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The effects of waters of this class are within this class, since they contain modified by the quantity of carbonic acid more or less carbonate of iron; but we in excess, and of saline ingredients. One shall prefer, in consequence of their preof the purest of the class is that of Tun- ponderance in saline ingredients, to treat bridge, in England. The waters of Tun- of them under the saline class. The bridge Wells are not strong, however, springs of Ballston are numerous, and with saline or ferruginous ingredients, present some differences in the nature one gallon containing only seven and a and proportion of their saline ingredients. half grains. They are found particular- The water of the Sans Souci spring is ly useful in dyspepsia, uterine debility, sparkling and acidulous, and its taste cutaneous complaints and gravel. The highly chalybeate and somewhat saline. most noted chalybeates in Europe are the Its temperature is 50° Fahr. One gallon Spa, in the kingdom of Belgium, and Pyr- of the water is stated by doctor Steel to mont, in Westphalia. Spa is a small contain town, situated in a mountainous district, which forms part of the forest of Ar

Muriate of soda, ...... 143.733 grs. dennes. It is ten leagues from Aix-la- Bi-carbonate of soda, ... 12.660 Chapelle, six from Liege, and seventy- Bi-carbonate of magnesia, 39.100 five from Paris. The edifices and places

Carbonate of lime,

43.407 of public amusement are on a magnifi- Carbonate of iron,

5.950 cent scale. There are seven springs, of Hydriodate of soda, . 1.300 which number that of Pouhon is the Silex, ..

1.000 principal. It contains, according to Berg

247.150 mann, in one hundred pounds of the water,

These waters, if drunk in large quanti

ties, or taken by persons whose stomachs Crystallized carbonate of soda, 154 grs.

are rather irritable, operate as an aperiMuriate of soda, ..


ent, and. at the same time, have a powerful Carbonate of iron, .


effect as a diuretic, and are of eminent Carbonate of lime,


service in all those chronic affections in Carbonate of magnesia, . .


which chalybeate medicines are employ748 ed. The following springs at Saratoga,

viz. the Flat Rock, Columbian, ligh A hundred cubic inches of the water con- Rock, and Ellis's springs, differ but little, tain forty-five cubic inches of carbonic except in containing an excess of carbonic acid gas. The action of these waters is acid, from the Ballston Spa. Next to the tonic, aperient and cooling; they strength- springs just mentioned deserves to be noen muscular action, and are efficacious in ticed the Bedford springs, in Pennsylvadiseases proceeding from weakness and nia. They are situated in Bedford counrelaxation of the tissues. Pyrmont is ty, 195 miles from Philadelphia, and 934 situated near the river Weser, four leagues from Pittsburgh. One gallon of the water from Hamelet, in Westphalia. It has six contains, according to doctor Church, principal springs, all of the temperature of 550 Fahr. The Pyrmont springs con

Sulphate of magnesia, tain, in one hundred pounds of the water,

Sulphate of lime, .
Murjate of soda,

Crystallized muriate of soda, 122 grs. Muriate of lime,
Muriate of magnesia,


Carbonate of iron,
Crystallized sulphate of soda, 547 Carbonate of lime,
Carbonate of iron,

1204 Carbonate of lime, .

3487 Carbonate of magnesia, 339

Carbonic acid gas, seventy-four cubie Resinous principles,


inches. Temperature of the water, 55° 16051

Fahr. It contains less free carbonic acid

than the New York springs, and on this One hundred pounds of this water contain account is less immediately exhilarating ; fifteen hundred grains of carbonic acid. but it is also less stimulating, and not so It is said to be eminently tonic. In the liable to affect the head as the latter. As U. States there are a great number of a saline chalybeate, it contains less comchalybeate springs ; the most noted of mon salt than these, but has, in return, a which are those of Ballston. Indeed, the decided impregnation with Epsom salt, waters of Saratoga might be included by which it is better fitted to act on the

80 gr

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kidneys and bowels, and with less heat Carbonate of lime,

$ grain. and irritation. Within a moderate day's Animal matter, .

1! ride of Bedford, at Bath, in Berkeley coun: The waters of Bourbon-Lancy are celety, Virginia, occurs another chalybeate of brated in the annals of France, as the some celebrity : also within four miles of

means by which Catharine de Medicis, Pittsburgh, there exists a spring of this wife of Henry II, was cured of her sterilclass, though it emits an odor of sulphur- ity. She made use of them, agreeably to eted hydrogen. The York springs, in the advice of her physician, Fernel

, as Pennsylvania, 106 miles from Philadel- drink, and by way of bath. She had, phia, the Yellow springs, and the Brandy- after this visit, in due time and series, her wine springs, have hitherto attracted many three children, Henry, Charles and Franvisitors, especially from Philadelphia and cis, all three kings of France in succession. Baltimore. The most noted chalybeate From gratitude to her physician, she prein Ohio is the Yellow spring, in Green sented him, on the birth of each son, county, sixty-four miles from Cincinnati,

10,000 crowns. The efficacy of these and two from the falls of the Little Miami. It is a copious vein, which bursts temperature.—Bohemia abounds in min

waters is chiefly due to their elevated from a fissure in the silicious limestone eral waters. The most distinguished are rock, and is. at the distance of a few rods, those of Carlsbad. The most important precipitated into a ravine more than 100 of the springs at this place arises with feet deep. The water is transparent, and has the temperature of 52° Fahr. It de- great vehemence, and in a most copious posits, as it runs, a copious precipitate of boiling up with violence. Its temperature

stream, intolerably hot to the touch, and oxide of iron. Its taste is that of a slight is invariably 165° Fahr. The analysis of chalybeate ; and the examinations which Berzelius shows the water of this spring have been made, indicate it to contain a

to contain portion of oxide of iron and carbonate of lime, dissolved by the agency of car

Sulphate of soda,

2.58714 bonic acid gas. It has been used with Carbonate of soda,

1.25200 advantage in cases of chronic disease and Muriate of soda, .

1.04893 debility.–Under the saline class are com

Carbonate of lime,

0.31219 prised those mineral waters in which Fluate of lime,

0.00331 ibere are neutral salts enough to produce Phosphate of lime,

0.00019 a marked, and generally purgative opera

Carbonate of strontites, 0.00097 tion. The salts most usually present are

Carbonate of magnesia, 0.18221 the sulphates, muriates and carbonates; Phosphate of alumine, 0.00034 such as the sulphates of magnesia and Carbonate of manganese, soda, muriates and carbonates of soda Silex,

0.07504 nod lime. The proportion of gaseous

5.46232 matter is seldom large. When there is a considerable addition of carbonic acid. The Teplitz waters, though less efficain these waters, they become more grate- cious than those of Carlsbad, enjoy considful to the taste, and sit easier on the erable reputation. Their temperature is stomach.

With an impregnation of iron, 1170 Fahr. The thermal waters of St. they acquire tonic and stimulating pow- Julian springs contain a large proportion ers, and are used with other views than of saline ingredients; and their easy acmerely to their purgative operation. Of cess attracts a large company of Italians the thermal saline waters, the most cele- and strangers. The thermal saline springs, brated are those of Plombières, Bourbon- called the Warm springs of North CaroliLancy, in France; of Carlsbad and Tep- na, deserve a notice in this place. The litz, in Germany; of Lucca, and St. water is limpid, and gives out freely a gas, Julian, in Italy. Plombières, in the de- which is believed to be nitrogen. It conpartment of the Vosges, ninety leagues tains muriates of lime and magnesia, sulfrom Paris, owes its conveniences to phates of magnesia and lime. It can be Stanislaus, king of Poland. The tempe- regarded as little else than a diluent, though rature of its springs varies from 90° to after several days drinking, it is said to 144o Fahr. A pint of the water contains produce a cathartic effect. Chronic rheu

matism and paralysis are among the disCarbonate of soda, . 24 grains. eases cured by drinking the water, and Sulphate of soda,


bathing in it. The most noted cold saline Muriate of soda,

mineral waters in Europe are those of Silex,

Epsom and Cheltenham, in England, and

..a trace.

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Seidlitz and Seidschütz, in Bohemia. At Carbonic acid,. ...311 cubic inches
Cheltenham, there are six different springs. Atmospheric air, ...7
A wine gallon of the water contains 480

Gaseous contents, 318 grains of sulphate of soda, 40 grains of muriate of soda, with some muriate of The medicinal qualities of this spring lime, and muriate and carbonate of mag- have acquired for it a reputation abroad nesia, oxide of iron, carbonic acid and to which no other fountain in the U. States nitrogen. One of the springs bas an im- has yet attained; and it is highly probapregnation of sulphureted hydrogen. Of ble, from the active ingredients which the Seidlitz waters, a more copious notice enter into its composition, that it will conmust be taken. The strongesi of the sim- tinue to retain the ascendency. Such are ple salide springs is that of the village of its rare and peculiar qualities, that, while Seidlitz, in Bohemia, nine miles from it operates as an active and efficient medPrague. Five pints of its water contain icine, it possesses the properties of an Resinous matter, . .

34 grains. agreeable and delightful beverage ; and it Carbonate of magnesia, 64

is daily sought after and drunk by all

classes of people simply to gratify the palSulphate of magnesia, . . 1410

.341) Sulpbate of soda,

ate, or to allay the thirst; and although, Sulphate of lime,


in this way, it is frequently taken in suffiCarbonate of lime,


cient quantities to produce its most active Carbonic acid, ..

effects upon the bowels, it is seldom, if 6

ever, known to be attended with any unThe Seidlitz water is generally converted pleasant consequences, but is always coninto a tepid temperature before being sidered, by those who thus use it, as invigodrunk. The following is the formula for rating and healthy. The Harodsburg and preparing artificial Seidlitz waters :- Grenville springs, of Kentucky, are much Pure water, ... 20 ounces.

resorted to. The water holds in solution Carbonic acid, .. 3 times this volume. the sulphates of magnesia and soda, car. Sulphate of mag

bonates of magnesia and iron, and sulnesia, . . 144 grains.

phate of iron. In taste, it resembles a Muriate of mag

weak solution of Epsom salts, with a nesia, . ... 18 grains.

slight chalybeate impregnation. Sea-WaThe mixtures sold in the shops under the ter exceeds all others in the extent of its title of Seidlitz powders have no resem: for there is a difference, in this respect, in

saline impregnation. On an averageblance in composition to the real salts of that name. The powders prepared by matter appears to be about one twenty,

various latitudes—the quantity of saline the apothecary are one set of tartaric acid, ninth, of which, from the experiments of the other of the bi-carbonate of soda, Bergmann and Lavoisier, there are about which, when added together in solution in water, form a tartrate of soda, with a twenty muriate of soda, five muriate of disengagement of carbonic acid. The magnesia, three sulphates of magnesia and patent Seidlitz powders, as they are called, soda, and one sulphate of lime. An analconsist of two different powders. The ysis of doctor Murray gives, out of 10,000 one contained in the white paper consists parts of water obtained from the frith of of two drachms of tartarized soda, and Forth, 220.01 parts of common salt

, 33.16 two scruples of carbonate of soda ; that in sulphate

of soda, 42.08 muriate of magnethe blue paper of thirty-five grains of tar- sia, and 7.84 muriate of lime. Sea-water taric acid. 'of the saline mineral springs of hydriodic and hydrobromic acids. Sea

also contains potash and small quantities of the U. States, those of Saratoga are by water is used medicinally, either as an far the most celebrated. The Congress aperient or an alterative. The waters spring is the most distinguished of the of the Dead sea, according to doctor MarSaratoga waters. One gullon from this spring, according to doctor Steel, contains cet, contain, in 100 grains,

Muriate of soda, . . . . . 385.0 grains. Sulphate of lime,..... 0.054 grains. Hydriodate of soda, . ... 3.5

Muriate of soda, ... 10.676 Bi-carbonate of soda, ... 8.982

Muriate of lime,

3.800 Bi-carbonate of magnesia, 95.788 Muriate of magnesia, • .10.100 Carbonate of iron,


WATER CEMENTS. (See Cements.) Silex, ..


Water, Holy. (See Holy Water.) Hydrobromate of potash, a trace.

WATER-CRESS (sisymbrium nasturti499.845 um); a cruciferous plant, said to be found

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in all parts of the globe. It grows on the WATER-SNAKE. (See Serpent.) margin of clear streams, or even partly WATERFORD; a city and seaport of immersed in the water. The stem is de- [reland, and chief town of the county of cumbent at the base, upright, and some- Waterford, on the river Suir. This city what branching above, and a foot or more employs many vessels in the Newfoundin length. The leaves are smooth and land trade, whence they sail to the West pinnatifid, with the lobes more or less Indies, and return with the productions sinuate on the margin, and the terminal of these islands. The barbor is deep and ope always largest. The flowers are spacious, and protected by a fort. The small and white. The plant is employed quay, about half a mile long, is considered in medicine, as an antiscorbutic. Great the most beautiful in Europe. A fine quantities are also consumed as salad in wooden bridge has been erected here, to Paris, and other cities of the north of Eu- facilitate communication with the counrope; and it is now cultivated, to a con- ties of Wexford and Kilkenny. The popsiderable extent, in many places. In the ulation of Waterford, including the subbed of a clear stream, the plants are in- urbs, is 28,677, which is some thousands serted in rows in the direction of the cur- less than it was estimated nearly forty rent; and all that is necessary is to take years ago. Ninety-four miles south-west up and replant occasionally, to keep them of Dublin. By the reform act of 1832, free from mud, or any accumulation of it is entitled to return two members to the foreign matter, and to see that other plants imperial parliament, to which it previousdo not find their way into the plantation. ly returned but one. In the U. States, the cardamine Pennsyl- WATERLANDERS. (See Anabaptists.) vanica takes the place of the water-cress, WATERLOO; a Belgic village, on the resembles it in appearance, grows in like road from Charleroi to Brussels, about situations. and possesses similar proper- ten miles from the latter city, at the enties; but we are not aware that it is ever trance of the forest of Soignies. A short employed for the table.

distance from this village, occurred, June WATER-LILY (nymphæa); a beautiful 18, 1815, the memorable' battle to which genus of aquatic plants, the greatest orna. Wellington gave the name of his headment of our lakes and slow-moving waters. quarters, Waterloo ; Blücher that of the Their roots are large and fleshy, often turning point of the contest, Belle Alliance; creeping

horizontally at the bottom of the and the French that of the chief point of water. The leaves are rounded and heart their attack, St. Jean. After the engageshaped, supported on a stalk so long as to ment at Quatre Bras (9. v.), and in conpermit them to float on the surface. The sequence of the battle of Ligny, Wellingflowers are large, and contain numerous ton had retired to the forest of Soignies, petals, so as to appear double. In the and, June 17, occupied an advantageous morning, they raise themselves out of the position on the heights extending from water to expand, and close again, repos- the little town of Braine la Leud to Ohain. ing upon the surface, in the afternoon. In Blücher having promised to support him the species which inhabits the U. States, with all his army, he here resolved to the flowers are brilliant white, sometimes risk a battle. The British army was diwith a tinge of red, and diffuse a most vided into two lines. The right of the delightful fragrance. The celebrated lotus first line consisted of the second and (4. v.) of Egypt (N. lotus) has flowers of a fourth English divisions, the third and pink color, and the margin of the leaves sixth Hanoverians, and the first corps of toothed. It grows in vast quantities in the Belgians, under lord Hill. The centre plains of Lower Egypt, near Cairo, at the was composed of the corps of the prince time they are under water. The roots of Orange, with the Brunswickers and are oblong, tuberous, as large as an egg, troops of Nassau, having the guards, under blackish externally, and yellow within, general Cocke, on the right, and the and are eaten cooked in various manners. division of general Alten on the left. The seeds are also used in some districts The left wing consisted of the divisions to make a sort of bread. This custom of Picton, Lambert and Kempt. The existed in the time of Herodotus and The- second line was, in most instances, formed ophrastus.— The yellow water-lilies are of the troops deemed least worthy of confinow separated from the genus, under the dence, or which had suffered too severely, name of nuphar. They are much less or- in the action of the seventeenth, to be Damental than the preceding, and differ again exposed until necessary; It was essentially in the form of the flower. placed behind the declivity of the heights

WATER-MELON. (See Melon.) to the rear, in order to be sheltered from


the candonade, but sustained much loss of the British right. In spite of the con from shells, during the action. The tinued fire of thirty pieces of artillery. cavalry were stationed in the rear, and dis. they compelled the artillery-men to reure tributed all along the line, bui chietly within the squares. The cuirassiers conposted on the lett of the centre, to the tinued their onset, and rode up to the east of the Charleroi causeway. The squares, in the confidence of sweeping farm-house of La Haye Sainte, in the them away before their charge; but ibey front of the centre, was garrisoned; but were driven back by the dreadful fire or there was not time to prepare it etfectually the British infantry. Enraged at the for detence. The villa, gardens and small success of his exertions, Napoleon farm-yard of Hougomont formed a strong pow threw his cuirassiers on the Enge advanced post towards the centre of the lish line, between two chaussées. The right. The whole British position formed broke through between the squares, buit a sort of curve, the centre of which was were attacked and deteated by the Eng. nearest to the enemy, and the extremities, lish and Dutch cavalry. During the particularly the right, drawn considera. battle, several French batteries were ses bly backward. Napoleon had bivouacked tioned only a few hundred paces in front a cannon-shot from the British camp, on of the English, and did great executie. the eminence of Belle Alliance. His At five o'clock, the repeated attacks army consisted of three corps of infantry, of superior numbers had already weaktwo of cavalry, and all the guarus. Itened the English, and the victory began might contain about 90,000 soldiers. to incline to the side of the French. On the other hand, the combined English this juncture, the van of the fourth Pris and Dutch forces (prince Frederic of the sian battalion (which the French thoughe, Netherlands having remajned at Hall at first, to be the corps of Grouchy), uniker with 19,000 men) amounted to about the command of general Bulow, showed 60,000 men. According to Gourgaud's itself in front of the forest of Frichenrone, account, Napoleon's design was to break on the right flank and the rear of the enn the centre of the English, and cut off their my. The battalion had left Wavre i q. 5.) retreat, but in all events to separate then the same morning, and, animated by the from the Prussjans. The battle began presence of prince Blucher, had overcome about doon, June 18, by an attack of the all the obstacles of the march. The sixth second French battalion on the advanced French corps, hitherto stationed as the re post of Hougomont. The wood, defend serve of the right wing, was immediately ed by the troops of Nassau, was taken by opposed to the Prussians, and a blomty the French, but the house, garden and fight ensued. It was six o'clock when this farm-offices were maintained by the took place. Napoleon, meanwhile, whra English guards. About two o'clock, four he perceived the attack of the Prusis columns of French infantry advanced instead of diminishing his attacks re from Belle Alliance, against the British the British line, resolved to assail it wres centre. The cavalry supported them, all his forces. The second French corin but were repulsed by the British cavalry, all the cavalry, and all the guards, their while the infantry, who lind forced their fore, put themselves in motion. Welling way to the centre of the British position, ton quietly awaited their approach, anal, as were attacked by a brigade brought up soon as the dense columns had amid from the second line by general Picton, within a short distance, he opeord on while, at the same time, a brigade of them so murderous a tire that they seeria heavy English cavalry charged them in and were compelled to fire in ritara flank. The French columns were broken, The right wing of the French bad and with great slaughter, and more than 2000 advanced at the saine time with the con men made prisoners. About this period, tre, had driven the Nassau soldier fry 413 the French made themsrlves masiers of Papelotte, and attacked the Prens in the farm of la llaye Sainte, and retained Frichemont. This movement destruendo it for some time, but were at last driven for a moment, the connexion of the Pris out by shells. Shortly after, a general sians with the English left wing, and attack of the French cavalry was made mnde the situation of affairs, at this planes on the squares, chiefly lowards the centre ture, critical. The sudden apparater According to (jourgand, Napoleon's army battnljon, under general Zietten, decided

of the first brigade of the first Pran amounted to not more than 7 mea and the battle. Their arrival had been de peres of artillery Marshal Grouchy mahal, on the seventeenth, upen Wavre, willa 33,20 layed by a necessary change in the men aad 1 10 pieces of arullery.

march and by the badness of the roads

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