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brought to a finished halt, yet the same means, in a form modified by the rider's appreciation of the circumstances, may be effectually used to make the horse draw up in the extended gallop.

The horse being in the best approximate equilibrium, the rider will bring him to a stop by leaning back and pressing in his legs as the hind-legs of the horse begin one cadence of the gait, and raise the hand, and bear upon the bit as the fore-legs begin the next cadence. The result will be that the horse will stop without another cadence, for the heels bring in and the weight of the body fixes the hind-legs, and the hand restrains and brings back the forces of the fore-hand, and prevent the mass advancing. These applications of the


aids must be made with celerity and precision, but without violence.


To Back.

In backing the horse the offices of the fore-hand and croup are interchanged; for now the impulsion comes from the fore-hand, and the heels restrain and direct the forces of the croup upon the course.

Standing at the head of the horse, the trainer will bring him into equilibrium, taking care that the shoulders and croup are in a line. Then with a tap of the whip upon the croup he will induce the beginning of a forward movement from that part by the raising of one of the hind-legs, but before the mass acquires the forward motion the horse will be made to carry the raised hind-leg one step in rear, by a pressure upon the bit. He will then be collected, and made to take one other step backwards in the same manner. The next day he may be made to take two consecutive steps; and he will be taught carefully and without haste, until he will move back several steps and still retain his light


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The rider will then mount the horse, and, having brought him into equilibrium, will, by a pressure of the legs, induce the raising of one of the hind-legs, which will be carried back one step by a pressure of the bit. The whole art


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of teaching the horse to back lies in these instructions: but the rider must proceed cautiously so that the horse will acquire the movement in an easy and light manner. Let him be satisfied with a few steps well done each day, until the horse acquires perfection in the movement. The legs will always be carried close to the sides of the horse to keep him straight, and to prevent the forces from yielding too much; the hand must influence the forces of the fore-hand only enough to produce the backward motion, without bringing them back so far as to destroy the equilibrium. When the rider wishes to stop the horse backing, he will increase the pressure of the legs and yield the hand in some cadence of the movement, and will start the horse forward in the walk without coming to a marked halt.

The horse may be made to go backwards with the actions of the trot or the gallop, by the same means that are used to make him back in the motions of the walk.


All the instructions contained in these pages, except so far as regards those for gymnastics and for the seat, will apply to ladies, when the whip will take the place of the right leg of the man.

The whip should be strong and

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