, by lake, or moorish fen,
Blue meager hag, or stubborn unlaid ghost
That breaks his magic chains at Curfeu time,

435

-Men that will not totter,
Nor blench much at a bullet.

WARTON. : 432. Some say, no evil thing that walks by night.] Milton had Shakspeare in his head. Hamlet, A. i. S. i.

Some say, that ever 'gainst that season comes
Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated-

But then, they say, no fpirit walks abroad.
Another superstition is ushered in with the same form in Par.
Lost, B. x. 575.

Yearly injoin'd, fome fay, to undergo

This annual humbling, certain number'd days. Where, doctor Newton says, " I know not, nor can recollect, " from what author or what tradition Milton borrowed this notion." But doctor Warburton saw, it was from old romances.

And the same form occurs in the description of the physical effects of Adam's fall. B. x. 668. WARTON. Ibid. no evil thing that walks by night,

In fog, or fire, by lake, or moorijh fen, &c.] Milton here had his eye on the FAITHFUL Shepherdess, A. i. He has borrowed the sentiment, but raised and improved the diction,

I have heard, (my mother told it me,
And now I do believe it) if I keep
My virgin flow'r uncropt, pure, chaste, and fair,
No goblin, wood-god, fairy, elfe, or fiend,
Satyr, or other pow'r that haunts the groves,
Shall hurt my body, or by vain illusion
Draw me to wander after idle fires;

Or voices calling me &c. Newton. v 434. Blue meager hag.] Perhaps from Shakspeare's “ blueeyed hag.” Temp. A. i. S. ii.

WARTON. Ibid.

- stubborn unlaid ghoft. That breaks his magic chains at Curfeu time.) An unlaid ghost was among the most vexatious plagues of the world of 1pirits. It is one of the evils deprecated at Fidele's grave, in CYMBELINE, A. iv. S. ii.

No exorciser harm thee,
Nor no witchcraft charm thee,

Ghost unlaid forbear thee! The metaphorical expression is beautiful, of breaking his magic chains, for being suffered to wander abroad.” And here too the fuperftition is from Shakspeare, K. LEAR, A. iii. S. iv. “ This " is the foul fiend Flibbertigibbet : he begins at Curfew, and walks'

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No goblin, or swart faery of the mine,
Hath hurtful pow'r o'er true Virginity.
Do ye believe me yet, or shall I call
Antiquity from the old schools of Greece

“ till the first cock.” Compare also Cartwright, in his play of the ORDINARY, where Moth the antiquary fings an old song, A. ii. S. i, P, 36, edit. 1651. He wilhes, that the house may remain free from wicked spirits,

From Curfew time

To the next prime. Compare Note on Il PEN 9. V. 83. Profpero, in the TEMPEST, invokes those elves, among others,

that rejoyce

To hear the solemn Curfew. A. v. S. i. That is, they rejoice at the found of the Curfew, because at the close of day announced by the Curfew, they are per: mitted to leave their several confinements, and be at large till cock-crowing. MACBETH, A. ii, S. iii.

Good things of day, begin to droop and drowse,
While night's black agents to their prey do rouse.

WARTON. 7. 436. Swart faery of the mine.] In the Gothic system of pneumatology, mines were supposed to be inhabited by various forts of spirits. See Olaus Magnus's Chapter de METALLICIS DÆMONIBUS, Hist. GENT. SEPTENTRIONAL. vi. X. In an old translation of Lavaterus De Speftris et Lemuribus, is the following paffage. “Pioners or diggers for metall do affirme, that " in many mines there appeare straungę Shapes and Spirites, “ who are apparelled like vnto the laborers in the pit. These “ wander vp and downe in caues and underminings, and seeme “ to besturre themselves in all kinde of labor; as, to digge after " the veinę, to carrie together the oare, to put it into basketts, and “ to turn the winding wheele to drawe it vpx when in very deed " they do nothinge lesse, &c.". 6 Of GHOSTES and SPIRITES

walking by night, &c." Lond. 1572, Bl. Lett. ch. xvi. p. 73. And hence we see why Milton gives this species of Fairy a swarthy or dark complexion. Georgius Agricola, in his tract De SUBTERRANEIS ANIMANTIBUS, relates among other wonders of the same fort, that these Spirits sometimes affume the most terrible shapes; and that one of them, in cave or pit in Germany, killed twelve miners with his pestilential breath. Ad calc. De Re METALL. P. 538. Bafil. 1621. fol. Drayton personifies the Peak in Derbyshire, which he makes a witch skilful in metallurgy. POLYOLB. S. xxvii. vol. iii. p. 1176.

The Sprites that haunt the mines she could correct and tame,
And bind them as the lift, &c. WARTON.

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