Изображения страниц

are many little fragments of stone, some of out. I found the wheat quite sound, but a them carried to the very top, any one of which little swelled. In the evening of the same day would weigh more than 25 adts. Internally I passed there again ; the wheat had dried, and the apt mound contains many neatly constructed they were busily engaged carrying it in again. cells, the floors of which are horizontal; and The species of grass they so carefully cultiinto these cells the eggs, young ones, and their rate is a biennial. They sow it in time for the stores of grain are carried in time of rainy autumnal rains to bring it up. Accordingly, seasons.

about the first of November, if the fall bas been The mound itself, and the surface of the seasonable, a beautiful green row of the ant ground around it, to the distance of four or five rice, about 4 inches wide, is seen springing up feet, sometimes more, from the centre, is kept on the pavement, in a circle of 14 to 15 feet very clean, like a pavement. Everything that in circumference. In the vicinity of this cirhappens to be dropped upon the pavement is cular row of grass they do not permit a single cut to pieces and carried away. The largest spire of any other grass or weed to remain a dropping from the cows will, in a short time, day; leaving the Aristida untouched until it is be removed. I have placed a large coro-stalk ripe, which occurs in June of the next year, on the pavement, and in the course of two or they gather the seeds and carry them into the three days found it hollowed out to a mere granaries as before stated. There can be no shell; that too, in a short time, would be cut doubt of the fact that this peculiar species of to pieces and carried off. Not a green thing is grass is intentionally planted, and, in farmersuffered to grow on the pavement, with the ex- like manner, carefully divested of all other ception of a single species of grain-bearing grasses and weeds during the time of its growth, grass, (Aristida stricta.) This the ant purses and that after it has matured, and the grain and cultivates with great care; having it in a stored away, they cut away the dry stubble and circle around and two or three feet from the remove it from the pavenient, leaving it unencentre of the mouod. It also clears away the cumbered until the ensuing autumn, when the weeds and other grasses all around outside of same species of grass, and in the same circle, the cireular row of Aristida, to the distance of appears again, receiving the same agricultural one or two feet. The cultivated grass flourishes care as did the previous crop; and so on, year luxuriantly, producing a heavy crop of small, after year, as I know to be the case on farms white, flinty grains, which, under the micro- where their habitations are, during the sumscope, bave the appearance of the rice of com- mer season, protected from the depredations of merce. When it is ripe it is harvested by the cat:le. Outside of the fields they sow the workers, and carried, chaff and all, into the grass seeds, but the cows crop it down two or granary cells, where it is divested of the chaff, three times, when, fioding that 'th which is immediately taken out and thrown chance to carry on their agricultural pursuits, beyond tbe limits of the pavement, always to the they cut it all away and re-establish the clean lee side. The clean grain is carefully stored pavement. Our cattle did not often crop

the away io dry cells. These cells are so constructed ant rice until their increased numbers have that water cannot reach them, except in long forced them to feed on all kinds of grass. That, wet spells, when the earth becomes thoroughly however, has turned out favorably to the ant saturated, and dissolves the cement with which interest. Für, while the prairies are being the granary cells are made tight. This is a great denuded of the stronger grasses, we have a calamity, and if rain continues a few days it delicate little biennial barley (Hordium pusil. will drown out the entire community. In cases, lum) that is filling all the naked places. It however, where it has continued long enough rises from 3 to 6 inches, producing fine grain only to wet and swell their grain, as soon as a for ant consumption. It matures about the last sunny day occurs they take it all out, and days of April, and from that time all the agrispreading it in a clean place, after it has sunned cultural ants are seen packing it home daily a day or two, or is fully dry, they take it in again, through the summer. This species of ant subexcept the grains that are sprouted; these they sists entirely on vegetable seeds. I have someinvariably leave out. I have seen at least a times seen them drag a caterpillar or a crippled quart of sprouted seeds left out at one place. grasshopper into their hole, that had been

They also collect the grain from several other throwo upon the pavement, but I have never species of grass, as well as seed from many observed them carrying any such things bome kinds of herbaceous plants. They like almost that they had captured themselves. I du not any kind of seeds-red pepper seeds seem to think they eat much animal food. be a favorite with them.

(To be continued.) In a barren rocky place in a wheat field, a few days after harvest, I saw quite a number of Have the courage to provide entertainments wheat graios scattered over the pavemeut of an for your friends, within your means--not beaut city, and the laborers were still bringing it youd.


permanent change took place in the form of the · Until recently “pear-sightedness" and lens, since this would impair the eye for . "long-sightedness" have been explained by seeing objects at a distance, as well as those assuming in the first case that in consequence Dear at hand. Kramer and Helmholtz have of the too great convexity of the cornea and shown ibat the accommodation of the eye to seecrystalline lens, one or both, the focus is formed ing near objects depends upon a temporary in front of the retina, while in the second the change in the form of the lens, this becoming тауѕ of light are concentrated behind the retina, more and more convex as the object approaches because the convexity of the parts just mentioned the nearest point of distinct vision. This is proved is too small. The correction of these in perfec- by watching the relative position of the three tions by the use of copcave glasses in the first images of a candle as seen reflected, 1st, from instance, and of convex ones in the second, the front of the cornea ; 2d, from the foremost or seemed to be all that was needed to show that convex surface of the capsule of the lens; and the explanation was true. It certainly had the 3d, from the hindmost or concave surface of nierit of meeting the facts, and sn has been al- ' this capsule. The image from this last is inmost universally accepted by physiologists, and verted, and that from the front of the capsule has found its way into every text-book touch- is in the middle of the three. The attention of ing upon the optical structure of the eye. That the person whose eye is observed being directed these conditions, if they existed, would produce to a distant point, if it be suddenly changed to a the effects indicated, no one will doubt; but it near one, in the same straight line with the first, should not be lost sight of that the alleged con- ' so that no motion of the globe of the eye will ditions of the cornea and leds were never satis- be necessary, the central image will change its factorily shown to be attendants of the two ab- size, becoming smaller, showing that the reflecnormal states of the eye of which we are speak- ting surface has become more convex, and at ing. Recent investigations have proved that the same time will change its place to one side, both near and long sightedness may be, and in showing that the front of the lens has moved most cases are, the result of wholly other causes. forward. The first and third images undergo A moment's reflection will make it apparent to little or no change. It is the loss of this power any one that, the refracting media being quite of changing the form of the lens, a power necesnormal, if, in consequence of the axis of the eye sary to the distinct vision of near objects, that being too long, the retina is too far behivd the chiefly gives rise to long-sightedness in persons lens, the rays will meet in front of this, and thus growing old. The inability to accommodate, short-eigbtedness will of necessity follow. The according to Donders, depends upon the lens average length of the axis of the eye is a little becoming harder, and therefore less compresless than an inch, viz. : 21:25 millimetres, or sive, and so offering greater resistance to the about 0.95 inch. Donders has shown that in ciliary muscle, the chief agent in producing the néar-sighted persons it exceeds an inch, and compression required. may amount to 1.20 inch and even more, the When directed to distant objects the accomo. other diameters being unchanged. In this case dating power is at rest, so that the sense of efthe ball of the ege becomes more or less oval fort is wholly absent. Most persons are, how. or ogg-shaped, and when turned strongly to- ever, conscious of a distinct effort, and those wards the pose will fill the orbit more than who are becoming long-sighted, painfully so, usual at the outer angle. Concave glasses will, when the eye is directed to a near object. It of course, be required to disperse the ligbt suf- is commonly believed that near-sighted persons ficieotly to bring the rays to a focus on the re- 'as they grow old acquire the power of seeing tina. In proof that too great convexity of the objects at ordinary distances, because their too cornea does not produce near-sightedness, may convex refracting media become flattened with be urged the fact that this convexity is greatest advancing age. This may and does bappen to in childhood, but, as Volkınan observed, chil. ' a slight degree in a few, but not in the majority dren are rarely Dear-sighted.

of cases. For the most part, near-sighted perIn regard to long-sightedness, if the alleged sons as they grow old find that the bear point cause of it, viz., the fattening of the cornea and of distinct vision recedes, while the far point crystalline lens, existed, this would of necessity undergoes but little change. This is an import. form the focus, other things being the same, be- ant fact in opposition to the theory of flattening hind the retina; but po proof was ever brought heretofore so geoerally accepted, and is fully forward that this fattening actually did exist explained by the loss of the power of acconin the majority of cases. In adopting this ex- modation.-Nation. planation, its inconsistency with the fact that elderly persons still see far objects distinctly, It is easier to make a complete sacrifice which seems to have been overlooked by physiologists. will fully satisfy conscience, than a half-sacri. The persistence of this faculty was of itself suffice which falls short of it. -- Select Memoirs of fioiont evidence to make it probable that - no Port Royal.

[merged small][ocr errors]

STRENGTH OF WILL TO DO RIGHT. defeat of evil allurements, will often render the While the error of a few is that overstrength rest of the struggle easy, or the resolute choice of mere will which we call obstinacy or self

. of suitable coin pany, and the rejection of that will, the error of the vast multitude is feebleness known to be enslaving, may settle the whole of will. The bodies of most control their minds. question. How many eat where reason would say abstain, But there is one habit which, more than any or drink that which steals away the senses ! other, before the business and confusion of the How many are too feeble of purpose to lay aside day he entered on, will strengthen the wisdom an interesting book or pursuit at the hour when and the will-i. e., the practice of forecasting it infringes on other duties ! what hours most the whole difficulties, dangers and plan of the waste in profitless reading! Indeed, there is day devoutly in communion with the beavenly a fascination and tyranny about the present, no Father. They that wait upon the Lord shall matter what company, passion or pleasure-renew their strength. As the moulting bird. feeliogs that we are all asbamed of afterwards. recovers youth and renewed energy from the

The ancient moralists felt tbis as much as we process, so has man in all ages been found to do do. Seneca says, in language quite as strong from real communion with the l'ather of Spirits. as that of St. Paul, that he sees the right and The power of vigorous will is thus most effecadmires it, and the wrong and hates, while yet tually increased. Dean Trench has thrown he practices it. Many persons seem to think this thought into a most beautiful little poem, it enough to admit all this without attempting lately much quoted, though given more at to overcome it. In fact, to be weak of will, length in the lİymns of the Ages : amiable and easily turned, they thiok a sort of Lord, what a change within us one short bour Christian virtue. Yet it is one of the most Spent in thy presence can avail to make! radical of vices. For all cbaracter is determined Wbat beavy burdens from our bosoms takel by the will, which is therefore essential to all What parched grounds refresh us wish a shower i pirtue. The glory of every human being is to We kneel, and all around us seems to lower;

We rise, and all the distant and the near have a strong will, which need not be self-willed,

Stand forth in sunny online, brave and clear;but bowed ever reverently to truth and justice We kneel, how weak i we rise, how full of power! and eternal law, and the Supreme Lawgiver. Why, therefore, should we do ourselves this wrong, Bat there must be a vital strength of will to

Or others, that we are not always strongchoose the right.

That we are ever, ever borne with care

That we should ever weak or heartless be, How to obtain this is the question. One clue Anxious or troubled, when with us is prayer, is the observation that our strength is not the And joy and strength and courage are with Thee ? same on all subjects nor in all circumstances and associations. Weakness or strength of bodi. ly bealth bas much to do with this. Exercise Some years ago, when the Australian gold. and repose affect it. An overtasked nervous lever was hot in the veins of thousands, and system will often be weak and irresolute, when fleets of ships were conveying them to that farbalf an hour's vigorous exercise or a sharp walk off uncultivated world, a poor old woman landed in the open air will renew it. The hour of the with the great multitude of rough and reckless day will have much influence. On first rising men, who were fired to alınost frenzy by dreams in the morning the resolution is clear, compre- of ponderous nuggets and golden fortunes. hensive and strong, while at night it is often For these they left behind them all the enjoyfeeble. Hence the most successful men gener. ments, endearments, all the softening sanctities ally plan cut the day early, and make their and surroundings of home and social life. For mark while the will is vigorous and undistracted. these they left mothers, wives, sisters and Sleep often restores this faculty. Habit has still daughters. There they were, thinly tented in more to do with it. Every success makes a the rain and the dew and the mist, a busy, future one in the same matter more easy and boisterous, womanless camp of diggers and patural, wbile every instance of being subdued grubbers, roughing and tumbling it in the by circumstances makes every similar tempta- scramble' for gold mites, with no quiet Sabtion proportionably powerful. Association has bath-breaks, por Sabbath-songs, nor Sabbathmuch to do with it. In the company of those bell to measure off and sweeten a season of we respect we are easily led.

rest. He, Therefore, who would rule his own spirit, Well, the poor widow, who had her cabin and be strong, must attend to these conditions within a few miles of “the diggings,” brought Habits that secure the most perfect health are with her but few comforts from the old homeland hence most favorable to virtue. Sound sleep, a few simple articles of furniture, the Bible vigorous exercise, proper food, fresh air, thus be and psalm book of her youth, and a lark to sing come Cbristian duties, to be secured at almost to her solitude the songs that had cheered her any cost. The formation of habits such as shall on the other side of the globe. And the little secure the victory to all good choices, and the thing did it with all the fervor of its first notes.


Io her cottage-window it sang to her hour by must enlist the sympathies of the residents of large hour at her labor, with a voice never heard be- cities, where the sad spectacle of overdriven and fore on that wild continent. The strange birds worn-out animals of draught is of too frequeut oc

currence. of the land came circling around in their gor

The Russian-American TELEGRAPH.--The Westgeous plumage to hear it. Even four.footed ani- ern Union Telegraph Company bas abandoned the mals, with grim couotenance, paused to hear it. Russian-American telegraph project, aft:r expendThen, one by one, came other listeners. They ing, as they all-ge, three millions of dollars in ex. came reverently; and their voices softened into plora:ions, in the purchase of materials, and in exsilence as theġ listened. Hard-visaged men, north of the capital of British Columbia. The rea

tending their lines eigbt bundred and fifty miles bare breasted and unshaven, came and stood

song assigned, in a formal communication to the gentle as girls; and tears came out upon many Secretary of Siate, for this step, are, that the success a taoned and sun.

o- blistered cheek, as the little of the Ailantic Cable destroys the hopes of reaping bird warbled forth the silvery treble of its song communication with Europe, wbile the expectation

a commercial profit from the new line #8 a means of about the green hedges, the meadow-streams; that connecting lioks would be established, to esand the cottage-homes of the fatherland. And tond southward from Northeastern Asia into China, they came near unto the lone widow with peb- India, and Japan, has proved delusive. The Secrebles of gold in their hard and horoy hands, and tary of State, in reply, regrets this decision, withont asked her to sell them the bird, that it might questioning the wisdom of the action of the com. sing to them while they were bending to the pany, and says he doze "pot believe that the Uni

ied Sta'es and Russia bave given tbeir faith to piok and the spade. She was poor; and the each other, and to the world, for the prosecution of gold was heavy; yet she could not sell the warb- that great enterprise in vain."Philadelphia Press. ling joy of her life; but she told them that they

The American department at the Paris Exposition might come whenever they would to hear it is reported to be less complete in condition than the sing. So, on Sundays, having no other preacher, departmeot of any other country; but this is a natpor teacher, nor sanctuary-privilege, they came

ural and almost inevitable consequence, when we down in large companies from their gold-pits, goods to Paris with less trouble than many Ameri

consider that the European exbibitors sent their and listened to the devotional (?) hymns of the cans were subjected to in forwarding their packages lark, and became better and happier men for its to the poiot of departure from our country. music.-Elihu Burritt.

The Trustees of the Peabody Educational Food

determined upon a general plan, in session at New Have the courage to prefer comfort and pro

York, 3d mo. 25th. It was resolved that the promopriety to fashion, in all things.

tion of Primary or Common School Education should

be the leading object, and that in aid of it normal For Friends' Intelligencer,

schools should be established in the Southern and

South-Western Sales. Dr. Sears was chosen the The eighty dollars credited to R. W. Moore for General Agent, and intrusted with the whole charge New Orleans Howe should have been collections as of executing the plan, under the direction of the follows : Dr. Thomas Moore.........

Trustees. George Peabody sent a letter to tbe Board, $20.00

in which he says that in making this noble gift he A Friend...........


designed to give absolute power to the Trustees in Mary Wright.....


regard to its distribution. An Executive Committee Thos. B. and Lydia Longstreib.


of five gentlemen was appointed, and the distribution Jonathan Rittenhouse...

5 00

of the fund will be speedily begun. Elizabeth Bacon .......


Appleton & Co., book publishers, of that city, have

magnanimously donated 100,000 volumes of school. $80.00

books in nid of the liberality. HENRY. M. LAING, Treasurer. 4th mo. Ist. 1867.

A Republican State Convention has been held ia

Norib Carolina, in which 100 whites and fifty colored The Treasurer of Friends' Association for the Aid delegates, representing fifty-six counties, were assenand Elevation of the Freedmen has received since bled. The resolutions a lopted were "radical." last report :

An Asylum for Orpbans, wbite and colored, has From City contributions............ $141.00 been established in Charleston, S. C., under the man

Women Friends of Sadsbury, Pa... 7.00 agement of prominent citizens of New York. It is
Friends of Warminster......

17.00 called the Col. Shaw Orphan Home, and it is ready Change, Cincinnati ........

.88 to receive the fatberless and motherless-wit bout Sarah W. Doughton, Lumberton,

distinction of color. Gilbert Pillsbury (nrother of N. J..

5.00 Parker) is the Superintendent, and his wife, the matRachel Haines, Fallston, Md........ 10.00 ron, is said to be one of the ablest teachers in all the

Souib; and it is difficult to see how the orphans of

$180.88 South Carolina could be better provided for, either Herry X. LAING, Treasurer. physically or intellectually. Phila. 4. b mo. Gth, 1867. No. 30 N. Third St.

There is a prospect tbat the cotton crop of the

present year will be much larger than that of 1866, ITEMS.

and nut much below the average crop raised Among the bills just signed by the Governor of previous to the war. Thousands of planters in the Pennsylvania is one incorporating a society for the South bare already discovered that slavery was a prerention of cruelty to animals." Similar societies curse to the master as well as to tbe bondman, and hare been instituted in waay places, and their object that freedom promotes prosperity as well as justice.






No. 7.



Review of the Life and Discourses of F. W. Robertson ...... 97
Selections from the Writings of John Barclay.


Letters from Sarah G. Rich.......

102 MADE TO Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane..


104 OBITUARY........

104 At Publication Office, No. 144 North Seventh Street,

Freedmen's School at Lincoln, Va...

104 Open from 9 A.M. until 5 P.M, Agricultural Ant of Texas...

105 Residence, 809 North Serenteenth Street. POETRY..

107 TERMS:-PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. The Hebrew Books in the British Museum.

107 The Paper is issued every Seventh-day, at Three Dollars per Taste in Arranging Flowers.......

......... 108 anpum. $2.50 for Clubs; or, four copies for $10. Agents for Clubs will be expected to pay for the entire Club.

Characteristics of Lamb—the Qualities of Mind and Heart.. 109 The Postage on this paper, paid in advance at the office where Importunity...

110 It is reeived, in any part of the United States, is 20 cents a year. How to Live Easily.

110 AGENTS - Joseph S. Cohu, New York.


111 Henry Haydock, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Annual Report of the Female Association of Philadelphia for
Benj. Stratton, Richmond, Iad.
William H. Churchman, Indianapolis, Ind.

the Relief of the Sick and Infirm Poor with Clothing.. 111 James Baynes, Ballimore, Md.




REVIEW OF THE LIFE AND DISCOURSES OF recoils upon itself. If we impose on men a F. W. ROBERTSON.

burden which cannot be borne, and demand a

strictness which, possible in theory, is impossi(Contined from page 83.)

ble in practice, men recoil,—we have asked too The first series of Robertson's published dis much, and they give us nothing; the result is courses consists of those delivered at Brighton, an open, wanton and sarcastic desecration of the

Day of are informed in the Preface that these are as if we say the Sabbath is shadow, this is not potes previously prepared, nor are they ser. only half the truth. The apostle adds, thə mons written before delivery. They are sim- body is of Christ.' . .. Hence, a very natuply Recollections;' sometimes dictated by the ural and simple division of our subject sugpreacher himself to the younger members of gests itself: 1. The transient shadow of the å family in which he was interested, at their Sabbath, which has passed away. 2. The perurgent entreaty; sometimes written out by him- manent substance, which cannot pass. self for them when they were at a distance, and Under the first of these beads he says: unable to attend his ministry.”

“ The history of the Sabbath is this :-It was The sixth serion in this series is entitled, given by Moses to the Israelites, partly as a “The shadow and the substance of the Sab. sign between God and them, marking them off bath.” It embraces some very lucid views on from all other pations by its observance; parily a subject that now claims much attention, and as commemorative of their deliverence from the whole of it is well worthy of perusal. The Egypt. And the reason why the seventh day text is, “Let no man therefore judge you in was axed on, rather than the sixth or eighth, meat or in driok, or in respect of a holiday, or was, that on that day God rested from his laof the new moon, or of the Sabbath days : which bor. The soul of man was to form itself on are a shadow of things to come; but the body is the model of the Spirit of God." of Christ.” Col. ii. 16, 17.

« There is not in the Old Testament a single He observes that peculiar difficulties attend trace of the observance of the Sabbath before the discussion of the subject of the Sabbath. the time of Moses." ( The observance of one “If we take the strict and ultra ground of Sab- day in seven is therefore purely Jewish. The bath observance, basing it on the rigorous re- Jewish obligation to observe it rested ou the enquirements of the fourth commandment, we actment given by Moses. The Spirit of its obtake ground which is not true, and all uptrutb, servance, too, is Jewish and not Christian. whether it be an over statement or a half-truth, There is a difference between the sji:it of Ju

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »