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Here the third line forms a continuous sense with | to this species of parallelism; and also for some the first, and the fourth with the second : the felicitous illustrations of passages in which it is youths and virgins, led out of doors by the vigour found : and buoyancy natural at their time of life, fall victims to the sword in the streets of the city;

The idols of the heathen are silver and gold;

The work of men's hands : Fhile infancy and old age, confined by helpless

They have mouths, but they speak not; ness and decrepitude to the inner chambers of the

They have eyes, but they see not; house, perish there by fear, before the sword can

They have ears, but they ear not; reach them.*

Neither is there any breath in their mouths ; The next passage, which is from the New Tes

They who made them are like unto them ; tament, is very striking; it is Rom. ii. 28, 29 : So are they who put their trust in them.

Ps. cxxxv. 15–18. For he is not a Jew, who is one outwardly ; Neither is circumcision that which is outward in

In the first line we have the idolatrous heathen; the flesh;

in the eighth, those who put their trust in idols; But he is a Jew, who is one inwardly ;

in the second line, the fabrication ; in the seventh, And circumcision that of the heart, in the spirit, the fabricators; in the third line, mouths without not in letter;

articulation; in the sixth, mouths without breath ; Whose praise is not from men, but from God. in the fourth line, eyes without vision; and in

the fifth line, ears without the sense of hearing. I Here it will be seen that the first, third, and it is this kind of parallelism which Mr. Boys has fifth lines are not only parallel, but keep up a shown to prevail so generally in the sacred continuous sense, though that is twice suspended, writings; not only in doctrine and discussion, by the intervention of the second and fourth but in narration and dialogue ; not only where we lines. +

might expect to meet with something like stanzas, (4) The Introverted Parallelism is that which but where poetry, according to our ideas of it, is is so constructed, that whatever be the number out of the question. This ingenious writer has of its members, the first answers to the last, the reduced, not only many long passages, which are second to the penultimate, or last but one, and so strictly historical, to the form of single parallelisms, on throughout, in an order that looks inward, or, but also several of the psalms, and four of the to borrow a military phrase, from flanks to centre. epistles in the New Testament. Of each of these The following example is taken from Bishop Jebb, we give a specimen. The first is Mark v. 2–6. to whom we are indebted for recalling attention

* And when ble was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man

with an unclean spirit;
b | Who had his dwelling among the tombs,
c | And no man could bind him, no, not with chains,
d | Because that he had been often bound with fetters,

e | And chains :

e | And the chains had been plucked asunder by him,
d| And the fetters broken in pieces.
c| Neither could any man tame him.
6 | And always, night and day, he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting

| himself with stones.
| But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran, and worshipped him, &c.

Here we have, in e and e, the chains of the | Mr. Boys, an introverted parallelism of six memperson possessed ; in d and d, his fetters ; in c bers; but as it would occupy considerable space ad c, the difficulty of binding or taming him; to go through the several parts of it, and point out in b and b, his places of resort and usual habits ; its construction, a mere exhibition of its form in a and

lin his meeting with Jesus. || The thir- must suffice. It is thus : tieth psalm is, according to the arrangement of

Jebb s Sacred Literature, p. 30.

+ Ibid, rp. 199, 200.

Sacred Literature, p. 57. || Tactica Sacra, p. 6.

A | 1. Thanksgiving promised.

a | 2. The Psalmist's cry to God. B b / 2, 3. The relief obtained.

c | 4. Songs of praise.

C | 5. Sudden change from adversity to prosperity.

C|6, 7. Sudden change from prosperity to adversity.
a | 8-10. The Psalmist's cry to God.
b | 11. The relief obtained.

c 12. Songs of praise.
A | 12. Thanksgiving promised.


Here the correspondence is obvious: A, the The epistle we select is that addressed by Paul last member, answering to A, the first; B, the to Philemon, which is an introverted parallelism fifth, to B, the second; and C, the fourth, to C, of eighteen members : we can only give its plan, the third. This is the general division; and then however, referring those who may be desirous to the subdivisions of B and B correspond in a see it filled up and illustrated, to the ingenious similar way; a answering to a, b to b, and c to c; work already mentioned.+ and therefore the whole B to the whole B.*

A. 1-3.-Epistolary.
B. 4-7.—Prayers of St. Paul for Philemon-Philemon's hospitality.
C. 8.- Authority.
D. 9, 10.-Supplication.
E. 10.-Onesimus, a convert of St. Paul's.
F. 11, 12.—Wrong done by Onesimus, amends made by Paul.
G. 12.—To receive Onesimus the same as receiving Paul.
H. 13, 14.-Paul, Philemon.

I. 15.--Onesimus.

I. 16.-Onesimus.
H. 16.—Paul, Philemon.
G. 17.-To receive Onesimus the same as receiving Paul.
F. 18, 19.—Wrong done by Onesimus, amends made by Paul.
E. 19.–Philemon, a convert of St. Paul's.
D. 20.--Supplication.
C. 21.-Authority.
B. 22.-Philemon's hospitality-Prayers of Philemon for St. Paul.
A. 23-25.- Epistolary.

(5) The parallelism of rhythm. This consists In dangers from rivers; in dangers from robbers ; simply in the form or construction of the period; In dangers from my countrymen ; in dangers

from heathens; it affects not the internal thought, but merely the external dress : it consists in a certain measure in

In dangers in the city ; in dangers in the wil

derness ; the words and lines; as for example, 2 Cor. xi.

In dangers at sea ; in dangers among false 21--29:

brethren. 1. In whatsoever any one is bold, I also am bold. 5. In labour and toil; in watchings often; 2. Are they Hebrews ? So am I.

In hunger and thirst; in fastings often ;
Are they Israelites? So am I.

In cold and nakedness.
Are they the seed of Abraham ? So am I. 6. Who is weak, and I am not weak ?
Are they ministers of Christ? So am I.

Who is made to stumble, and I do not burn? 3. In labours more abundant, in stripes above The simply rhythmical parallelism holds the most In prisons more frequent, in deaths oft.

prominent place in the Lamentations of Jere

miah. Five times of the Jews received I forty stripes,

V. We have now adverted to the several kinds Thrice was I beaten with rods; once was I of parallelism found in the sacred writings; and stoned :

attention to their principles will afford much Thrice was I shipwrecked; a night and a day assistance in the art of interpretation. Of this, have I spent in the deep.

some of the examples that have been given afford 4. In journeyings often. Key to the Book of Psains, p. 137.

+ Tactica Sacra, P;). 61-68.


save one.

unquestionable evidence. The correspondence very favourably received. Be this as it may, existing between the different parts of these com- we have little doubt that it will ultimately be positions has been seen to be of various kinds : numbered among the direct aids to be employed sometimes it lies in affinity, sometimes in anti- in elucidating the obscurities and removing the thesis ; sometimes in words, sometimes in ideas, difficulties of Scripture phraseology. sometimes in construction ; but of whatever kind 2. That one clause in a sentence has a common it may be, it is generally very marked and decisive, reference to two or more clauses in the same senopt in the constructive parallelism, which, as tence, is indeed, often too obvious to fail of being avady noticed, is sometimes very subtle and perceived ; but the extent to which such a conobscure, and must be developed by art and la struction of sentences prevails in the sacred bour. The great use of the Scripture Parallelism writings, has hitherto escaped the attention of is to aid in ascertaining with precision what are critics. The translator and expositor who seems the leading topics of a passage ; what are the to have been the most fully alive to the subject, points which the sacred writer intends to urge, and who has the most frequently availed himself and what those which he only introduces in con- of the principle, to give shape and consistency to nesion with them; as well as to indicate in what passages in the apostolic epistles, which he found ense an obscure or ambiguous word ought to be involved in obscurity, is Macknight. But it is taken in a particular place. And the conjecture to Mr. Boys, the ingenious writer on the Scripture of Bishop Jebb is by no means unreasonable— Parallelism, that we are more particularly indebted indeed, it has been borne out by facts—that these for having brought it under notice. He has deveparallelisms may have been provided, among other loped, with much clearness, the principle of this purposes, as so many moulds and forms, by means kind of construction, and has illustrated its use of which shape and consistency may be given to by some striking examples. To the second of the passages at present, if not wholly unintelligible, Appendices to his Tactica Sacra, we are chiefly at least hard to be understood.

indebted for the selections that follow. VI. Very nearly allied to the rhythmical paral- 3. The first example we offer is from Rom. vi. lelism, in its principle, and therefore furnishing 11, where the apostle says, “Likewise reckon ye similar aid in discovering the sense of language, also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but is what is properly termed the COMMON REFERENCE. alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.” The chief difference between them is this ; that Now, according to this punctuation, the apostle is the parallelism more particularly relates to the made to represent the fact of our being

“ alive meaning of reords ; the common reference, to that to God," as resulting from “ Jesus Christ our of sentences.

Lord;” but not so our being “ dead unto sin.” 1. This topic has been but recently brought The first member of the sentence is severed from forward ; and, if we may judge from the silence the last, but the second is united to it; it theretirat has been observed about it, it has not been fore reads thus :

Likewise reckons to be dead indeed unto sin,
ye also yourselves but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Such, however, is not the meaning of the apostle, “living to God," from Jesus Christ our Lord. sto, as is evident from numerous other pas- The last clause of the text has, therefore, a siges in his writings, intended to represent our common reference to both the preceding ones, and - death to sin” as resulting, equally with our may be shown thus :

Likewise reckons to be dead indeed unto sin, through Jesus Christ ye also yourselves but alive unto God,

our Lord.


The eighth verse of the chapter confirms this little before, “ If ye be dead with Christ" (chap. w of the passage. There the apostle says, ii. 20). According to this view of the passage, a * Sow if we be dead with Christ, we believe that comma must be inserted before the last clause, The shall also live with him;" connecting our through Jesus Christ our Lord;” and never, as dith unto sin with Christ, as well as our living Mr. Boys has remarked, did a comma make a tento God. We find a further confirmation of this more important difference. view of the passage in the Epistle to the Colos- (2) Another passage deserving notice is in the saaris ; for there the apostle not only says, “If ye same epistle, chap. xv. 7. This is uniformly pointed then be rison with Christ” (chap. iii. 1), but a lin the Greek text thus: “Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also received us to the glory of passage stands thus : “Wherefore thou art no God," connecting the second clause with the third, more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an but separating the first clause from it. Our trans- heir of God through Christ.” But surely the lation, however, in some copies at least, presents apostle had no intention to assert, that, while our the true sense of the apostle (by departing from heirship was derived " through Christ," our sonthe Greek punctuation), which is, that as Christ ship was independent of him. This cannot be; received us to the glory of God, we also should and a slight alteration in the pointing will restore receive one another to the glory of God. The the true meaning: “Wherefore thou art no more third clause has therefore a common reference to a servant but a son, and if a son then an heir, of both the preceding ones.

God through Christ.” This shows the last member (3) Gal. iv. 7 furnishes another example; and of the sentence to have a common reference to here our authorised Version erts in following the the two preceding ones :punctuation of the common Greek text. The

it may

Thou art no more a servant but a son,

} And if a son, then an heir,

of God through Christ. These are three examples of a word or clause of a head, to which we have supposed the apostle to sentence having a common reference to two others; refer, as well, indeed, as the entire sense of the and it is very observable, that the two clauses to passage, is altogether destroyed by the punctuation which the third refers, are in a greater or lesser here adopted.

For what purpose,

be degree parallel. Sometimes, however, there is a asked, are the Spirit and the Lord introduced into common reference of one clause to three others; the first and second clauses, when the last clause, and in such cases, the parallelism of the three is which worketh all in all,” is permitted to take equally obvious.

as its antecedent, “ the same God,” of the third (4) The following example is very striking, and clause ? So represented, the meaning of the marks most distinctly the three persons in the apostle cannot be discovered. But if, in accordblessed and undivided Trinity :

ance with the principle we are now desirous to “Now there are diversities of gifts, but the illustrate, this last clause be taken as having a same Spirit; and there are differences of a common reference to the three preceding ones, ministrations, but the same Lord; and there are the passage is rendered wholly intelligible, and diversities of operations, but it is the sante God assumes an important character. It may then be which worketh all in all," 1 Cor. xii. 46. exhibited thus : But the distinction of the persons in the GodNow there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit;

which And there are diversities of administrations, but the same Lord ; worketh And there are diversities of operations, but the same God; all in all.

The only alteration here made in the text is direct testimony to the signification of words and the omission of soti, it is, in the last clause ; and the sense of particular expressions in the sacred the word is rejected by Griesbach upon good writings. A very little consideration will suggest to authority. The parallelism confirms his decision. the student that such testimony will not always be

4. These examples will be sufficient to point found adequate to the necessities of the interpreter. out the nature of the common reference, and The usus loquendi, that is, the meaning which render manifest the kind of aid derivable from usage has attached to words, cannot always be it, in the interpretation of the Scriptures. * found by these means.

As Ernesti remarks,

“ Proper evidence respecting the usage of language SECTION VIII.

is sometimes wanting ; sometimes usage is variable THE SUBSIDIARY MEANS FOR DISCOVERING THE or inconstant, even in the same age, or in the same

writer ; or there is an ambiguity of language, or Direct Testimony not always Available or Satisfactory-Sub

sidiary Means; Scope of the Writer; Context of the Passage ; Analogy of Scripture --Emphasis-Of the Detection of Em- / Tactica Sacra, Bishop Horsley on Psalm ü. 4, and v. 3. phasis.

“Nothing is more frequent in the Psalms,” he remarks, “ than

that two verbs should have a common causal noun.” See also The two preceding sections have been devoted his note on Psalın ix. 18, and on xii. 3. Psalm x. I, and xiü. to a consideration of those sources which furnish 4, may also be referred to. In no part of the Bible, perhaps,

says Mr. Boys, do common references occur more frequently * On this subject the reader may consult, in addition to the than in the Psalms.


of grammatical forms; or an obscurity covers the tained from his own express or implied statement; subject or thing treated of; or novelty of language or, where this fails, from contemporary history. occurs; or a neglect of the usus loquendi, which (1) Where the author states the design of his sometimes happens, even in the most careful writing, it is, of course, more satisfactorily ascerwriters." * In these exigencies, other means must tained than it can be through any other media; be resorted to for eliciting the signification of words, and this is frequently done. and discovering the writer's meaning. Of these, (a) Sometimes the scope or design of a work the most important are, an examination of the will be found stated at its commencement; someHope of the author, of the conteat of the discourse, times, near its close; and at other times, in both and of the analogy of Scripture. A few remarks these places. Thus, John declares the scope or upon each of these topics may be submitted. design of his gospel in express terms :—“These,

I. THE SCOPE or DESIGN of the WRITER. are written that ye might beliere that Jesus is the

1. To compare the design or scope of an entire Christ, the Son of God; and that, believing, ye passage, with the particular part of the composi- might have life through his name,” ch. xx. 31. tion under consideration, will often be found an So Peter :—“ This second epistle, beloved, I now important aid to discover its meaning. Every write unto you; in which I stir up your pure part of the sacred volume was penned for the minds by way of remembrance; that ye may be attainment of a specific object; and a judicious mindful of the words which were spoken before writer will not often be found to say that which by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of is inconsistent with his design. If this can be us the apostles of our Lord and Saviour,” ch. iii. ascertained, therefore, we shall possess a clue to 1. The same may be remarked of John's first the import of the terms employed, where they are epistle, in which the writer declares, “These things at all ambiguous, and a means of elucidating the have I written unto you, concerning them that argument and illustration of the writer.

seduce you," ch. ii. 14. Sometimes the scope is 2. The use of this aid, it should be remarked, suggested by the title of the book; as in the Prorequires particular care, and must never be per- verbs : “The proverbs of Solomon, the son of mitted to supersede the employment of those David, king of Israel ; to know noisdom and inmeans of discovering the sense of words, which struction ; to perceive the words of understanding ; have been already discussed. To those means the to receive the instruction of wisdom, justice, judgfirst place must be assigned, since they relate to ment, and equity ; to give subtilty to the simple, to direct and positive testimony; and no meaning the young man knowledge and discretion," ch. i. which they have fairly elicited must be set aside 1–4.† Now, if these books be read with an eye by another meaning derived from the supposed steadily fixed upon the scope, thus pointed out by scope or design of the author. The aid derivable their respective authors, much force and beauty from the scope, will not be in such frequent requi- will be perceived, which would otherwise be lost. sition in the interpretation of the historical books, (1) More attention and care will be required as in that of the Psalms, the prophets, and the where the scope is only implied in the historical epistles; the method of the historian in those being circumstances mentioned by the writer. In illusdetermined by the order of time, or by the similarity tration of this remark, we may refer to the Epistle of events. Nevertheless, it is not to be altogether to the Colossians, the scope of which is to be laid aside, even in the study of the gospels, eluci- gathered from the circumstances 'referred to by dating, as it sometimes will do, those beautiful the apostle. (1) He expressly mentions (ver. 3 discourses and parables of our Saviour, which were 8) the conversion of the Colossians, effected under called forth by surrounding and local circum- the ministry of Epaphras; and the accounts which stances, and which had special reference to the had been given to him by that servant of God, character and pursuits of his immediate hearers. concerning the present state of their church. (2)

3. The scope of an author is commonly dis- He declares, in express terms (ch. ii. 1), that tinguished as being either general or special ; the he endured a great conflict for those churches former regards the entire work, and the latter, which he had not seen in the flesh; and amongst Jarticular passages. This distinction, however, the rest, for this church. No means, therefore, will not here be observed, as we are desirous to could have been adopted, better calculated to avoid burdening the memory with unnecessary strengthen the Colossians, than letters from himrules.

self, who was now absent, and a prisoner. (3) 4. The scope of a writer may generally be ascer- IIe intimates (ch, ii. 7, 8), that the church was

* Institutes, part I, sect. 11, ch' 2, $ 1.

+ Franck's Guide to the Study of the Scriptures, p. 75.

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