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be conftructed by government; and we anxiously hope that so humane an appropriation of money, which must be returned with fo large an increase, will not be overlooked by those on whom its adoption depends.
The view here presented of the state of society differs essentially, in most particulars, from that which fubfifts in Bengal. This difference, however, appears still greater than it really is, from a variety of misapprehensions into which Dr Buchanan has fallen, from his want of acquaintance with the languages. Thus, the reader would be apt to infer, from the perusal of his work, that an infinite variety of religions prevailed in the Indian peninsula ; but the divinities, whose worship he cites in proof of this hypothefis, are only those universally invoked by the Brahmans, though known to Dr Buchanan under different names. The origin and number of the mixed casts have been distinctly and ably explained by Mr Colebrooke. With these, our author has inadvertently mixed the names of tribes or nations derived from the places of their foriner residence. As they do not intermarry, each of course forms a small community, distinguished by profeflion, and some peculiarity of custom from the others. Whether we are to consider the wild but harmless inhabitants of the mountains as a distinct race from the Hindus, must be determined by investigations not hitherto undertaken. It is also a matter of very curious inquiry, whether all these tribes of mountaineers throughout Hindustan, speak one language, and bear an affinity to each other in their configuration and customs --authorising the inference, that one great nation formerly peopled Hindustan, and were driven, by invaders, to the recesses of those hilly countries which they still occupy.
Our readers must not infer, from the observations we have made, that a very considerable portion of Dr Buchanan's work, which treats incidentally of the antient history of the countries he visited, is without interest. He has rendered an effential fervice to the Indian historian, by collecting a variety of inscriptions extant in the temples of the peninsula. His remarks on them are judicious, notwithstanding fome occasional misconceptions ; but they too are dispersed throughout the work, and present nothing like a connected whole. To enumerate the errors into which Dr Buchanan has fallen, from his unacquaintance with the opinions, customs, and vernacular idioms of the countries he pafles through, would be a very unpardonable abuse of the reader's patience. We shall content ourselves, therefore, with a few specimens, calculated to show the nature and source of his miftakes. Some among them are able to read poetry, and have a book called Márcandeya purána, said to have been written by a
principal temple, bestows Upadésa, or Chicranticum, on such as have not received these ceremonies, and distributes holy water, He then inquires into matters of contention, or transgressions against the rules of cast ; and having settled, or punished these, hears his disciples and other learned men dispute on theological sub. jects. This is the grand field for acquiring reputation among the Brahmans. These disputations are said to be very similar to those which were common among the doctors of the Romish church seven or eight hundred years ago ; and, in fact, a strong resemblance will be found between the present state of Hindu knowledge, and that which then prevailed in Europe.' I. 22, 23.
There is, perhaps, something too much of sarcafm in the spirit of the following general remarks; but the fact is curious, and deserves to be recorded.
• The circumstances which seem chiefly to add dignity to a cast are, its being restricted from the pleasures of the world, especially those of the table; the following no useful employment; and the being dedicated to what they call piety and learning. Almost every man endeavours, as much as possible, to assume at least the external appearance of these qualifications, and in the people of this country a hypocritical cant is a remarkable feature. Even young men of active professions, when talking on business, will frequently turn up their eyes to heaven, and make pious ejaculations, attended with heavy sighs.' I. 254.
The perusal of these volumes is certainly well calculated to lower very much our popular conceptions of the ease and voluptuousness of an Indian climate, as well as of the boundless opulence and splendour of their chieftains and princes. The common people are universally miserably poor, and in many places extremely filthy and flovenly-overrun with vermin, and confumed with itch. A great part of the country is infefted with robbers. The forests, which are in many districts completely obstructed by fallen trees, are extremely unhealthful; and the tygers, in other quarters, fo numerous and so bold, as frequently to carry the inhabitants off out of their beds. The huts of the peasants are universally built with mud, without windows or chimnies. Even their palaces are frequently constructed of the same homely materials; and consist, for the most part, of apartments too close and low to be inhabited with any comfort by an European. The author's observations upon Seringapatnam, the famous residence of Tippu Sultan, and the anecdotes he has interspersed of this sovereign's character, are among the most curious and interesting parts of the publication.
• Seringapatam, as is well known, is situated at the upper end of an island surrounded by the Cávery, which is here a large and rapid river, with a very extensive channel, filled with rocks, and fragments of granite. On the south branch of the river a bridge been erected, which serves also as an aqueduct, to convey from the