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3. The fundamental laws of thought have been said to be frivolous propositions. Point out the place of these laws in the structure of knowledge.
It has been said that every syllogism involves a petitio principii. Test this statement.
4. “No power of abstraction can withdraw from representation any element indispensable to the composition of presentation,”
“ The intellect views the notion in the phantasm."
Explain these statements, and express the latter, after J. S, Mill, in purely nominalistic terms.
5. “ The concept is rendered permanent for consciousness by being fixed and ratified in a verbal sign.” Show that language is necessary to the formation of thought, and that thought and speech progress pari passu.
Explain the use of terms in symbolical thinking. Sketch the history of the distinction between the logical and algebraical perfections of thought.
6. Sketch the history of the doctrine of predication, and of the import of propositions, from the logical, the metaphysical, and the physical points of view.
7. Specify the portions of the ordinary logical school-books, for example those of Aldrich and Whately, which may or must be ex. truded from the science as extralogical.
NATURAL THEOLOGY. E.caminer-Rev. J. ROBERTSON, M. A. 1. “Monotheism is the only theism that can claim for itself any footing on scientific ground :” Explain and discuss this. State what you regard as the most satisfactory argument for the being of God; point out the objections to which it is liable, and show how you would obviate them.
2. Discriminate carefully between agnosticism and atheism : give an outline of the reasoning by which each is supported ; and give a criticism of the former. Can agnosticism form the basis of a reli.
3. Expound and give a logical estimate of one of the important systems of pantheism.
4. “ Atheism, polytheism, and pantheism have always proved more popular than mere theism :" Discuss this, and, if true, explain it. Mill asserts that “the very imperfection of the evidences which natural theology can produce of the Divine attributes removes some of the chief stumbling blocks to the belief of a revelation :” Examine this.
5. “Omnipotence cannot be predicated of the Creator on the ground of natural theology:" Discuss this, and explain what attributes we are warranted by the evidence which nature affords of a creative mind, in assigning to that mind.
6. “Nature is but the name for an effect whose cause is God :'' how is this position modified by the doctrine of evolution ? Is an evolutionist necessarily an atheist ?
7. “The arguments for the two substances (body and spirit) have now entirely lost their force; they are no longer compatible with ascertained science and clear thinking :' Explain how the results of modern scientific research have modified the arguments in favour of the immateriality and immortality of the soul.
8. "Kant rejects the Cartesian argument from the thought of God to His existence, but repeats that argument in a form that better expresses its true meaning:" Examine this, and state clearly the Cartesian and Kantian arguments.
HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE.
Examiner-MR. JOHN Eliot, M. A. 1. Give an account of the theories which have been advanced to explain the phenomena of terrestrial magnetisn. Point out the defects of each theory.
2. Give a short account of the more important discoveries and works of the following:--Laplace, Pascal, Newton, Young, Bacon, Fresnel, Faraday, Dalton, Rumford, and Arago.
3. Give an account of the different theories that have prevailed respecting the nature of heat, and of the more important experiments that have a crucial value in testing the validity of these theories. 4. Write a short essay on one of the following subjects :
(1). The conservation of energy:
(3). The correlation of the physical forces. 5. What is a hypothesis ? What are the necessary conditions that a legitimate hypothesis must fulfil ? Illustrate your answer by examples.
6. State and explain (with examples) the four methods of experimental enquiry.
7. Explain fully what is meant by a cause in science,
9. What is meant in science by the elimination of chance errors. State clearly the principle of the method of least squares, and upon what assumption it depends.
HEAT. Examiner-MR. JOHN ELIOT, M. A. 1. Explain the fact that the skin of the hand, if slightly moistened, may be dipped into molten metal without receiving any injury.
2. Define temperature. State clearly how it is measured in the case of the ordinary thermometer, and point out any defects of that instrument as a mode of measuring heat.
3. What is meant by the critical temperature of a substance ? Give a brief sketch of Dr. Andrew's experiments on carbonic acid, and state the more important conclusions he derived from them.
4. Describe fully Carnot's reversible cycle.
State the two laws of Thermodynamics and explain upon what evidence their assumption, as primary principles, is based. Give in any form their mathematical expression.
5. What is meant by Carnot's function ? Give its assumed form, and state the reasons for the selection of that particular form. 6. Prove that for a reversible cycle = 0 where In is the
da heat taken in at the temperature Hence show that
is a perfect integral for any portion of a reversible cycle.
7. Define fully and clearly the following terms :-Elasticity at constant temperature, and elasticity of constant entropy.
Prove that the ratio of these two quantities is constant for a per8. Prove the following formula for the melting temperature of a S-T
S body at pressure Q,
P-Q Give or deduce the modification for the case of the freezing of water, and state briefly its application in explaining glacier motion.
9. Define the specific heat of saturated vapour. Show that if h be the specific heat of the vapour, c of the liquid from which it is derived at the same pressure and temperature, L the latent heat,
dL L h=0+
t 10. Describe briefly the parts, and action of an ordinary locomotive engine.
CHEMISTRY. Examiner-MR. S. A. Hill, B. Sc. 1. Give a brief account of the discovery of oxygen, and of the changes in chemical theory that followed it.
2. What were the most important contributions to chemical science made by Scheele, Berzelius, Liebig, Gerhardt, Black, and Cavendish ?
3. What was the origin of the distinction between organic and inorganic compounds ? Organic chemistry has been defined as the chemistry of the carbon compounds. Show that this definition is inaccurate, and try if you can to frame a better one.
4. How do you ascertain the percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, sulphur, &c., in an organic compound 2 Having found the percentage composition of such a compound, how do you determine its empirical and rational formulæ ?
5. A heavy hydrocarbon may have its composition represented either by the formula CnH2n or by CnH2n + 22
the difference be. tween the results of the two formulæ being less than the unavoidable
errors of experiment when n is a large number.
How could you determine which is the more accurate formula of the two ?
6. Show how to separate and recognize the constituents of a mixture of silver nitrate, sodium phosphate, ferric oxide, ammonium chloride, and calcium carbonate.
7. Give a brief account of the chief compounds of cyanogen, and show how the doctrine of atomicity may be applied to explain the facility with which double cyanides are formed.
8. The formula of sal-ammoniac is sometimes written N Hg, H Cl. and sometimes N H4 Cl. What are the experimental facts upon which each formula is based, and which formula are you led by theoretical considerations to prefer?
9. What is the source of the heat developed by combustion ? The heat produced by the combination of a given quantity of sulphur with oxygen to form sulphur dioxide is supposed to be constant. Why then does snlphur burn more brightly in oxygen or nitrous oxide than in air ?
10. Describe briefly the metallurgy of lead and the method of extracting the minute proportion of silver it usually contains. Upon what general property of alloys is this process founded ?
ELECTRICITY. Examiner—MR. John Eliot, M. A. 1. Define potential. From your definition obtain the potential of a uniformly electrified spherical shell at any external point.
2. Prove that the electrical force just outside an electrified conductor at a point whose density is p is 4 mp. Prove also that the force at the point on the surface is 2 ap. 3. What is meant by the capacity of a
conductor ? Obtain an expression giving the capacity of a Leyden Jar on the supposition that it is a condenser consisting of two parallel plane plates electrified to given potentials.
4. Prove that the capacity of a long cylindrical conductor of diameter d and length L, enveloped by a concentric cylindrical con. ductor of diameter D, and separated from it by an insulator (whose
KL specific inductive capacity is K) is
2 loge à
5. Explain fully what is meant by a tube of force ?
State and prove what you consider to be the two most important properties of tubes of force.
6. Describe Holtz’s or Gramme's machine for the production of electricity.
7. Describe the arrangements by which Duplex Telegraphy is effected.
8. Give an account of the various theories advanced to explain the action of a voltaic cell. Which theory do you prefer ? State your reasons.
9. Give the theory of Wheatstone's bridge, and explain how it can be applied to determine the position of a fault in a telegraph line.
If A and B be the ends of a wire with one fault, and RS the resistances to a current sent from A, when B is insulated and to earth respectively, and if R, Si be the corresponding resistances to a current sent from B, prove that
R: S R? : 82 10. State the laws of the magnetic action of a current, and investigate the magnetic strength of the field inside a long solenoid.
11. Discuss briefly the electrolytic or thermal actions of the electric current.
Examiner-Dr. Geo. KING. 1. State fully the morphological theory which was propounded by the poet Goethe. 2. Define the terms— Dermatogen
Basidiospore 3. The wood of some exogenous plants differs from the normal structure ; name and describe as many instances of this as you can.
4. Describe the different modifications of stipules, their position in different orders of plants and their homologies.
5. Give a general account of the changes that take place in flowers after the fertilization of their ovules : describe fully the fruits known as berry, nut, cypsela.
6. State the different means by which seeds are dispersed, and give examples.
7. Describe the nature of the integuments of seeds and the vari. ous forms and positions of embryos. What is albumen, and in what natural orders does its presence or absence afford a diagnostic mark ?
8. Describe the sexual organs of Orchids, and the mode of ferti. lization.
9. Describe the various modifications of Cyme.
10. Give a full account of the characters of the natural orders to which the specimens numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively belong. State the affinities of these orders, and mention their geographical distribution.
11. Name and describe the objects numbered 5, 6, 7, 8.