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be-Be it enacted by the senate and house of representatives, in general court convened.

No governor, or judge of the supreme judicial court, shall hold any office or place under the authority of this state, except such as by this constitution they are admitted to hold, saving that the judges of the said court may hold the offices of justice of the peace throughout the state; nor shall they hold any place or office, or receive any pension or salary, from any other state, government, or power whatever.

No person shall be capable of exercising, at the same time, more than one of the following offices within this state, viz. judge of probate. sheriff, register of deeds; and never more than two offices of profit, which may be held by appointment of the governor, or governor and council, or senate and house of representatives, or superior or inferior courts, military offices, and offices of justices of the peace, excepted.

No person holding the office of judge of any court, (except special judges,) secretary, treasurer of the state, attorney-general, commissarygeneral, military officers receiving pay from the continent or this state, (excepting officers of the militia occasionally called forth on an emergency,) register of deeds, sheriff, or officers of the customs, including naval officers, collectors of excise, and state and continental taxes,hereafter appointed, and not having settled their accounts with the respective officers with whom it is their duty to settle such accounts, members of congress, or any person holding any office under the United States, shall, at the same time, hold the office of governor, or have a seat in the senate, or house of representatives, or council; but his being chosen, or appointed to, and accepting the same, shall operate as a resignation of his seat in the chair, senate, or house of representatives, or council: and the places so vacated shall be filled up. No member of the council shall have a seat in the senate or house of representatives.

No person shall ever be admitted to hold a seat in the legislature, or any office of trust or importance under this government, who, in the due course of law, has been convicted of bribery or corruption in obtaining an election or appointment.

In all cases where sums of money are mentioned in this constitution, the value thereof shall be computed in silver, at six shillings and eight pence per ounce.

To the end that there may be no failure of justice, or danger to the state, by the alterations and amendments made in the constitution, the general court is hereby fully authorized and directed to fix the time when the alterations and amendments shall take effect, and make the necessary arrangements accordingly.

It shall be the duty of the selectmen and assessors of the several towns and places in this state, in warning the first annual meeting for the choice of senators, after the expiration of seven years from the adoption of this constitution, as amended, to assert expressly in the warrant, this purpose, among the others for the meeting, to wit: to take the sense of the qualified voters on the subject of a revision of the constitution; and the meeting being warned accordingly, and not otherwise, the moderator shall take the sense of the qualified voters present, as to the necessity of a revision; and a return of the number of votes for and against such necessity, shall be made by the clerk, sealed up, and directed to the general court, at their next session; and if it shall appear to the general

court, by such return, that the sense of the people of the state has been taken, and that, in the opinion of the majority of the qualified voters in the state, present and voting at said meetings, there is a necessity for a revision of the constitution, it shall be the duty of the general court to call a convention for that purpose; otherwise the general court shall direct the sense of the people to be taken, and then proceed in the manner before mentioned. The delegates to be chosen in the same manner, and proportioned as the representatives to the general court; provided, that no alteration shall be made in this constitution, before the same shall be laid before the towns and unincorporated places, and approved by twothirds of the qualified voters present and voting on the subject.

And the same method of taking the sense of the people as to a revision of the constitution, and calling a convention for that purpose, shall be observed afterwards, at the expiration of every seven years.

This form of government shall be enrolled on parchment, and deposited in the secretary's office, and be a part of the laws of the land; and printed copies thereof shall be prefixed to the books containing the laws of this state, in all future editions thereof.

JOHN PICKERING, President, P. T.

Attest, JOHN CALFE, Secretary.

AMENDMENTS, adopted Sept. 16, 1852. By striking from it in part 2d, section 14th, the words, "shall have an estate within the district where he may be chosen to represent, of the value of one hundred pounds, one half of which to be a freehold whereof he is seized in his own right," and from section 29th, the words, "and seized of a freehold estate in his own right of the value of a hundred pounds, being within this State ;" and section 42d, the words, "and unless he shall at the same time have an estate of the value of five hundred pounds, one half of which shall consist of a freehold in his own right, within this State."




A Declaration of Rights of the Inhabitants of the State of Vermont.


THAT all men are born equally free and independent, and have certain natural, inherent, and unalienable rights, amongst which are the enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety; therefore, no male person, born in this country, or brought from over sea, ought to be holden by law to serve any person as a servant, slave, or apprentice, after he arrives to the age of twenty-one years, nor female, in like manner, after she arrives to the age of eighteen years, unless they are bound by their own consent, after they arrive to such age, or bound by the law for the payment of debts, damages, fines, costs, or the like.


That private property ought to be subservient to public uses when necessity requires it; nevertheless, when any person's property is taken for the use of the public, the owner ought to receive an equivalent in money.



That all men have a natural and unalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences and understandings, as in their opinion shall be regulated by the word of God: and that no man ought to, or of right can, be compelled to attend any religious worship, or erect or support any place of worship, or maintain any minister, contrary to the dictates of his conscience; nor can any man be justly deprived or abridged of any civil right as a citizen, on account of his religicus sentiments or peculiar mode of religious worship; and that no authority can or ought to be vested in, or assumed by, any power whatever, that shall in any case interfere with, or in any manner control, the rights of conscience in the free exercise of religious worship. Nevertheless, every sect or denomination of Christians ought to observe the Sabbath, or Lord's day, and keep up some sort of religious worship, which to them shall seem most agreeable to the revealed will of God.


Every person within this state ought to find a certain remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property, or character: he ought to obtain right and justice freely, and without being obliged to purchase it; completely, and without any denial; promptly, and without delay; conformably to the law.


That the people of this state, by their legal representatives, have the sole, inherent, and exclusive right of governing and regulating the internal police of the same.


That all power being originally inherent in, and consequently derived from, the people, therefore, all officers of government, whether legislative or executive, are their trustees and servants, and at all times, in a legal way, accountable to them.


That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit protection, and security of the people, nation, or community, and not for the particular emolument or advantage of any single man, family, or set of men, who are a part only of that community; and that the community hath an indubitable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to reform or alter government, in such manner as shall be, by that community, judged most conducive to the public weal.


That all elections ought to be free and without corruption, and that all freemen, having a sufficient evidence, common interest with, and attachment to the community, have a right to elect officers, and be elected into office, agreeably to the regulations made in this constitution.


That every member of society hath a right to be protected in the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property, and therefore is bound to contribute

his proportion towards the expense of that protection, and yield his personal service, when necessary, or an equivalent thereto; but no part of any person's property can be justly taken from him, or applied to public uses, without his consent, or that of the representative body of freemen; nor can any man, who is conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms, be justly compelled thereto, if he will pay such equivalent; nor are the people bound by any law but such as they have in like manner assented to, for their common good; and previous to any law being made to raise a tax, the purpose for which it is to be raised ought to appear evident to the legislature to be of more service to the community than the money would be if not collected.


That, in all prosecutions for criminal offences, a person hath a right to be heard by himself and his counsel; to demand the cause and nature of his accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses; to call for evidence in his favour, and a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of his country; without the unanimous consent of which jury, he cannot be found guilty; nor can he be compelled to give evidence against himself; nor can any person be justly deprived of his liberty, except by the laws of the land, or the judgment of his peers.


That the people have a right to hold themselves, their houses, papers, and possessions, free from search or seizure; and, therefore, warrants without oath or affirmation first made, affording sufficient foundation for them, and whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded or required to search suspected places; or to seize any person or persons, his, her, or their property, not particularly described, are contrary to that right, and ought not to be granted.


That when an issue in fact, proper for the cognizance of a jury, is joined in a court of law, the parties have a right to trial by jury, which ought to be held sacred.


That the people have a right to a freedom of speech, and of writing and publishing their sentiments, concerning the transactions of government, and therefore the freedom of the press ought not to be restrained.


The freedom of deliberation, speech, and debate, in the legislature, is so essential to the rights of the people, that it cannot be the foundation of any accusation, or prosecution, action, or complaint, in any other court or place whatsoever.


The power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, ought never to be exercised but by the legislature, or by authority derived from it, to be exercisedan such particular cases as this constitution, or the legislature, shall provide for.


That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the state; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.


That no person in this state can, in any case, be subjected to law martial, or to any penalties or pains by virtue of that law, except those employed in the army, and the militia in actual service.


The frequent recurrence to fundamental principles, and firm adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, industry, and frugality, are absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty, and keep government free; the people ought, therefore, to pay particular attention to these points, in the choice of officers and representatives, and have a right, in a legal way, to exact a due and constant regard to them, from their legislators and magistrates, in making and executing such laws as are necessary for the good government of the state.


That all people have a natural and inherent right to emigrate from one state to another that will receive them.


That the people have a right to assemble together to consult for their common good to instruct their representatives: and apply to the legislature for redress of grievances by address, petition, or remonstrance.


That no person shall be liable to be transported out of this state for trial of any offence committed within the same.


Plan or Form of Government.

§ 1. The commonwealth or state of Vermont shall be governed here. after by a governor or lieutenant-governor, council, and an assembly of the representatives of the freemen of the same, in manner and form following:

§ 2. The supreme legislative power shall be vested in a house of representatives of the freemen of the commonwealth or state of Vermont. §3. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a governor, or, in his absence, a lieutenant-governor, and council.

§ 4. Courts of justice shall be maintained in every county in this state, and also in new counties, when formed; which courts shall be open for the trial of all causes proper for their cognizance; and justice shall be therein impartially administered, without corruption or unnecessary delay. The judges of the supreme court shall be justices of the peace throughout the state; and the several judges of the county courts, in

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