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most se pris. The enton, has its special cutiary marve, me vtish alome brations act $9 a tu mke De SDEERELDPE or sound and the mostrine tave their ofaniany nerve, wise aluse MUS+ 136 Suunnit of me. The me nerve, as it was heas mi only hears, the other a aut mun melit
* Ou tudung time, during life are the seat of at least six different telegraphie arrangeIrute, muut as we meint imperiest's imitate in our artificial telegraphs, adition to a Eu tatut battery and simracting was to represent the sentent suriases and series of sense121and a magustie machine wit communicating wira so represent the terras centres me the son of uutis-we had me apparatu muh kept constantly dagoerreotyping at tus metruputis a the viñedo ritule at one of the distant stations: a recund, which reverberated to the centre al tbe suunds uttered at another terminis ; a third, which wafted to that sentral rendezvouk El the odours developed at a third termin; and a furtk, the most Attient si al tocmitate, video reprodused at the centre the saves of all tbe substances presented at a fvurib termune John Boyez would have caled those termini, Evegate, Pargate, Kosegatza and Monthszate. There would be no need for a special Toocbgate, for the same sera utách comunicate summon sensation, appear to give tactile sensibility."Pp. 115-1211.
latestizations into physiology are inseparable from the infliction of suffering on liring saucals, in the way of experiment." Era anzsthetics, so usefel in producing the negativa of pain, are often onarailing bere, since the object of the investigawax is in many cases for the very purpose of discovering whether certain nerves are the vehicles of suffering, or, in other words, of sensation. The question thus brought up. How far we are at liberty to infliet suffering on the inferior animals as a ineans of extending the resources of the healing art, is one of the difficult questions of ethies. It was a subject of grave consideration to Dr Reid, and is discussed with great ability and feeling by his biographer. With keen discrimiBuation be states the arguments on both sides-shows within what limits the practice may be defended-presents such pleas for merey to the lower animals as mere reason suggests, and then with remarkable beauty he urges the higher pleas of revelation
“But to the Christian physiologist pleadings more solemn and sacred can be addressed than we are free to take to others, and in this country, where an inereasing religious earnest. 33** persades all ranks of the medical profession, and the great majority claim to be Christiane, we can fairly ask them to consider what obligations this claim imposes upon them in the suatur of humanity to animals. An unintermitting stream of mercy towards living creatarex runs through the whole Bible. Eren the stern old Levitical law, with its condemnation of many animals as unclean, its repeated sacrifices, its reeurring sheddings of blood, and swift and fatal judgments upon human offenders, nesertheless, er:forced provisions for the merciful treatment of living creatures, in keeping with the cities of refuge which it opened for the hunted manslager. An awful tragedy and mighty propitiation were shadowed forth in the slaying of every paschal lamb; and none could learn a lesson of cruelty from the slaughter of bulls and of goats,' when their death at the bands of the priest was invariably connected with the declaration, that without shedding of blood there is no remission of ring. Lext, however, the meaning of the symbolical
sacrifices should be overlooked by any, or indifference to animal suffering be generated by them, the inspired Hebrew Lawgiver made special provision for the welfare of even humble creatures. The birdnesting boy might take the young but not the dam with them ; the hungry ox treading out the corn was not to be tantalized with the sight of grain wbich a muzzle kept it from tasting; the patient ass was not to be yoked in the plough with the long-horned eastern bullock, wbieh would infallibly gore it. Needless cruelty was interdicted ; a spirit of kindness was inculcated; "the merciful man' was declared to be' merciful to his beast.' Nineveh was spared, for a season, because, besides other inducements to mercy, it contained much cattle.' 'No propbet but Balaam the unrighteous is depicted as acting cruelly to an animal, and he only to be reproved by his very axs,
And when that system, which was only a shadow of good things to come,' bad 'decayed and waxed old, and was ready to vanish away,'He who brought in a new hope and a better covenant came, though a King, “sitting upon an ass, and a colt, the foal of an ass,' grudging not the fox his hole, or the bird of the air his nest, though He himself had not where to lay his learl. He proclaimed that it was God who clothed the lily more gloriously than Solomon, and led the ravens and the young lions when they cried to Him. He likened his own deep love for his brethren to that of the mother-hen gathering her brood under her wing, and announced Himself as the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world, and the Good Shepherd, who layeth down his life for the sheep. Every thoughtful Christian must feel, that the way in which the Saviour referred to so many of the lower animals invests them with a sacredness in our eyes, and entitles them to care and kindness. And we have his preoopt as well as his example. Who will doubt that every living creature was entreated for in the benediction of the Great Preacher, ‘Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy?'
“ When we further consider how many and how heavy are the woes which the sins of mankind have entailed on animals, so that the whole creation groans and travails for man's guilt, we must feel that if we really mean anything when we say that, as Christians, we bate sin and strive after holiness, there is a solemn injunction laid on us, not wilfully to add to the burden of suffering which, since the day when Adam fell, has rolled its cruel and increasing weight over all the innocent companions of his fall. The most lawful of experiments on a living animal, in which the means of relieving human suffering are purchased at the cost of inflicting suffering on animals, would not have been needed but for 'man's first disobedience.' A reparat is owing to the animal kingdom at the hands of man (if he can make it) even for the most permissible inflictions of torture upon its subjects; and as amends cannot be made, it becomes us to be very scrupulous in adding to a debt which we can never pay.
“What recompense He whose tender mercies are over all His works may make to his lowlier subjects for the wrongs man has done them, does not with certainty appear, although the New Testament seems, not obscurely, to promise a full compensation to the 'creation groaning and travailing together till now;' and the animal happiness of Eden may be exceeded in the experience of the creatures who shall occupy the new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness.' But even if we were certain that those good men reason justly who have changed a fond wish into the willing belief, that all the lower animals shall be revived, and made painlessly immortal in a future state, it never could justify cruelty to them here. The law knows no exception, that we are not to sin, that grace may abound.'
Lastly : : Throughout the Scriptures, but especially in the New Testament, we are called upon to measure out to others the measure we seek to be meted by; to forgive, if we hope to be forgiven ; to be merciful, if we expect mercy; and although such commands have reference mainly to our dealings with our fellow-men, they lay down a very plain principle of procedure towards the lower animals. They might further plead with us, as we are permitted to plead with Christ, that the rememberance of the sufferings we have undergone, as well as the anticipation of those we may undergo, should make us sympathize with the agonies of every creature. We have a Great High Priest that is passed into the heavens-Jesus the Son of God, who is not an High Priest that cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but was in all points tempted like as we are,' and who, ' in that he himself hath suffered, being tempted, is able to succour them that are tempted.' We are thus taught that our Saviour, although now exalted far above all principalities and powers, and every name that can be named, yet, because He once was a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief, still looks with the deepest compassion upon all who suffer, and is ready to offer them his Divine sympathy. With reverence® I would urge, that there is an example, as well as a lesson for us, in this aspect of the Saviour's compassion for men. Inasmuch as we partake with the lower animals of bodies exquisitely sensitive to pain, and often agonized by it, we should be slow to torture creatures who, though not sharers of our joys, or participators in our mental agonies, can equal us in bodily suffering. We stand by Divine appointment, between God and his irresponsible subjects, and are as gods unto them ; and we should strive to be as merciful to them as God is to us. They are patient and obedient to our caprices, and forgetful and forgiving of the wrongs we do them; and they may claim gentleness at our hands, when we who have rebelled against the most gracious of masters, have yet found compassion and mercy. “The ox,' saith the prophet, 'knoweth its owner, and the ass its master's crib; but Israel doth not know; my people do not consider.' They have taught us a lesson of obedience to God, and He has taught us a lessun of kindness to them. We shall be worse even than the forgiven dehtor, who showed no mercy to his creditor, if we wrong servants who have excelled us in faithfulness, or fail in compassion for the dumb creatures of God, which he has committed to our care.”—Pp. 171-176.
The highest attraction of the volume, however, is the account of Dr Reid's conversion and Christian experience. To this part of the work we would have felt inclined to give our undivided attention in this article. But we were desirous to show what the man was who underwent this change, and what the man is who relates it—not vulgar, uneducated, superstitious, and conceited, but persons standing in one of the foremost ranks of human intellect. Dr Reid's conversion, in respect to time and place, was almost as defined as that of Saul of Tarsus, while the event is described with a soberness and an absence of exaggeration, such as well befit the subject, and with a freedom from embarrassment such as may well lead to the conclusion that the author speaks that which he himself, in its leading features, had known, and testified that which he experimentally had seen. Dr Reid belonged to a religious family, and in his infancy and youth was trained in a knowledge of the doctrines of religion, and the practice of morality. When he left his father's house, and entered college, he continued sober, truthful, and kind-gentle in his manners, but by degrees the duties and services of religion were neglected. The perusal of the Scriptures, in course, ceased to interest ; and while he remained unenslaved by vice, his heart was given up to the world in the absorbing desire for professional distinction. In maturer years his porsaita were ill fitted to foster piety. The conversation of the dissecting-room was seldom edifying, and was often the very reverse. His connection with the Rogal Infirmary, as pathologist, presented continual temptation to Sabbath-breaking, which could be readily palliated under the plea of necessity and merey. In this way he passed, by a natural process, from indifference to positive scepticism.
* Altogether, indeed, his Infirmary life was probably the least religious part of his career. It was more marked, bowever, than any previdas part of his history, by a fondness for religious discussion, in which be took the sceptical side. Soch discussions had to a lesser extent marked his stud-at-life and earlier manbood. They were nos constantly renewed in the Toms be occupied in the Infirmary, wbieb formed the rendezvous of his medical friends.
“ In some of these debates he, perhaps, sought to gratify a dialectical rather than a sceptical spirit, and was chiefig bent on satisfying that love for discussion, and relish for intellectual gladiatorstrip which are congenial to elear logical intelleets like his. But he certainly did not pretend distrlief, ben be assailed as folly the expectation of an answer to prayer_argued against the possítality of miracles-and questioned or denied the necessity and efficacy of the Atonement for man's conversion—the need of the Holy Spirit's influence
reality of other religious beliefs. At this period of his life he tried all problems by logic. Whatever would not give way before its cold steel, was not worth conquering by any other weapon. All truth must admit of direct demonstration to the intellect, or be denied to be truth at all. Sneh a omdition of intelleetual infidelity and dogmatism is no rare thing among thoughtful young men of irreproachable life and morals. The peculiarity in Dr Reid's case lay simply in the intensity of the sceptical spirit wbieh be betrayed. He loved truth, and was willing to latour hard to attain it; but as yet he knew only one way of attaining it. If the great mystery of godliness could have been mastered by any process of analysis and induetion, such as brings to light the bidden truths of physical science, few would bave been more faithful, patient, painstaking, and persevering in the work than be. But when he found that all the triumphs which he had achieved in his favourite science, and all the skill which he had acquired in distinguishing truth from error in things cognizable by the intellect, bat landed bim at a portal, where the unlettered pilgrim is as welcome as the lettered, and ranks on an equal footing with him as a Proselyte of the Gate ; when be saw that Bacon, of whom he was so admiring and successful a disciple, could not carry him beyond the threshold, and that the only gateway by which the region of spiritual truth is reached, is guarded by a porch through which pone can enter erect but a little child; he turned away with a kind of wondering uneasy defiance." —Pp. 197-199.
At a later period a partial change took place in the outward demeanour of Dr Reid. One uninstructed in the mysteries of the kingdom might have supposed that it was all that vital piety required. His scepticism became relaxed, or rather disappeared-he married into a family of religious principle-he returned to the religious duties of his earlier days, but he was yet ignorant of the truth, “If any man be in Christ he is a new creature ; old things are passed away, behold all things are become new.”
“ He was exemplary in his attendance on the ministration of the Rev. Dr Cook, and was chosen one of the elders of his church. When he became the bead of a household, he had family prayers daily, but he went through them formally, and was glad apparently, wben something occurred to prevent them. Sunday was decorously kept, but it was an irksome day, and he did not besitate to read scientific books, or to use his microscope, when he could do either without creating scandal, or vexing those he loved, whose feelings, even when he counted them weaknesses or prejudices, he would not willingly offend.
“I should be sorry to undervalue the sincerity of his religious profession at this time, or to seem indifferent to the influence in deepening his most profound convictions, which was exerted upon him by regular attendance on public worship, the maintenance of family prayer, the society of a pious wife, intercourse with devout relatives and friends, the loss of his firstborn which sorely afflicted his affectionate heart, the death of his father, and other events. And I am solicitous to guard against making his later religious earnestness appear more prominent by depreciating that of his earlier years. But there is no room for doubt. He himself would reproach me from his place of bliss were I to represent bim as at this time a Christian. Those who loved him most and knew him best, mourned that he was not one, and he felt it himself.”—Pp., 201, 202.
But the time at length came, and the happy event with it. The circunstances singularly illustrate, in combination, acting for the accomplishment of the blessed change, God in providence, God in his word, and God in invisible operation on the heart. In November 1847 Dr Reid was in his ordinary health-a small blister rose on his tongue and before long it broke out into an ulcer. To an unprofessional eye it seemed trifling, though to the practised eye of the sufferer himself, who frequently consulted the looking-glass, it soon became an object of intense solicitude. Various remedies were applied without avail—the ulceration began to spread—it proved to be that awful disease-cancer, which, in spite of the advancement of medical science, is generally to be taken as a warning to prepare for protracted suffering, and then for a lingering, fatal termination. By temporary expedients he was able to tide over the college session of 1847-48. Soon as he was released from his professional duties in spring, he resolved to try the effect of a change of scene and total silence for a time. One of the Cumberland lakes was selected as the place of his retirement. When he went as a student to Paris he had no room in his trunk for a Bible. When he was pathologist of the Infirmary the same blessed book could with difficulty be found in his library, and then covered with dust; but now when he set out to Keswick he bore a Bible with him, thoughtfully placed by his wife in his portmanteau. That book became his chief companion in his solitude, conversed with him in his silence, and when he little expected it, opened up to his expansive intellect truths he never knew before truths that not merely concealed but expelled his scepticism-drew forth his fullest faith-changed his formality into heartfelt piety, and his love of the things seen into a supreme desire for the things which are unseen and eternal.
“ It was with this verdict given against him in the forum of his own conscience, that he retired to Cumberland, to listen daily in his dumb agony to the prophetic voice sounding in his ear— Prepare to meet thy God!' He repeated the warning, however, to no one ; took no relative, or connection, or religious friend, into his confidence ; applied to no earthly quarter for assistance ; furnished himself with no theological treatises, or polemical works, or, so far as I know, with books of any kind to accompany him in bis journey. For a brief space he appears to have been too much staggered to think whence help could come. But in bis travelling trunk his wife had been careful to place a Bible, and one of his earliest letters to her was full of gratitude for the thoughtful kindness. This Bible was his daily companion in his lonely walks. He studied it with an intensity such as he had never displayed in the study of any book before. He studied it as a book which only those who have the guidance of the Holy Spirit, who inspired it, can understand; and he was earnest in prayer to God for the gift of His Spirit. Nor did He who loved to be entreated, forget His promise to give the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him. Within some three weeks at farthest, a peace, composure, contentment, and joy, which John Reid had never known in the most healthful and prosperous season of his past life, pervaded his soul, and his heart began to fill with the perfect love that casteth out fear.' It was the old and wonderous, but true tale. For years he had been doubting the wisdom of prayer, holding it to be presumptuous for an individual to look for special favour from God,-arguing concerning the irreconcileability of free will and predestination, the dilemma of liberty and necessity, and the like theological problems. He had built round his soul outworks of doubt which he could not unbuild, nor any other man take down for him; but at one breath of God's Spirit they fled away, and no place was found for them. He came to God fully realizing for the first time that . He is, and that He is a rewarder of those that diligently seek Him ; and God filled him with good things, and sent him not empty away. There was not explained to him how to the Ruler of the universe, prayer does not clash with foreknowledge: and he knew no better than he did before how the Creator's infinite omnipresence co-exists with man's finite individuality; what the bond is which recon-, ciles predestination and free will, or what the link which resolves necessity into liberty. He does not, probably, even now know how to reconcile these mysterious opposites; perhaps he never will, nor any other child of man. But he was made certain that God hears prayer, for his own prayers were answered. He was assured of forgiveness for his sins, for the peace of God which passeth all understanding' was with him; and the spoculative difficulties which had once seemed to hedge bim round and hide God's face from him, fled away at the sound of prayer to that shadow-land which skirts the horizon of this life, and kept silence whilst he found answer to the great practical question, 'how shall man be just before God.'
" There is something to myself unspeakably touching and solemn in the spectacle of the forlorn man of science—an exile among the lonely hills and still lakes, gazing on their beauty with a mournful distraction, and as yet finding in them no emblem or foreshadow of those green pastures and quiet waters which are now for ever his. A dark season there doubtless was, deepening onwards into midnight gloom, illuminated only by infernal lights, and echoing with demon voices, reiterating blasphemies, and hoarsely whispering Curse God and die.' And then there was the morning twilight, and the slow dawning from below the troubled horizon, and the grey shadows, till the day-star arose in his heart, and not only was it bright within, but all the outer world was coloured with a light that never shone on sea or land."
"Only by metaphor can we dimly sketch, in the case of another, the steps of that great change in which a man becomes a new creature before God, and a new being in his own experience. But the fruits of the change can be described without any simile.”—Pp. 203-205.
The disease continued in spite of all the efforts of the profession. An operation was performed, and for a short time was promising, but the disease appeared
again only a little farther back ; a second operation was attended by a similar result—the disease could not farther be pursued—the sufferer gave up the last vestige of hope without a murmur-bore his load with patience—manifested throughout his unswerving faith in his Redeemer, and when the hour of his departure came," he fell asleep in Jesus.”
We earnestly recommend this memoir to our readers, and especially to medical students. It is well worthy their careful perusal. They will learn much in studying Dr Reid's researches in physiology; they will learn more in studying his experimental discoveries of the nature of evangelical religion.
THE LATE REV. JAMES HARROWER, DENNY. The late Rev. James Harrower, son of Mr David Harrower, was born at Keir Mill, parish of Lecropt, in November 1769. Bereaved of his father when only six years of age, he was trained up in the fear of God, by an affectionate and pious mother. He was early brought under religious impressions. When only about five years of age, he was so deeply affected with thoughts of eternity, that he never lost the recollection of them. He received the elements of his education from Mr Anderson, parish school-master—a man of fervent piety, who devoted a part of Saturday to the religious instruction of his pupils. By his pious counsels, the subject of this notice was much impressed with divine things, and was first led to earnest prayer. In a manuscript, he says,—“Well do I remember the thorn trees, behind which I stood, in returning from school, and poured out my soul to God."
For a short time he wrought as a mechanic in the town of Stirling. During that period, he worshipped in the Back Row Church (now St John's), and very much enjoyed the ministrations of the Rev. Mr Campbell, by whom he was admitted into the fellowship of the church. His exercises at this time indicated great spiritual concern. He spent much time in secret prayer, and in dealing with his own heart; and enjoyed such manifestations of divine love, that he was willing to leave the world and all its enjoyments, and to enter into the eternal state
My willing soul would stay
In such a frame as this,
To everlasting bliss.” About this time he lost all relish for secular pursuits; and longed for a situation in which he might have fewer temptations to go astray from God, and better opportunities of studying the Scriptures, and living a holy and useful life. This led him to desire the office of the holy ministry; and Providence remarkably opened his way, and provided the means for prosecuting his studies. After acquiring considerable knowledge of the Latin and Greek languages, and after attending Glasgow University for three sessions, he went to Selkirk to study divinity under Dr Lawson. When he had completed his fourth session at the Hall, he was taken on trials for license by the presbytery of Stirling and Falkirk. Having gone through his trials to the satisfaction of the presbytery, he was licensed to preach the everlasting gospel. Such was his acceptability as a preacher, that in a short time he received no fewer than three calls. He was first called to Denny, then to Pitcairngreen in the presbytery of Perth. When these competing calls came before the Synod, Denny was preferred. About a year after his settlement in Denny he was called to Kirkintilloch. By a decision of the supreme court he was continued in Denny.
To promote the spiritual interests of his people, in connection with the honour of the Saviour, was now the great object of his life. Under his ministry the congregation prospered and very much increased in number; at his ordination the membership scarcely amounted to 100; at a subsequent period of his ministry the church consisted of considerably more than 300 members.