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ght to alter or reform the same whenever the public good may require it. ut the paramount allegiance of every citizen is due to the federal governent, in the exercise of all its constitutional powers, as the same have been, may be, defined by the supreme court of the United States, and no power ists in the people of this or any other state of the federal union to dissolve eir connection therewith, or perform any act tending to impair, subvert, or sist the supreme authority of the government of the United States. The conEtution of the United States confers full power on the federal government to aintain and perpetuate its existence, and whensoever any portion of the states, people thereof, attempt to secede from the federal union, or forcibly resist e execution of its laws, the federal government may, by warrant of the contution, employ armed force in compelling obedience to its authority.

SEC. 3. The right of trial by jury shall be secured to all, and remain inlate forever; but a jury trial may be waived by the parties in all civil ses, in the manner to be prescribed by law; and in civil cases, if three-fourths the jurors agree upon a verdict, it shall stand and have the same force and ect as a verdict by the whole jury; provided, the legislature, by a law passed a two-thirds vote of all the members elected to each branch thereof, may quire a unanimous verdict, notwithstanding this provision.

SEC. 4. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worp, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed in this te; and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account his opinions on matters of his religious belief; but the liberty of conscience reby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this state.

SEC. 5. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, less when, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its pension.

SEC. 6. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed; shall cruel or unusual punishments be inflicted; nor shall witnesses be easonably detained.

SEC. 7. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capoffenses when the proof is evident or the presumption great.

SEC. 8. No person shall be tried for a capital or other infamous crime cept in cases of impeachment, and in cases of the militia when in actual vice, and the land and naval forces in time of war, or which this state may p, with the consent of Congress, in time of peace, and in cases of petit lary, under the regulation of the legislature) except on presentment or indictat of the grand jury, or upon information duly filed by a district attorney, attorney-general of the state, and in any trial, in any court whatever, the ty accused shall be allowed to appear and defend in person, and with counas in civil actions. No person shall be subject to be twice put in jeopardy the same offense; nor shall he be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a ness against hiinself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without · process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without t compensation having been first made, or secured, except in cases of war. , fire or great public peril, in which case compensation shall be afterward de. 1

SEC. 9. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all ninal prosecutions and civil actions for libels the truth may be given in dence to the jury, and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged libelous is true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable Is, the party shall be acquitted or exonerated.

SEC. 10. The people shall have the right freely to assemble together to suit for the common good, to instruct their representatives, and to petition legislature for redress of grievances.

Amendment proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1909, re-adopted by the islature of 1911 and ratified at the election of November 5, 1912.

SEC. 11. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power. No standing army shall be maintained by this state in time of peace, and in time of war no appropriation for a standing army shall be for a longer time than two years.

SEC. 12. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, except in the manner be prescribed by law.

SEC. 13. Representation shall be apportioned according to population. SEC. 14. The privilege of the debtor to enjoy the necessary comforts life shall be recognized by wholesome laws, exempting a reasonable amount property from seizure or sale for payment of any debts or liabilities hereafte contracted; and there shall be no imprisonment for debt, except in cases fraud, libel, or slander, and no person shall be imprisoned for a militia fin in time of peace.

SEC. 15. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the ob gation of contracts, shall ever be passed.

SEC. 16. Foreigners who are, or may hereafter become, bona fide resident of this state, shall enjoy the same rights in respect to the possession, enjo ment and inheritance of property as native-born citizens.

SEC. 17. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punis ment of crimes, shal! ever be tolerated in this state.

SEC. 18. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, house papers, and effects against unreasonable seizures and searches, shall not violated; and no warrant shall issue but on probable cause, supported by or affirmation particularly describing the place or places to be searched, the person or persons, and thing or things to be seized.

SEC. 19. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war again it, adhering to its enemies, or giving them aid or comfort. And no person be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the s overt act, or on confession in open court.

SEC. 20. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair deny others retained by the people.



SECTION 1. All citizens of the United States (not laboring under the abilities named in this constitution) of the age of twenty-one years and wards, who shall have actually, and not constructively, resided in the six months, and in the district or county thirty days next preceding any tion, shall be entitled to vote for all officers that now or hereafter may elected by the people, and upon all questions submitted to the electors at election; provided, that no person who has been or may be convicted of treas or felony in any state or territory of the United States, unless restored civil rights, and no idiot or insane person shall be entitled to the privile of an elector. There shall be no denial of the elective franchise at any electi on account of sex.2

SEC. 2. For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to ha gained or lost a residence by reason of his presence or absence while employé in the service of the United States, nor while engaged in the navigation of th waters of the United States or of the high seas; nor while a student of a seminary of learning; nor while kept at any almshouse or other asylum, a public expense; nor while confined in any public prison.

SEC. 3. The right of suffrage shall be enjoyed by all persons, otherwis

2 Section 1 has been amended twice; the first amendment was proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1877, re-adopted by the legislature of 1879, and ratified by the electors on November 2, 1880. The present amendment was proposed and adopted the legislature of 1911, re-adopted by the legislature of 1913, and ratified at the election of November 3, 1914. The amendment of 1880 struck out the word "white" where A occurred before the word "male"; the amendment of 1914 extended the right of suffrage to women.

titled to the same, who may be in the military or naval service of the nited States; provided, the votes so cast shall be made to apply to the county d township of which said voters were bona fide residents at the time of eir enlistment; and provided further, that the payment of a poll tax or a gistration of such voters shall not be required as a condition to the right of ting. Provision shall be made by law regulating the manner of voting, holdg elections, and making returns of such elections, wherein other provisions e not contained in this constitution.

SEC. 4. During the day on which any general election shall be held in this ate, no qualified elector shall be arrested by virtue of any civil process. SEC. 5. All elections by the people shall be by ballot, and all elections by e legislature, or by either branch thereof, shall be "viva voce." SEC. 6. Provision shall be made by law for the registration of the names the electors within the counties of which they may be residents, and for the tertainment, by proper proofs, of the persons who shall be entitled to the tht of suffrage, as hereby established, to preserve the purity of elections, d to regulate the manner of holding and making returns of the same; and è legislature shall have power to prescribe by law any other or further rules oaths as may be deemed necessary as a test of electoral qualifications. SEC. 7. The legislature shall provide by law for the payment of an annual l tax, of not less than two nor exceeding four dollars; from each male person sident in the state between the ages of twenty-one and sixty years (uncivild American Indians excepted), to be expended for the maintenance and betment of the public roads.3

SEC. S. All persons qualified by law to vote for representatives to the eral assembly of the Territory of Nevada, on the twenty-first day of March, D. eighteen hundred and sixty-four, and all other persons who may be yful voters in said territory on the first Wednesday of September next foling, shall be entitled to vote directly upon the question of adopting or reting this constitution.

SEC. 9. Every public officer in the State of Nevada is subject, as herein wided, to recall from office by the qualified electors of the state, or of the mty, district, or municipality, from which he was elected. For this purpose

less than twenty-five per cent (25%) of the qualified electors who vote in state or in the county, district, or municipality electing said officer, at the reding election, for justice of the supreme court, shall file their petition the manner herein provided, demanding his recall by the people; they shall forth in said petition, in not exceeding two hundred (200) words, the sons why said recall is demanded. If he shall offer his resignation it shall accepted and take effect on the day it is offered, and the vacancy thereby ised shall be filled in the manner provided by law. If he shall not resign thin five (5) days after the petition is filed, a special election shall be lered to be held within twenty (20) days after the issuance of the call refor, in the state or county, district, or municipality electing said officer, determine whether the people will recall said officer. On the ballot at said etion shall be printed verbatim as set forth in the recall petition, the reasons demanding the recall of said officer, and in not more than two hundred words, the officer's justification of his course in office. He shall continue perform the duties of his office until the result of said election shall be ally declared. Other candidates for the office may be nominated to be voted at said special election. The candidate who shall receive the highest numof votes at said special election shall be deemed elected for the remainder the term, whether it be the person against whom the recall petition was d, or another. The recall petition shall be filed with the officer with whom petition for nomination to such office shall be filed, and the same officer all order the special election when it is required. No such petition shall circulated or filed against any officer until he has actually held his office 1 (6) months, save and except that it may be filed against a senator or

1 Amendment proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1907, re-adopted by the islature of 1909, and ratified at the election of November 8, 1910.

assemblyman in the legislature at any time after ten (10) days from the beginning of the first session after his election. After one such petition and special election, no further recall petition shall be filed against the same officer during the term for which he was elected, unless such further petitioners shal pay into the public treasury from which the expenses of said special electio have been paid, the whole amount paid out of said public treasury as expense for the preceding special election. Such additional legislation as may aid th operation of this section shall be provided by law.4



SECTION 1. The powers of the government of the State of Nevada sha be divided into three separate departments the legislative, the executive, an the judicial; and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly longing to one of these departments shall exercise any functions appertainin to either of the others, except in the cases herein expressly directed or mitted.


SECTION 1. The legislative authority of this state shall be vested in senate and assembly, which shall be designated "The Legislature of the St of Nevada," and the sessions of such legislature shall be held at the seat government of the state.

SEC. 2. The sessions of the legislature shall be biennial, and shall mence on the third Monday of January next ensuing the election of meni of the assembly, unless the governor of the state shall, in the interim, conve the legislature by proclamation.5

SEC. 3. The members of the assembly shall be chosen biennially by qualified electors of their respective districts, on the Tuesday next after first Monday in November, and their term of office shall be two years fr the day next after their election.

SEC. 4. Senators shall be chosen at the same time and places as men of the assembly, by the qualified electors of their respective districts, and term of office shall be four years from the day next after the election.

SEC. 5. Senators and members of the assembly shall be duly quali electors in the respective counties and districts which they represent, and number of senators shall not be less than one-third nor more than one-half that of the members of the assembly. SEC. 6.

Each house shall judge of the qualifications, elections, and retur of its own members, choose its own officers (except the president of the ate), determine the rule of its proceedings, and may punish its members disorderly conduct, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all the met bers elected, expel a member.

SEC. 7. Either house, during the session, may punish, by imprisonmer any person, not a member, who shall have been guilty of disrespect to house by disorderly or contemptuous behavior in its presence; but such prisonment shall not extend beyond the final adjournment of the session.

SEC. S. No senator or member of the assembly shall, during the term fo which he shall have been elected, nor for one year thereafter, be appointed! any civil office of profit under this state which shall have been created, or th emoluments of which shall have been increased, during such term, except st office as may be filled by election by the people.

SEC. 9. No person holding any lucrative office under the government the United States, or any other power, shall be eligible to any civil office

Section 9 is a new section; it was proposed and adopted by the legislature e 1909, re-adopted by the legislature of 1911, and ratified on November 5, 1912.

Amendment proposed and adopted by the legislature of 1885, re-adopted by th legislature of 1887, and ratified at a special election held on February 11, 1889. To amendment changed the time of meeting of the legislature from the "first" to th "third" Monday of January.

fit under this state; provided, that postmasters whose compensation does exceed five hundred dollars per annum, or commissioners of deeds, shall be deemed as holding a lucrative office.

SEC. 10. Any person who shall be convicted of the embezzlement or defalon of the public funds of this state, or who may be convicted of having nor offered a bribe to procure his election or appointment to office, or ived a bribe to aid in the procurement of office for any other person, shall disqualified from holding any office of profit or trust in this state. And legislature shall, as soon as practicable, provide by law for the punishment such defalcation, bribery, or embezzlement as a felony.

SEC. 11. Members of the legislature shall be privileged from arrest on process during the session of the legislature, and for fifteen days next re the commencement of each session.

SEC. 12. When vacancies occur in either house, the governor shall issue s of election to fill such vacancy.

SEC. 13. A majority of all the members elected to each house shall conte a quorum to transact business, but a smaller number may adjourn. à day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members in such ner and under such penalties as each house may prescribe.

SEC. 14. Each house shall keep a journal of its own proceedings, which I be published, and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on question, shall, at the desire of any three members present, be entered he journal.

SEC. 15. The doors of each house shall be kept open during its session, pt the senate while sitting in executive session, and neither shall, without consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other than that in which they may be holding their sessions.

SEC. 16. Any bill may originate in either house of the legislature, and all passed by one may be amended in the other.

SEC. 17. Each law enacted by the legislature shall embrace but one suband matters properly connected therewith, which subject shall be briefly essed in the title; and no law shall be revised or amended by reference s title only; but, in such case, the act as revised, or section as amended, be reenacted and published at length.

SEC. 18. Every bill shall be read by sections on three several days in each e, unless, in case of emergency, two-thirds of the house where such bill be pending shall deem it expedient to dispense with this rule; but the ing of a bill by sections, on its final passage, shall in no case be dispensed , and the vote on the final passage of every bill or joint resolution shall ken by yeas and nays, to be entered on the journals of each house; and a rity of all the members elected to each house shall be necessary to pass 7 bill or joint resolution, and all bills or joint resolutions so passed shall igned by the presiding officers of the respective houses, and by the sec'y of the senate and clerk of the assembly.

SEC. 19. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence ppropriations made by law. An accurate statement of the receipts and nditures of the public money shall be attached to and published with the at every regular session of the legislature.

SEC. 20. The legislature shall not pass local or special laws in any of the wing enumerated cases-that is to say: Regulating the jurisdiction and s of the justices of the peace and of constables; for the punishment of es and misdemeanors; regulating the practice of courts of justice; prog for changing the venue in civil and criminal cases; granting divorces; ging the names of persons: vacating roads, town plots, streets, alleys and le squares; summoning and impaneling grand and petit juries, and proig for their compensation; regulating county and township business; regng the election of county and township officers; for the assessment and ction of taxes for state, county, and township purposes; providing for ing and conducting elections of state, county, and township officers, and mating the places of voting; providing for the sale of real estate or per

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