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No. 11.



Washington, D. C., 1868.

In reply to your inquiry for copies of the Documents and other publications of this Department, and especially of any Educational Tracts on the fundamental principles of Education, the Relations of the State to schools of any kind, and particularly of a Republican government to elementary schools, the Economical and Social Arguments in favor of Public Schools, and exhaustive and practical expositions of the Organization, Studies, Management, and Internal Work generally of Elementary Schools-for general distribution, and for reproduction in still more popular form in public addresses and newspaper articles, in States where these subjects have not yet been discussed, and are not understood and appreciated, the undersigned will state:

1. The only Documents of the Department which have yet been printed are the Special Circulars, asking for information, or explaining the policy of the Department, and the Monthly Official Circulars, which, owing to the small clerical force at his command, has not yet assumed the form which the Commis sioner designed, and each of which is more in the nature of a preliminary Report on the subject presented in the Special Circulars issued for the purpose of collecting information as the basis of a more elaborate treatment.

2. As the Plan of Publication projected by him, and set forth in Special Circular, No. 2, has not been presented in a formal way to secure as yet the consideration of Congress, the Commissioner has assumed the entire expense of printing these Monthly Official Circulars, except Nos. III, IV, and V, but has distributed them freely to such persons as expressed a desire to receive them, and to such as have applied for information respecting the subject of the Special Circular to which the number was devoted. Copies, both of the Monthly Circular, and of the Special Circulars, will be forwarded to you, and your coöperation in obtaining the information sought is respectfully solicited.

3. Articles, more or less exhaustive, on the several subjects specified in your letter, have been published by the undersigned, in the prosecution of his educational labors, as you will see by the Classified Index, (Chapters I, II, III,) in Monthly Circular, Number Two, any of which, so far as they can be furnished detached from bound volumes, will be sent to you without charge.

4. The publication of a series of Educational Tracts, made up partly from articles which have appeared, or which may hereafter appear in the American Journal of Education, or in the Monthly Circular, has been begun-which, as soon as arrangements can be made, will be supplied in orders for general distribution, at the cost of press-work and paper. It so happens that the first of this series is devoted to answers, by the highest authorities, to the question, What is Education? and the second is devoted mainly to an exposition of the American idea of Public Schools. Copies of these will be mailed to your address.

5. Many of the articles in the successive numbers of the American Journal of Education, have been struck off in pamphlet form, for wider distribution. The Commissioner has no pecuniary interest in this publicatiou, except to guarantee the Publisher against loss.

HENRY BARNARD, Commissioner.


It has been held that education, according to its etymology, means a drawing out of the faculties of the mind, not a mere accumulation of things in the memory; and this is probably substantially true; but yet the etymology of education is not, directly at least, educere, but educare. Again, education has been distinguished from information; which may well be done, as the word information is now used; but yet the word informare, at first, implied as fundamental an operation on the mind as educare; the forming and giving a defined form and scheme to a mere rude susceptibility of thought in the human mind. Again, we use the term learn, both of the teacher and the scholar. (Thus we have, Psalm cxix. 66 and 71, Learn me true understanding and knowledge; and I will learn thy laws.) But the German distinguishes these two aspects of the same fundamental notion by different forms-lehren and lernen; and in a more exact stage of English, one of these is replaced by another word, to teach; which, though it is not the representative of a word used in this sense in German, is connected with the German verb zeigen, to show, and zeichen, a sign or mark; and thus directs us to the French and other daughters of the Latin language, in which the same notion is expressed by enseigner, insegnare, ensenar; which come from the Latin insignire, and are connected with signum.


Education is the process of making individual men participators in the best attainments of the human mind in general: namely, in that which is most rational, true, beautiful, and good... the several steps by which man is admitted, from the sphere of his narrow individuality, into the great sphere of humanity; by which, from being merely a conscious animal, he becomes conscious of rationality; by which, from being merely a creature of sense, he becomes a creature of intellect; by which, from being merely a seeker of pleasurable sensations, he becomes an admirer of what is beautiful; by which, from being merely the slave of impulse, he becomes a reverencer of what is right and good. W. WHEWELL,

What is a man

If his chief good and market of his time

Be but to sleep and feed?-a beast, no more.

Sure, He that made us with such large discourse.

Looking before and after, gave us not

That capability and godlike reason

To rust in us unused.


In the bringing up of youth, there are three special points-truth of religion, honesty of living, and right order in learning. In which three ways, I pray God my poor children may walk.

ASCHAM. Preface to Schoolmaster.

Many examples may be put of the force of custom, both upon mir! and body; therefore, since custom is the principal magistrate of man's life, let men by all means endeavor to obtain good customs. Certainly, custom is most perfect when it beginneth in young years; this we call education, which is, in effect, but an early custom. So we see in languages, the tone is more pliant to all expressions and sounds, the jointsare more supple to all feats of activity and motions in youth than afterwards; for it is true, the late learners can not so well take up the ply, except it be in some minds that have not suffered themselves to fix, but have kept themselves open and prepared to receive continual amendment, which is exceeding rare: but the force of custom, copulate and conjoined, and collegiate, is far greater; for there example teacheth, company comforteth, emulation quickeneth, glory raiseth; so as in such places the force of custom is in his exaltation.

LORD BACON. Essays. Custom and Education.

I call a complete and generous education that which fits a man to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously all the offices, both private and public, of peace and war . . . inflamed with a study of learning, and the admiration of virtue; stirred up with high hopes of living to be brave men, and worthy patriots, dear to God, and famous to all ages.


The end of learning is to repair the ruins of our first parents, by regaining to know God aright, and out of that knowledge to love him, to imitate him, to be like him, as we may the nearest, by possessing our souls of true virtue, which being united to the heavenly grace of faith, makes up the highest perfection. JOHN MILTON.

First, there must precede a way how to discern the natural inclinations and capacities of children. Secondly, next must ensue the culture and furnishment of the mind. Thirdly, the molding of behavior and decent forms. Fourthly, the tempering of affections. Fifthly, the quickening and exciting of observations and practical judgment. Sixthly, and the last in order, but the principal in value, being that which must knit and consolidate all the rest, is the timely instilling of conscientious principles and seeds of religion. SIR HENRY WALTON.

How great soever a genius may be, and how much soever he may ac quire new light and heat, as he proceeds in his rapid course, certain it is, that he will never shine in his full luster, nor shed the full influence he is capable of, unless to his own experience he adds of other men and other ages. BOLINGBROKE

We are born under a law it is our wisdom to find it out, and our safety to comply with it. DR. WHICHCOTE.

Since the time that God did first proclaim the edicts of his law upon the world, heaven and earth have hearkened unto his voice, and their labor hath been to do his will. "He made a law for the rain;" he gave his "decree unto the sea, that the waters should not pass his commandment." Now, if nature should intermit her course, and leave altogether, though it were for a while, the observation of her own laws, if these principal and mother elements of the world, whereof all things in this lower world are made, should lose the qualities which they now have; if the frame of that heavenly arch erected over our heads, should loosen and dissolve itself; if celestial spheres should forget their wonted motions, and by irregular volubility turn themselves any way as it may happen; if the prince of the lights of heaven, which now, as a giant, doth run his unwearied course, should, as it were, through a languishing faintness, begin to stand, and to rest himself; if the moon should wander from her beaten way, the times and seasons of the year blend themselves by disordered and confused mixture, the winds breathe out their last gasp, the clouds yield no rain, the earth be defeated of her heavenly influence, the fruits of the earth pine away, as children at the withered breasts of their mother no longer able to yield them relief; what would become of man himself, whom these things do now all serve? See we not plainly, that obedience of creatures unto the law of nature is the stay of the whole world.

Of law there can be no less acknowledged, than that her seat is the bosom of God, her voice the harmony of the world; all things in heaven and earth do her homage, the very least as feeling her care, and the greatest as not exempted from her power; both angels, and men, and creatures of what condition soever, though each in different sort and manner, yet all with uniform consent, admiring her as the mother of their peace and joy. RICHARD HOOKER.

The knowledge of Languages, Sciences, Histories, &c., is not innate to us; it doth not of itself spring in our minds; it is not any ways incident by chance, or infused by grace (except rarely by miracle); common observation doth not produce it; it can not be purchased at any rate, except by that for which, it was said of old, the gods sell all things, that is, for pains; without which the best wit and the greatest capacity may not render a man learned, as the best soil will not yield good fruit or grain, if they be not planted nor sown therein. BR. BARROW.

Powers act but weakly and irregularly till they are hightened and perfected by their habits. DR. SOUTH.

As this life is a preparation for eternity, so is education a preparation for this life; and that education alone is valuable which answers these great primary objects. BISHOP SHORT.

Forasmuch as all knowledge beginneth from experience, therefore also new experience is the beginning of new knowledge, and the increase of experience the beginning of the increase of knowledge Whatsoever, therefore, happeneth new to a man, giveth him matter of hope of knowing somewhat that he knew not before. And this hope and expectation of future knowledge from any thing that happeneth new and strange, is that passion which we commonly call admiration; and the same considered as appetite, is called curiosity; which is appetite of knowledge. And from this beginning is derived all philosophy, as astronomy from the admiration of the course of heaven; natural philosophy from the strange effects of the elements and other bodies. And from the degrees of curiosity, proceed also the degrees of knowledge among men.


A sound mind in a sound body, is a short but full description of a happy state in this world.

Of all the men we meet with, nine parts often are what they are, good or evil, useful or not, by their education. It is that which makes the great difference in mankind. The little, or almost insensible, impressions on our tender infancies, have very important and lasting consequences and there it is, as in the fountains of some rivers where a gentle application of the hand turns the flexible waters in channels, that make them take quite contrary courses; and by this little direction, given them at first, in the source, they receive different tendencies, and arrive at least at very remote and distant places.

That which every gentleman, that takes any care of his education, desires for his son, is contained in these four things: Virtue, Wisdom, Good-breeding and Learning. I place virtue as the first and most necessary of these endowments that belong to a man or a gentleman, as absolutely requisite to make him valued and beloved by others, acceptable or tolerable to himself. Without that, I think, he will be happy neither in this nor the other world.

It is virtue, direct virtue, which is the head and valuable part to be aimed at in education. All other considerations and accomplishments should give way, and be postponed, to this. This is the solid and substantial good, which tutors should not only read lectures, and talk of; but the labor and art of education should furnish the mind with, and fasten there, and never cease till the young man had a true relish of it, and placed his strength, his glory, and his pleasure in it.

As the strength of the body lies chiefly in being able to endure hardships, so also does that of the mind. And the great principle and foundation of all virtue and worth lies in this, that a man is able to deny himself his own desires, cross his own inclinations, and purely follow what reason directs as best, though the appetite lean the other way. JOHN LOCKE. Thoughts on Education.

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