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nal development. If you tell me that the school teacher, or the minister, may lose his health, and be obliged to support himself at last by the sweat of his brow, (oh! he might now be said to do so by the sweat of his brain,) and that he should be prepared for such an emergency by learning a trade, I will tell you that the carpenter may lose his arm, and be obliged to resort to some other employment, and ought therefore to study a profession. Every person ought to be ready and able to support himself by the time be is twenty one years old.

Every person, then, must work at a trade through life, or some will be under the necessity of accomplishing a considerable amount of business in twenty-one years. First, he must grow from four-and-a-half to six feet in bodily stature. Then he must make his mind grow in proportion—he must grow wise and good. Then, he must learn a trade, and now he must fit himself for bis chosen calling. Oh no, don't let us all turn milliners and carpenters, mantuannakers and blacksmiths, but let us all become true men and women. Let us “ do with our might, what we find to do,”-learn to honor the honorable, to despise sloth, and to make "footprints on the sands of time” which shall turn to our account in the records of eternity. SHEBOYGAN.

E. L. B.

For the Journal of Education.

QUALIFICATIONS

OF

TEACHERS.

MESSRS. EDITORS:-I was much interested in those articles in the October number of the Journal, containing strictures on the qualifications of teachers and having been six years an examiner, I can well attest the truth of those remarks; I am convinced that one of two things is true, namelythat either my standard of qualifications for teachers of common country schools is too high (!), or that the qualifications of a majority of candidates are of an order so low, as to require no small amount of conceit and selfassurance to present themselves for examination.

That the former is true, I cannot for a moment entertain an idea, hence I infer the truth of the latter. In the course of my experience, I have often felt pity, amusement, vexation and indignation, at the ridiculous appearance made by ignoramuses, who fancied themselves highly capable of teaching any thing in their line. I have found comparatively few teachers able to bound the State of New York correctly, and one "experienced teacher” was unable to tell whether he passed through Lake Superior or not in sailing from Chicago to Buffalo, although he several times passed over the route. Another teacher, of equal “experience," was astonished to learn that the earth traveled around an orbit of 190 millions of miles in diameter, but supposed that it stood whirling in nearly the same position, similar to the revolutions of an artificial globe; while I have found the orthography

and syntax of others enough to call forth the ghosts of old “Dilworth " and Lindly Murray. Such deplorable ignorance as is too often rewarded with a certificate of “do believe that he or she) is well qualified to teach, &c.," is a lasting disgrace to the profession,

But candidates are not alone censurable. Superintendents are not sufficiently thorough; many are utterly unqualified for their office, and others are too indifferent or too indulgent, granting certificates when they should have been withheld. The resolution passed at the late State Teachers' Association, requesting superintendents to be more thorough in their examination of teachers, cannot be too strongly impressed upon the minds of those officers.

As the season has arrived when country teachers are seeking their win. ter's employment, I would suggest that they procure their certificate before engaging their schools, thereby preventing, in many cases, much mortification by being compelled to annul their contracts for want of that important document. And to those who do teach I would say, enter your school-house with a determination to earn your compensation-determined to make your mark and earn a reputation, as well as your compensation—determined that your school shall exhibit a marked improvement at the close of the term, and that the district shall feel amply compensated for the expense incurred. By a little well-directed effort, it will be an easy matter to obtain an influence over your patrons as well as pupils, and, when once interested, few school boards will refuse to provide maps, globes, and other articles with wbich every school-room should be furnished, and which will tend greatly to enhance the pleasure of teaching. KENOSRA COUNTY.

SUPERINTENDENT.

For the Journal of Education.

" WATCH THE

MAIN SPRING."

MAPLB Grove, Nov. 3d, 1867. MESSRS. EDITORS.—The meeting for October was adjourned to the present date without anything of special interest. The people are astir, and we are likely to have much discussion.

After the usual opening exercises, the president introduced the following remarks:

“Gentlemen.—There appears to be an increasing interest upon the subject of public schools. The faults in educational systems are being exposed and corrected. The benefits of good, and the evils of poor schools, seem to bo more clearly seen, and the value of a true education more generally appreciated."

The subject under discussion is exciting considerable attention, and indeed should be thoroughly investigated, as it is one of vital importance to our

State and country. We have wealth and every natural advantage that can be desired. It now only remains for us to properly employ the means within our reach to secure the very highest degree of success in our schools. For this we have met; for this let us labor.

Mr. Broadhead took the floor, and said: “I arise to continue my remarks upon the subject of town superintendents.

“ If a system is objectionable in theory ; if it bears within itself the seeds of ill-success-has been thoroughly tested and found wanting, why need we hesitate.

To show that this is true of our system of superintendency, we submit the following:

“We cannot suppose it possible to find in every township in our sparse settlements, and among our foreign population, men qualified for the office, And what are the facts upon this point?

“It is speaking within bounds to estimate that not one half of the town superintendents in the State are qualified to examine teachers, and decide whether they are fitted to teach a school upon the present innproved plans. Many are elected yearly that are not able to write a certificate, and some who are not able to read or write a word of the English language. Many are elected of a common education, but who know nothing of teaching, and were themselves taught in the days of chimneys and pokers and hickory government, and regard classification in school injurious, and mental Arithmetic as useless, if not dangerous.

“ 2d. Town superintendents are often business men, who cannot afford to leave their ordinary duties to visit schools at a dollar and a half a day; at least they will not, and do not, which is equal to cannot; consequently schools are neglected.

“3d. They are elected yearly, and usually on account of political preferences, so that there are frequent changes, and what one can build up one year another can pull down the next.

"4th. They have no connection one with another, so that every one acts for himself and by himself. There can be no concert of action, neither any uniform system of operation. This is enough of itself to preclude all hope of success. We might as well expect fifty men to raise a heavy building without any order or regulation, one lifting one day and another the next.

"5th. Superintendents are often connected in business, by acquaintance, or by some nearer relationship with their townsmen, so that they are not left free to act. Again, they sometimes wish to teach, and are thus led to act with partiality. These things seem small, but they often breed difficulties in communities, and like moths eat out the vitality and usefulness of schools.

“This system has been tried in many of our States, and has, in whole or in part, been rejected.

“ The State superintendent of Pennsylvania says in substance as follows:

" "The office of county superintendent in New York had done more to advance the calise of education by common schools, during the period it was

permitted to exist, than all other causes combined. It was regarded by the most active and accomplished of the superintendents of that State, as the vitality of their system, and the only efficient means of enforcing a healthy and uniform administration of the law, and of obtaining, with any degree of accuracy, those statistical details in reference to the practical operation of the system, of so great value to the department, the legislature and the public.' "And when borne down by public clamor,' resulting from an unclean alliance with politics, and other interests, the office was abolished, in

орроsition to the opinions and wishes of the most enlightened friends of education throughout the State,' the act was regarded as most disastrous to the prosperity of the common school system. Up to that period its progress had been uninterruptedly onward, and the 'abolition of county superintendents was the first retrograde step in its history.'

“It will be remembered that the change spoken of here was from county to town superintendent; and that since that time they have introduced the county superintendent with the town, and lastly rejected the town superintendent entirely.

“We shall look anxiously for such a change in our State."

Mr. Stone said: “I do not wish to oppose any improvement, but as yet I see none. Doubtless there are faults in any and every system ; but if we begin to abolish for faults, where shall we end? Certainly we shall be obliged to abolish all mankind with all their works. Suppose we introduce the county instead of town superintendent, should we have a system without fault? Who would insure us against men too lazy to teach, third rate lawyers, silenced ministers, ‘half-year captains,' 'hungry politicians,' and all that when anything like a paying salary is attached to the office."

Mr. Broadhead said: “We are glad to know that the gentleman will not oppose an improvement, and that the ground we have taken in regard to our present system is virtually acknowledged. It now remains only for us to show that a system may be introduced by which we may avoid the principal faults to which we have referred. This we will endeavor to do at a future meeting, but will not trespass further upon the time of the meeting at present."

Several others spoke, generally agreeing as to the inefficiency of our present system, but seemed to offer no satisfactory substitute. On motion, meeting adjourned to December 1st.

REPORTER.

PROCEEDINGS OF SECOND INSTITUTE HELD AT DARTFORD, OCTOBER 5th TO 9th, 1857.

MONDAY, P. M. The President being absent, the meeting was called to order by the VicePresident, Mr. E. P. Locke.

After a few remarks, he called on the Rev. Mr. Richards, of Berlin, to open the meeting by prayer.

After a few remarks, Mr. A. H. Lewis, of Berlin; Mr. R. Baker, Oxford; and Miss T. Ellen Abbott, Berlin, were appointed as committee to draft • programme.

While committee were preparing report, Minutes of the last session were road by the Secretary. The committee on programme reported the follow ing for the week, which was accepted : 9 o'clock, called to order. Roll called,

P. M. and Devotional exercises, 20 mi. 1 30 Singing. Dutes.

1 40 Grammar, by Mr. E. P. Locko. 9 20 Arithmetio, by J. J. M. Angear. 2 25 Physiology, by Mostro. Levis sad 10 00 Ronding and Spelling, by Rev.

Austin.
Wm. Richards.

3 00 Recoss. 10 30 Recess.

3 IO Mental Arithmetio, by J. J. M. 10 40 Phonetics, by Mr. A. M. May.

Angear, 11 10 Geography, by Mr. R. Baker. 3 40 Composition, Elocution and Critio's 11 30 Miscellaneous Business.

Report.

[&o 12 00 Intormission.

7 00 Discussion, Deolamation, Lectures, M. John Austin and George Patten, Ripon ; Mr. R. Baker, Oxford ; Miss Sarah W. Abbot, Berlin ; and Miss Cynthia E. Hake, Princeton, were appointed committee on Resolutions. The Rev. Mr. Richards made a few remarks on Elocution.

EVENING SESSION. The report of Mr. J. Austin, chairman of committee on resolutions, was accepted. — Several resolutions were discussed with interest, and finally adopted

Elocutionary exercises by Rev. Mr. Richards, occupied time until time for abjournment.

TUESDAY. Exercises as per programme.

EVENING, Business of Association attended to, and the following officers elected for. the ensuing year:

President: J. J. M. Angear; Vice-President: M. B. True; Treasurer: A. M. May; Secretary: E. P. Locke.

Executive committee: Dr. G. R. Shaw, E. Filbrook, George Terry.

Mr. E. P. Locke having resigned his position as Secretary, Miss T. Ellen Abbott was elected to fill the place.

While balloting for officers, remarks were made by several members, and an exercise in gymnastics and elementary sounds, led by J. J. M. Angear.

WEDNESDAY, A. M. Exercises as per programme.

WEDNESDAY, P. M. Met at the time appointed. Called to order, and adjourned for the purpose of taking a ride upon Green Lake, which was very much enjoyed by all. The fifty teachers and friends there present will long remember Dartford and its kind and generous inhabitants.

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