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Where are the Great Meadows? About 50 or 60 miles S. E. of Pittsburg.
What fort did Washington erect at the Great Meadows?
By whom was Washington attacked at fort Necessity?
What two reasons induced W. to surrender fort Necessity to Villiers? The favorable terms offered, and the great superiority of the French in number.
What were the terms? On what month and day, were the articles signed ?
How long before the declaration of independence? Just 22 years. How old was W. when he surrendered fort Necessity?at the declaration of independence?
What did the British ministry recommend to the colonies, when they found war inevitable?
Where did delegates meet, for this purpose?
From what colonies?
Which way is C. P. from Brunswick in Maine? - from Sacket's Harbor? from Ticonderoga ? Success of this expedition What did its results diffuse through the colonies?
Name of the French commander? Issue of a battle between Johnson and Dieskau ?
Name of that battle? Battle of Lake George.
What became of Dieskau ?
With what strange irregulari
ty, were hostilities carried on in '54 and '55?
In what year was war declared? What was the plan of operations for '56 ?
Why not executed?
Who succeeded Dieskau as commander of the French?
Character of Montcalm ?
Of what was it powerfully instrumental ?
Who conducted the expedition against Ticonderoga?
On what lake, is Ticondero
Which way from Crown Point?
What fort did Montcalm soon in- | Ticonderoga?
vest? Where situated?
Meaning of invest?
What was the issue?
Of what lakes, did the capture of this fort give Montcalm the command? of what country?
Through whose inactivity, was this campaign so disastrous to the English?
What was the office of Lord Loudon ?
How many men did he lose in
Where was fort Frontenac ? What place has now nearly the same site? Kingston.
Who captured fort Frontenac in 1758?
What did Col. Bradstreet then do to fort Frontenac ? Destroyed it.
What was the bulwark of the French dominion in the western
On what lake, was fort William region? Henry?
At which end? The south. By whom, was it attacked in 1757?
With what effect?
Who did himself great honor by defending it six days?
How were the terms of capitulation violated?
Meaning of capitulation?
Who was placed at the head of the British administration in 1758?
With what effect?
In whose favor, did the tide of success now turn?
What assurance did Pitt give to the colonial governors ?
What three colonies soon raised 1500 men?
How many expeditions were undertaken in 1758 ?
Destination of the first? ond? - third?
Which of these were successful? What naval officer aided Amherst in taking Louisburg?
What land officer aided Boscawen in taking Louisburg?
Why was this capture a great disaster to the French?
Who conducted an expedition against that fort in 1758 ?
Why was an attack needless?
In what state, is Pittsburgh?
At the head of what river? What two rivers there unite to form the Ohio ?
With how many Indian tribes, did the English make a treaty in 1758?
Can you mention some of them! What did the campaign of 1759 have for its object?
How many strong holds had the French in and near Canada? What were they?
How many of these did the English take, in a few months?
How far below the falls, is fort Niagara? 15 miles.
Most important enterprise of the campaign of 1759?
On what river, is Quebec ?
Which way from Montreal?
Who conducted the enterprise against Quebec ?
On what island near Quebec, did he land with his troops?
Which way is Orleans from Q.? Issue of several attempts to reduce the place?
How high a precipice did he then determine to ascend, to attack the city?
To what plains?
Who led the French against Wolfe, on the plains of Abraham? Which army was victorious? Which of the leaders was slain on the field of battle?
What did Wolfe say, when he was told, that the French were flying?
What became of Montcalm ?
What did he say, when informed that his wound was mortal?
How did ne employ his last moments ?
What capture soon followed? Why did not this capture immediately terminate the war?
When did the French attempt to retake Quebec ?
Issue of a bloody battle, that was soon fought three miles above Q. ? Why did not the French then take the city?
What important fortress still remained in possession of the French? On what island, is Montreal? Montreal island.
What did the increase of wealth and the intercourse with Europe, introduce among the colonists in the fourth period?
Why did not this enervate their character?
Till the commencement of what war, did the religious character of the Americans remain essentially the same?
How was infidelity introduced during that war?
What is said of trade and commerce during the fourth period? of agriculture?
Why did arts and manufactures make very little advance ?
Number of inhabitants at the close of the fourth period?
What college was established in N. H.?-In what year? What college in R. I.? In what year, incorporated? Where first established?
By whose efforts principally, was the French power crushed in this country?
What great calamity did the colonists soon experience?
How did the British first attempt to exercise this oppression after the conquest of Canada? By what were called Writs of Assistance.
Who frustrated the Writs of Assistance? Mr. James Otis.
How? By a speech, perhaps the most eloquent and powerful, ever delivered by man uninspired.
Whenever you shall find a painter, male or female, I pray you to suggest a scene and subject.
The scene is the Council Chamber of the old Town-House, in Boston. The date is the month of February, 1761.
That Council Chamber was as respectable an apartment, and more so too, in proportion, than the House of Lords or House of Commons in Great Britain, or that in Philadelphia, in which the Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776.
In this chamber, near the fire, were seated five Judges, with Lt. Gov. Hutchinson at their head, as Chief Justice; all in their new fresh robes of scarlet English cloth, in their broad bands, and immense judicial wigs. In this chamber, was seated at a long table, all the Bar
When was tne French power nearly annihilated in America?
Who sent an official account of this to the British ministry?
risters of Boston, and its neighboring county of Middlesex, in their gowns, bands and tye-wigs. They were not seated on ivory chairs; but their dress was more solemn and more pompous, than that of the Roman Senate, when the Gauls broke in upon them. In a corner of the room, must be placed Wit, Sense, Imagination, Genius, Pathos, Reason, Prudence, Eloquence, Learning, Science and immense Reading, hung by the shoulders, on two crutches, covered with a cloth great coat, in the person of Mr. Pratt, who had been solicited or both sides, but would engage on neither, being about to leave Boston forever, as Chief Justice of New York.
Two portraits, at more than full length, of King Charles II. and King James II. in splendid golden frames, were hung up in the most conspicuous side of the apartment. If my young eyes or old memory have not deceived me, these were the finest pictures I have seen. The colors of their long flowing robes, and their royal ermines were the most glowing, the figures the most noble and graceful, the features, the most distinct and characteristic ; far superior to those of the King and Queen of France, in the Senate chamber of Congress. I believe they were Vandyke's. Sure
am, there was no painter in England capable of them at that time. They had been sent over without frames, in Governor Pownal's time. But as he was no admirer of Charleses or Jameses, they were stowed away in a garret among rubbish, till Governor Bernard came, had them cleaned, superbly framed, and placed in Council, for the admiration and imitation of all
What design did the ministry then conceive?
Who was then collector of customs in Boston ?
For what, did the ministry direct Paxton to apply to civil authority?
What did these writs authorize officers to break open?
For what purpose? To search for contraband goods.
men, no doubt with the concurrence of Hutchinson and all the Junto; for there has always been a Junto. One circumstance more. Samuel Quincy and John Adams had been admitted Barristers at that term. John was the youngest. He should be painted, looking like a short, thick, fat Archbishop of Canterbury, seated at the table, with a pen in his hand, lost in admiration, now and then minuting those despicable notes, which you know, that
stole from my desk, and printed in the Massachusetts Spy, with two or three bombastic expressions, interloped by himself; and which your pupil, Judge Minot, has printed in his history.
You have now the stage and the scenery; next follows a narration of the subject. I rather think, that we lawyers ought to call it a brief of the cause.
When the British ministry reeeived from General Amherst his despatches, announcing his conquest of Montreal, and the consequent annihilation of the French government and power in America, in 1760, they immediately conceived the design, and took the resolution of conquering the English colonies, and subjecting them to the unlimited authority of Parliament. With this view and intention, they sent orders and instructions to the Collector of the Customs in Boston, Mr. Charles Paxton, to apply to the civil authority for Writs of Assistance, to enable the custom-house
Meaning of contraband? ‹ Contrary to what acts? Whom did Paxton direct to peti tion for Writs of Assistance? In what year?
Where was Mr. C. collector? Who was then chief justice? Upon what, did Sewall express doubts?
When did the court order the question to be argued? Where?
officers, tide-waiters, land-waiters, and all, to command all sheriffs and constables, to attend and aid them in breaking open houses, stores, shops, cellars, ships, bales, trunks, chests, casks, packages of all sorts, to search for goods, wares and mer. chandises, which had been imported against the prohibitions, or without paying the taxes imposed by certain acts of Parliament, called "THE ACTS OF TRADE," i. e. by certain parliamentary statutes, which had been procured to be passed from time to time, for a century before, by a combination of selfish intrigues between West India planters, and North American royal governors. These acts never had been executed, and there never had been a time, when they would have been, or could have been obeyed.
Mr. Paxton, no doubt consulting with Gov. Bernard, Lieut. Gov. Hutchinson, and all the principal crown officers, and all the rest of the Junto, thought it not prudent to commence his operations in Boston. For obvious reasons, he instructed his deputy collector in Salem, Mr. Cockle, to apply, by petition, to the Superior Court in November, 1760, then sitting in that town, for Writs of Assistance. Stephen Sewall was then chief justice of that court, an able man, an uncorrupted American, and a sound whig; a sincere friend of liberty, civil and religious. He expressed great doubts of the legality