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1799.] Description of the Hall of the Council of Five Hundred. 95

For the Monthly Magazine , and left, and which serve as entrances to DESCRIPTION of the HALL of the COUN- two halls, one dedicated to peace, the CIL of Five HUNDRED, upon the scite other to victories. They communicate

on one fide with apartments of the an. of the Palais Bourbon ; from the Decade

cient palace, all of which serve as lodgPhilosophique.

ings to those pertons who are employed [With an engraved plate. }

by or attached to the Council : the other Tumir of five hundred, was begun which is dedicated to liberty, the other to in consequence of a decree of the national equality. From each of these rooms we convention, passed the second comple- enter by a flight of steps into the hall of mentary day of the third year of the re

the fittings. This dispolition correpublic, on the ground of the ci-devant · sponding in the two distant wings, one to Palais Bourbon; conformably to a pro- the east, the other to the west, has a very gramme given in by a commission com- majestic air. posed of four representatives. The archi The hall of liberty and that of equality tects were enjoined to confine their ar

are in the form of a long square. Their rangements within the limits of the an, dimensions are large and regular, their style cient palais. The commission accepted fimple and antique. Statues of marble the plans of C. C. Gisors and LE- and paintings representing the princonte, and they were begun to be put cipal epochs of the revolution are to decoin execution the first of Vendemaire (23d rate them. They communicate with each September) fourth year.

other by a circular gallery, contrived unThe Palais Bourbon had been built for der the afcending benches of the hall of the Princess Bourbon, in 1722, after the the assembly. Two grand stair-cales for plan of Girardini, and continued after. the ufe of the members lead to the amphiwards by Laffurence and Gabriel. It theatre by doors which communicate was greatly augmented for the Prince of with the hall of the assembly, at the-luCondé, by Carpentier ; it was this archi- perior extremity of each opening between tect who constructed the gate which opens the benches. The hall of the council of into the square.

Belillard and Leroi five hundred occupics the part which were the last who made embellishments fronts the bridge. An edifice designed

to serve as a dwelling-house contains This palace, detached in every part, no. room of sufficient dimensions for an is erected by the side of the river Seine, assembly like this; the exterior walls and upon the bank opposite to the Place therefcre were the only portion of this de la Revolution, formerly called Place de part ot the palace which could be made Louis quinze, with which it communicates use of. by the newest bridge in Paris called Pont This hall (represented in the two an, de la Revolution. It occupies a super- nexed medallions) is of a femicircular form. ficies of about 60,000 metres (180,000 The benches look to the right, in the feet.) Its principal entrance is not froin middle of which are placed the chair of the river fide, where, without doubt, it the president, the desk of the secretaries, would produce a magnificent effect; it is and the tribune of the orator addressing turned towards the fouth, and opens into the affembly. The secretaries and pressa square.

dent are placed in a large niche taken out It is announced on this side by a trium- of the jutting or advanced part of the phal gate raised between two ground pa- old palace, which for this purpose has vilions, to which it is connected by a

been pusled backwards eight feet on the double colonade of the Corinthian order. side of the court. The removal of this After having passed this gate, we enter stupendous mass was effected under the into the first court of 92 metres long by immediate view of the cominiffioners in a 32 metres in breadth. It is surrounded fimple and not expensive manner. Each by buildings of a plain decoration, the column was advanced, not in pieces, cornice of which corresponds with that of but entirely whole. All the interior the principal part of the palace which pre- batement of this part, and the rail or barsents itself in front. This principal part ricade which confines the feats, are of cuembraces the three sides of a court, rious marble, crowned with brown ornasmaller than the former, and raised by ments. The fore part of the tribune is eight steps. Arrived within this court, decorated with a'bas relief in white the chief entrances present themselves by marble, and attributes in griotte marble the two peristytes in columns to the right from Italy. incrusted on it with the nicest

to it.


ane fiche the president are fix itatues, Y from Batih

, so IMag. for Feb. p. 26.)

art. The bas relief in the front of the 2d. Regulus's departure from Carthage. tribune exhibits two figures in a fitting 3d. Epaminondas refusing the presents of posture : one is History, writing the word the Persian ambassadurs. Republic; the other is Renown, publish

4th. Aristides writing his name in the shell ing the great events of the revolution, Be- for his own banishment by the Oltracism. tween these two figures is seen the bust of

5th. The centre is an allegory relative to

Liberty. Liberty raised upon a pedestal, with the head of Janus : the symbol of experience of the past, and forelight in the future. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. On the side are acceffory emblems. Upon the same facade on

SIR, three of the Greek legiflators, Lycurgus, Solon, Demosthenes, and the other threr of seems much surprized that De LALANDE the Roman legislators, Brutus, Cato, and should have published the result of some Cicero ; they are at present only in com- experiments on falling bodies, in which polition, but are to be executed in marble. it is asserted that bodies fell eight lines

The desk and the feat of the president and a half to the east of the plumb-line. are formed out of folid mahogany, de- from a height of 247 feet; and, almo corated with gilt bronze in the highest doubting the fact, fuppotes either that t). style. The centre has a marble pave. point at which their descent commence ment-floor in compartments, ornamented did not accurately coincide with the upper with allegoric attributes and emblems, end of the plumb-line, or that the plumb. and the middle of all is to be decorated line itself was not perpendicular. Yet it with a Mosaic work exhibiting emblems is an unquestionable fact, that plumbof liberty. The two great doors which lines are perpendicular; and that the lines open into the hall'are of massy mahogany, described by falling bodies are not fo; for with stars of gold; their surrounding were it otherwise, the well-established docframes are in fine white marble, with rich trine of the motion of the earth, and the fculpture. The circular part above the laws of matter, would be a chimera. The benches is crowned with an Ionic order fact is explained thus:-The tower from of columns in white stucco, fupporting which the experiment was made being the arch forming the gallery of the people. 247 feet high, it follows that the diameter The furtherinolt end of this part is co

of the circle described by the upper part vered with green drapery, ornamented of it, in its rotation round the earth's axis, with crowns and Etruscan borders. That is 494 feet longer than the diameter of the part of the arches which relts upon the circle described by its base. But any columns is enriched with octagonal caif- given part of a revolution is performed in founs, painted in antique yellow marble, the same time; therefore the velocity of and further ornamented with allegorical the top of the tower must exceed the vefigures.

locity of the base, in the proportion of the The principal subjects are : ift. Nature, two diameters. Now, as by the first law with this exergue: La Nature seule ditte of motion every body perseveres in its state des lois eternelles ; (Nature only dictates of rest, or of uniform motion, in a right line, eternal laws). 2d. Thémis venge la Na- unless it is compelled to change that Jate by ture outragée ; (Themis takes vengeance forces impressed thereon, a body falling from for Nature abused). 3d. Nemesis ronge le the top of a tower, will persevere in the cæur de l'homme criminal; (Nemesis tor uniform horizontal velocity it acquired ments the hearts of the wicked). The there, till it is retarded by the earth's surother represent great men, with the dates face; (for the force of gravity acting in of the ages in which they lived: The lines perpendicular to the horizontal momiftocles, Socrates, Brutus, Timoleon, &c. tion, will make no difference in that reThe light enters the hall by an opening spect); and that velocity, as has been of twelve metres diameter, which takes up shewn, being greater than the velocity of the whole fummit of the arch.

the base, and the direction being from The double arch on the right, which west to east, the body will fall to the eastterminates the / alf-circle, is decorated ward of the base of the tower. with fine grand caissoons, in which the There are other circumstances which following lubjects are painted :

may affect the mathematical accuracy of ift. The entrance of the Gauls into Rome,

this conclusion, but which are immaterial at the moment the senators waited for the to the present purpose. conquerors in their circular chairs,

Derby, Feb. 13, 1799.

W. S.


1799.] Conjectures concerning the Barberini or Portland Vase. 97 To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. 2. On the first long-side, plate 34, Achilles SIR,

fits in a mournful posture at the sea-shore,

having laid aside his arms. An embassy from HA

AVING lately met with a very Agamemnon comes to him with presents.

ingenious dissertation on the cele- Ulyfies and Phænix preslingly folicit him to brated Portland Vase, written in German return to the camp. The latter, his old by A. F. Von Veltheim, I thought that tutor, entreats him on his knees. He oban English translation of it might be ac- itinately refuses. II. 5. 119. 157. 168. 169. ceptable to many


182. 185. 432.. 433. 602.
I am, &c.

A.G. 3. On the second narrow-fide, plate 35, London, Dec. 1798.

Achilles has given his arms, horses, and

warriors to Patroclus, but refuses to accomCONJECTURES CONCERNING THE BAR pany him. il. 7. 22-–60. 126—156. BERINI OR PORTLAND VASE.

On the second long-sije, plate 33. Ulystes THE many dissertations which seve

and the fons of Neitor bring Briseis, with ral learned men and antiquaries have presents of arms and horses, unto the affembled communicated to the world concerning this

chiefs of the army: and Achilles is reconciled

to Agamemnon. Il. 7. 238. 275. vale, are too well known to l'equire a particular enumeration.

4. On the farcophagus, then, is represented

Mr. Wedgwood the history of an ancient hero, who, on the has, in his Description," &c. quoted loss of his love, falls into such a desperate almost all the writers who have treated on

melancholy, as nothing but the restoration of the subject.

his beloved, who had been torn from him, I must, however, confess, that none of car remove.--In my opinion, a more beautitheir explanations entirely satisfy me. ful story could not have been chosen by a On the contrary, I'am convinced of the Roman grandee, who had lost his tenderlynecessity of examining and comparing beloved wife, and erected to her a sepulcral every circumstance relative to the valë, monument, in which he meant to be again

united to her. especially the sarcophagus in which it was found, before we can judge of it with any

That the farcophagus was intended for appearance

of truth. It is well known this purpose, appears to me ftill more with what scrupulous accuracy it iras probable from the cover: for, in the fore been imitated by Mr. Wedgwood: so part, lies a female figure, with a funereal that we are at a loss, whether we should wreath in her hand, and, behind her, a most admire the original or the imitation.

man of a more advanced age, who half But the belt and most complete repre- stood but one single urn; namely, this

looks towards her.--On the sarcophagus sentation of the vase and sarcophagus together, is to be found in Piraneli's


fame Barberini or Portland vase : on the tichita di Roma.” tom. ii. tab. 31 to 35.

bottom of which only one female figure and to these I Mall here refer.

is represented. I must, however, previously observe,

According to this hypothesis, I explain that in plate 34, the figures on the vale the other figures of exquisite workmanare improperly placed. The fitting female ship on the urn itself, in the following figure with the itaff should be placed by manner:- I think I clearly efpy in it the the side of the recumbent one. On the story of Alceslé, whom Hercules brought

to Admetus from the nether-world. vase, plate 35, and in Wedgwood's “ Catalogue de Camies," &c. p. 100, the re

On the first fide, plate 34, 35, the representation is just : but in the same cata- clining female figure in the middle, with logue this female is erroneously said to

an inverted turch, is the dying Alcelté hold a spear. It is a staff, or scepter: 'as is hertelf. By her fide fits her husband Admore accurately represented in Piranesi. metus, mournfully contemplating the obMy conjectures are the following:

ject of his love, and absorbed in the 1. The bafjo-renevos round the farcophagus deepelt forrow. From the pillar, or which appear to represent the quarrel of Achilles he leans, the principal ornament, its with Agamemnoil, on

account of the fair capital, is fallen, and' lies at the feet of Briseis. -On the firtt narrow-lide, plate 35, Alcesté; who seems looking toward the fits the son of Atréus, taking Briseis to him- nether-world, from which she is separated felf; while she, as an emb em of this union, only by an abyss of water. holds up the love-knot. Achilles, offended poite shore fits Proferpine with a royal at this, immediately departs, and leaves the iceptre. The grief of Admetus seenis to Grecian army. Il..c 322. 325. 345. 349, attract her whole aitution; and the disa 488. 495. and ii. 769.772.

covers a willingnets to consent to the reMONTHLY MAG. NO. XLII,

turn of his wife,



On the op

or Portland Vase. [Feb. On the other side of the urn, Hercules, Augustus, which was exactly of the same conducted by the Genius of Love, pafles style, and done on the same kind of glassthrough the


of Hades, and itretches patte, and even in the same colours ; out his potent arm to Alcelté, who is namely, the figures white, on a dark sitting, in Elysium, under a shade of trees. ground of the colour of the amethyst. In her lap fits Hygeia, restoring her to Whether the artist living at Rome were her former health. With visible tenia a Greek or a Roman, is, I think, a matter tions of joy and altonishment Alcesté lays of indifference : for, fuppofing he were a hold on the arm of her deliverer. Pluto, Greek, we could, on that account alone, who had before experienced the fuper- as little call his productions Grecian, as lative might of Hercules, thoughtfully we should call those of a Natter, Pichler, surveys the scene; and, although he won Marchant, German or English producders at the bolei undertaking, yet his easy tions. and tranquil mien clearly indicates that That the female figure at the bottom is he has no inclination to refilt.-See a a fragnient of another, perhaps ftill more work entitled “ Alcestis pro Marito moriens ancient work, has been by some asserted; Historia, a Begero illustrata.Branden- but, in my opinion, without any good burg, 1703: in which is collected from reason. I have carefully examined both Euripides, Apollodorus, and other ancient the original itself, (when Sir Williana writers, every thing that relates to this Hamilton passed with it through Gerfable.

many); but since more minutely the exAs then, according to the poets, Her- cellent copy of Mr. Wedgwood: and cues really brought back Alcellé to Ad- the result of my examen, with respect metus from the internal regions; the prin- to the bottom figure, is this: The artist cipal characteriltic of this itory is entirely could not well make the vale and its bot. the same with that which is represented tom of one piece; at least not without on the farcophagus. For that itories to very great difficulty. But if the urn had, concordant and well connected, and at below, a considerable aperture, he could the same time fo admirably adapted to the more readily give to the mass throughout object and purpose of the vale, should an equal degree of thickness; and the come together by mere accident, appears force of the tire could be applied with into me extremely improbable, nay, barely finitely more precision to each part, both possible.

within and without, as the design reThe workmanship on the farcophagus quired. Besides, how could he, but by is, if I mistake not, considered by all this method, be certain that the figure, connoisseurs to be evidently Roman : intended for the bottom would not be while the vase is by many deemed a spoiled by the fire ; as the vale in its soft Grecian production. But this opinion, I

or flexible condition must have had some think, reits on a very weak foundation.- resting point ?-—These, and perhaps other Mariette has carefully examined the work- confiderations, may have determined the manthip of the vase; and has found that, artist to make the bottom figure at firf the bottom excepted, it is executed after separately, and afterwards to join it to the fame manner as the cameos were the vale. finished by the artists of those times. The great and striking difference beWhoever has with any attention examined tween the workmanship of the vase, and the vale itself, and shall consult Natter's that of its bottoin, may be easily acclassical work, “ Sur la Methode Antique counted for, without being under the nede graver en fierres fines,” will soon be cessity of suppoling the bottom figure to convinced of this.

be the fragment of a different and more That in the first century this art was ancient piece of art. The artist finished brought to perfection at Rame, is well the figures on the urn, with the touret, in known. The works of Diofcorides--the the highest degree of perfection; but lett fine head of Cicero in the collection of the figure on the botiom rude and un. Cardinal Chigi—the most beautiful head finished, as the mass came out of the of Caligula in the possession of Count mculd. Such unfinished ancient pastes Walmoden, which Winkleman affirms are pot at all uncominon, to be one of the most perfect works of the tions several; and to him I beg leave to kind, are suficient proofs of my position. refer, as he is well worth consulting conNow in the fame manner and style are the cerning every part of this vale. figures on the Portland vale executed. I would, moreover, remark, that the Mariette mentions leveral other such pro- form of the Portland vafe is not Grecian.. directions : and policlied, himself, a head of It appears to have rather the form of


Mariette men

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1799.) Medium Heat of 1798....Origin of Taxation in England. 99 Roman lacrymal urns, only on a larger of consumption; and the few expences of scale.

the itate were detrayed from the customs If to what I have already said, it be on merchandize, and the feudal casualties added, that not only a part of the urn re of the exchequer. Only three occasions mains unfinished, but likewise a whole authorized a tax : the ransom of the king fide of the sarcophagus, and that, as I if taken prisoner; the knighting of his have already obierved, the main cha- eldest fun; the marriage of his eldest racters of this story on the vafe harmonise daughter. But war became more exso strikingly with those of the farco- penlive, and subsidies began to be levied on phagus; Ì Hatter myself that it must ap- that account. Ancient nations carried on pear probable, even to the greatest sceptic, war from a treasure previoully amassed, firit, that the vale was purposely made for and thought the evils of war sufficient this monument, and at the fame time with without freth taxes, This foresight, far it; fecondly, that it is a Roman pro- from occurring to the fucceeding ages of duction of art; and, lastly, that both ignorance, has only been practised by one artists were, by the fame cause or cautės, monarch of this century, the late king of prevented from finishing these works. Prussia, who alone saw that peace and

If the work be really Roman, it cannot, prosperity could afford higher taxes than from the style of the workmanship, well war and distress. The tublidies granted be older than the time of Auguitus, nor to our Edwards, were, however, of a dif. later than the time of Trajan. At least ferent nature from modern taxes. They it can, in my opinion, be easily proved, were high but temporary. that neither the vale nor sarcophagus be A philosophical history of taxation longed to Alexander Severus; but that would form an important and interesting they are older than he.

work; but a few imperfect hints mult On the whole, I now leave it to con here fuffice: Not to dwell on the Peter's noisseurs to give me better information on penny paid to Rome, and the Dane-gelt the subject; and to pronounce, with their to repress the invasions of the Danes, both reasons, a verdict on my conje&tures. I the r'ude progeny of our Saxon tines ; Thall be satisfied with a --Se non è vero, è nor on the icuiage levied on knights fees ben trovato.

by the Normans; if we pass to the thir

teenth and lucceeding centuries, we shall For the Monthly Magazine.

find England already fertile in taxes. The THE average of the greateft heat of fifteenthi and twentieths

teem to commence being taken daily, at or near two o'clock,

all moveables of the clergy and laity was with the thermometer situated as formerly.

granted to that king; the moveables were January

understood to be corn, ploughs, sheep, 41 February 44

cows, swine, breeds of hortes, cartMarch 441

horses, and such as are appointed for April 55

wainage in manors. War-horfes, armour, May - 58

treasure, or ready money and apparel, June 677 Remarkably warm. were excepted. The valuation was made July

by the chief men in each township; and August - 68

the tax levied by the lord, or by the September - 62

sheriff. In the thirty-seventh year of October 56 November

that king, a twentieth amounted to 45 December - 371

31,4381. 175. eod. equal at present to The hottest day was August 13, when about 472,3201. whence the valuation of the thermometer stood at 78. The wind all the moveables might amount to near at the S. W.

ten millions of modern money*. It must at On Dec. 27, it was at 20. The wind

the same time be considered ihat almost all eaft . At 11 the same evening it funk the wealth of that time lay in moveables ;

money being scarce, and the rent of maNorwich, Jan. 11, 1799.

nors paid in kind. Except the baroni.al

castles, the houses were small and unex. For the Monthly Magazine. ON THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF

* These and the following instances are TAXATION IN ENGLAND.

derived from “ The Royal Treajury of England,

or an Historical Account of all Taxes," sc. IN tands furnished his domestic articles

London, 1725, dve

pensive :


to 12.

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