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this country, while health is often trified with. / dreds of lateral channels ; below it is a tranquil The multitude either have no disposition or no stream of a totally different character. Its mouths time to adopt the course best calculated to in- seem to be closing. The southermost was navi. vigorate both body and mind, and thus to length-gable wben the Portuguese first arrived in the en out the span of human existence.—Pennsyl- country, 300 years ago, but it has long since vania Inquirer.
ceased to be practicable. The Quillimane mouth has of late years been impassible, even for a
canoe, from Jaly to February, and for 200 to 300 DR. LIVINGSTONE'S DISCOVERIES.
miles up the river, navigation is never attempted The secret of Africa has ceased to be. That in the dry season. And in this very month of mysterious quarter of the globe, last in civiliza- July, when the lower portion of the river, after tion-for in the geography of human advance- its April freshets, has shrunk to a mere driblet, ment, as well as in physical geography, Egypt above the falls the river spreads out like a sea has always been a part of Asia—fortified against over hundreds of square miles. This, with freforeigners by its compact form, its fatal fevers, quent cataracts, and the hostility of the natives, the fabulous savagery of its inhabitants, and would seem to be an effectual bar to the high more than all, the uncertain terror which is hopes of fat trade and fillibustering in which everywhere projected like a shadow from the English merchants and journals are now indulg. unknown, has, within a few years past, lost a ing. great part of its Know Nothing character. The During this unprecedented march, alone and sources of the Nile have been almost reached. among savages, to whom a white face was a The countries to the south of Sahara have been miracle, Dr. Livingstone was compelled to strugcrossed and recrossed by white men. Steam gle through indescribable hardships. The hoshas vexed a thousand miles of the waters of the tility of the natives he conquered by his intiNiger, and Tribunes have been regularly sent to mute knowledge of their character, and the within three or four hundred miles of the geo- Bechuana tongue to which their's is related. Ho graphical center of the country. North of the waded rivers and slept in the sponge and ooze Cape of Good Hope, Lake Ngami has recently of marshes, being often so drenched as to be added something to our knowledge, and its dis- 1 compelled to turn his armpit into a watch pocket. coverer, Dr. Livingstone, is now astonishing the His cattle were destroyed by the terrible tse-tse lovers of heroic perseverance and perfect maps, fly and he was too poor to purchase a canoe. by bis details of a walk of 2,000 miles, from Lions were numerous, being worshipped by many St. Paul de Loando, on the Atlantic, to Quilli- of the tribes as the receptacles of the departed mane, on the Indian Ocean.
souls of their chiefs; dangerous, too, as his Dr. Livingstone is nearly forty years old. His crushed arm testifies. However, he thinks the face is furrowed by hardships and thirty fevers, fear of African wild beasts greater in England and black with exposure to a burning sun. His than in Africa. Many of his documents were left arm is crushed and nearly helpless from the lost while crossing a river in which he came near too cordial embrace of an African Lion, and sixteen losing his life also, but he has memoranda of the years among savages have given him an African latitudes and longitudes of a multitude of cities, accent and great hesitancy in speaking English. towns, rivers and mountains, which will go far to Passing through all privations with the heart of fill up the “unknown region” in our atlases. a true hero, not as sacrifices, but as victories, he Toward the interior he found the country reached St. Paul de Loando, in May, 1851, after a more fertile and more populous. The natives foot journey of a thousand miles from his mis- worshipped idols, believed in transmigrated exsion among the Bechuanas. He remained at istence after death, and performed religious cereSt. Loando until the clase of the year, when he monies in groves and woods. They were less set out for the unknown East. In March he ferocious and suspicious than the sea-board arrived at Quillimane, where he was taken up by tribes, had a tradition of the deluge and more a British man of war. On his way he traced the settled Governments. Some of them practiced Leeambye down to the Zambeze, thus demon. inoculation, and used quinine, and all were eager strating the existence in the center of this un. for trade, being entirely dependent on English known land of a river some two thousand miles calico for clothing, a small piece of which would long.
I purchase a slave. Their language was sweet and This immense stream, whose discovery is the expressive. Although their women, on the great fruit of the journey, is in itself an enigma whole, were not well treated, a man baving as without parallel. But a small portion of its many wives as he chose, they were complete waters reach the sea-coast. Like the Abyssinian mistresses of their own houses and gardens, which Nile, it falls through a basaltic cleft, near the the husband dare not enter in his wife's absence. middle of its course, which reduces its breadth They were fond of show and glitter, and as much from 1,000 to 20 yards. Above these falls it as $150 had been given for an English rifle. On spreads out periodically into a great sea, filling hun. the arid plateaus of the interior, water-melons
at day of the Second month, Building is the reader ciencies of others,
supplied the place of water for some months of Philadelphia, held at Cherry Street, was deemed the year, as they do on the plains of Hungary in sufficient for the purpose designed. There has Summer. A Quaker tribe on the river Zanga, | been over $16.000 collected by the Monthly never fight, never have consumption, scrofula, hydrophobia, cholera, small-pox or measles.
r' measles. Meeting, independent of the proceeds of the sale These advantages, however, are counterbalanced of their property; and about $31,000 on behalf by the necessity of assiduous devotion to trade of the Yearly Meeting: there is still from one to and raising children to make good their loss
two thousand dollars necessary to close up the from the frequent inroads of their fighting neigh
subscriptions. Many of the Monthly Meetings Dr. Livingstone's discoveries, in their character have paid their full proportion, whilst some and their commercial value, have been declared others are deficient, not having forwarded the by Sir Roderic Murchison to be superior to any amount subscribed. It should be borne in mind since the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, that members of the committee aprointed by the by Vasco de Gama. But greater than any commercial value is the lesson which they teach
Yearly Meeting, assumed a personal responsibility —that all obstacles yield to a resolute man.
to the amount of six hundred dollars and upTribune.
wards, provided the whole sum of $33,000, was
not subscribed. And that in addition to the FRIENDS' INTELLIGENCER. duties which have devolved upon them as a com
mittee, they may be called on as individuals to PHILADELPHIA FIRST MONTH 24, 1857.
raise a sum of money which might readily be THE NEW MEETING HOUSE.—It may be a
obtained by proper care on the part of some of matter of interest to many of our readers to learn
the Monthly Meetings composing the Yearly that the North Room of the new Meeting House
Meeting. It does not seem reasonable that is ready for occupation, and that it is proposed
members who have paid a full proportion of to hold the first meeting for worship there on money, and given their time and services for the
purpose of providing better accomodations for The middle portion or Central Building is the Yearly Meeting, should be called on to make also nearly completed, and will probably be ready up the deficiencies of others, and we should sinfor use during the present month. The South Icerely regret the necessity of such a course. Room is not so nearly finished, and it will pro
nished, and it will pro The next meeting of the committee will be bably be some weeks before the carpenter work
work held on the 13th of the 3d month, and it is parand the painting will be completed; an additional
ticularly desirable to have all the subscriptions number of workmen are now employed in this
paid in at that time, so as to enable the compart of the building, and the committee having
mittee to close up the accounts as far as practicable the work in charge have no doubt of the whole
previous to the time of holding the Yearly being finished timely enough for holding the Meeting. next Yearly Meeting. The ground around the building needs grading and paving, but this On the 15th of the present month we had work cannot be done to any advantage until another painful exhibition of the operation of spring opens, and the frost is out of the ground. the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.
The cost of the lots and building, with an David Paul Brown, Jr., Commissioner of the outlet of twenty feet to Race Street, as first con- United States, granted a requisition to the Mar. templated, will not exceed the estimates, and it shall of the Eastern district of Pennsylvania, is very desirable that the balance of the subscrip- upon which his officers seized a young man tion should be early paid into the hands of the named Michael Brown, aged about 25 years, who Treasurer.
it was alleged escaped as a slave from Baltimore It may be recollected that the Yearly Meeting in 1850. The history of the case, and the arguundertook to raise the sum of $33,000, and the ments of Counsel, occupied the attention of the Monthly Meeting $15,000, by subscriptions, and Commissioner for two days, after which a warrant that these two sums, together with the amount was granted, and the fugitive remanded to his to be raised from the sale of the property hereto- claimant in Maryland. It is now more than six fore held by the Monthly Meeting of Friends of years since this iniquitous law was passed by
Congress to satisfy the demands of the South, \ position where they will not be affected by its with special reference to the claims of slave provisions. holders. Notwithstanding that every facility has The History of Friends' Almanac” has been been furnished, and the party claimed as a slave received, but cannot appear without the name is denied the opportunity of being heard in his
of the writer. own defence, the uppopularity of the law in the free States, and the difficulties which have been MARRIED,At Duck Creek Meeting of Friends, Ind.
on the 17th of 9th month, 1856, EDWARD ROBERTS, of thrown in the way of the claimant, has rendered
Fall Creek, to Mary ANN ALLEN, of the former place. its execution in many sections of the country | - , On the 19th of 11th month, at the same place,
HENRY HOOVER to Ann Cook, both residents of almost impossible, and but very few persons
of the vicinity of Huntsville, Madison Co., Indiana. "held to service or labor” have been returned to - , On the 25th of 12th month, at Fall Creek bondage under its provisions.
Meeting of Friends, WILLIAM F. Morris, of Wayne
Co., Ind., to MARY ELLEN Swain, of Fall Creek. At the time of its passage, an abstract of this cruel law was published and freely commented
CHINESE SUGAR CANE. upon in the pages of this Journal, and it is not.
The following account of the Chinese Sugar
The following acco needful to reiterate our abhorrence of an act |
Cane is from a circular issued by the United which so long as it remains on our Statute Book,
States Patent Office, to the different State agriwill justly subject our country to the reproach
cultural societies in the United States, accomand scorn of the civilzed world. While we have
panied by a parcel of the seed, sufficient to culstood aloof from any participation in the execution
Poention tivate sixteen acres, with the view of extending of this enactment, it becomes us to consider
the culture of this plant in the several States. whether we are embracing every opening that
This new plant seems to be destined to take an
| important position among our economical promay present for its repeal. The principles we ducts. Its seeds were sent some six years ago profess forbid a resort to physical force for the from the North of China, by M. de Montigny redress of grievances, but we have it in our power to the Geographical Society of Paris. From a curto exert a moral influence which is far greater sory examination of a small field of it, growing at and more efficient than the use of carnal weapons. D. J. Browne, then on a mission from this office for
Verrières in France in the Autumn of 1854, Mr. The individual members of our Society in collecting agricultural information and products, common with the other religious professors, was led to infer that, from the peculiarity of the may exert an influence not only by example, but climate in which it was growing and its resem
blance to Indian corn, it would flourish in any by earnest remonstrance with our legislators, by region wherever that plant would thrive. From whom this law was passed, and by whom only it this source he obtained some 200 pounds of the can be repealed. A bright example is furnished us seed, which was distributed in small packages by in the history of our worthy predecessors, who this Office among Members of Congress, with firmly and meekly protested against the evils of
the view of experimenting with it in all parts of their day which were sanctioned by law.
the Union, and thereby ascertaining its adapta
They tion to the soil and climate, and its economical suffered the loss of property and a separation from value in the United States. In numerous inall that was near and dear in life, when iniquitous stances the results proved highly satisfactory, as laws came in conflict with their religious convic. it attained the height of twelve or fifteen feet as tions, and their faithful protests addressed to far north as St. Paul, Minnesota, and matured
lits seeds at various points in Massachusetts, Newthose in authority, and their willingness to suffer, York Pennsylvania and Minois. The following was often the means of softening the hearts of year, while in France on a similar mission as the oppressor, and producing a favorable result. above, Mr. Browne obtained several bushels of We would take occasion to remark that the
the seed of this plant, grown from that reputed
to have been brought from South Africa by Mr. young colored man who has thus been consigned Leonard Wray of London, and which has since to bondage, imprudently remained in this city, proved to be identical with that obtained in 1854. where he was recognized by some of his former There appears to be a doubt among many in acquaintances; and we would extend à caution to Europe, as well as in this country, as to the true
botanical name of this plant. M. Louis Vilmorin, those interested, that the colored people who are
who are a scientific cultivator of Paris, provisionally gave in danger of being brought under the operation it the name of Holcus saccharatus, which had of this law, be advised to place themselves in a previously been applied to the common broom
corn, if not to other species, or at least varieties, ter, they would produce new plants the following of some allied plant. He also conjectured that Spring. It stands drouth far better than Indian it might be the Sorghum Vulgare (Andropogon corn, and will resist the effects of considerable sorghum of others, and thought that it might frost without injury, after the pannicles appear, comprehend a variety as well as Andropogon, but not in its younger and more tender state. If cafra, bicolor, etc., of Kunth. Mr. Wray, who suffered to remain in the field after the seeds has devoted much time and attention to the cul- have ripened and been removed, when the season tivation of this plant, with the view of extracting is sufficiently warm and long, new pannicles will sugar from its juice, at Cape Natal and other shoot out at the topmost joints, one or more to places, states that, in the south-east part of Caf- each stalk, and mature a second crop of seeds. fraria, there are at least fifteen varieties of it, The average yield of seed to each pannicle is at some of them growing to a height of twelve and least a gill. fifteen feet with stems as thick as those of the Since its introduction into this country, the sugar-cane (Saccharum officinale.) M. Vilmorin Chinese sugar cane has proved itself well adapted also says that in a collection of seeds sent to the to our geographical range of Indian corn. It is Museum of Natural History at Paris, in 1840, of easy cultivation, being similar to that of by M. d'Abadrè, there were thirty kinds of sorg- maize or broom-corn, but will prosper in a much hum, among the growth of which he recognized poorer soil. It does not succeed so well, how. several plants having stems of a saccharine flavor. ever, when sown broadcast with the view of proOthers are of the opinion that the common ducing fodder, as it will not grow to much more broom corn (Holcus saccharatus,) the chocolate than one half of its usual height. If the seeds or Guinea-corn (Sorghum Vulgare), and the Chi. are planted in May, in the Middle States, or still nese sugar cane (Sorghum saccharatum,) all of earlier at the South, two crops of fodder can be which contain more or less saccharine matter, grown in a season from the same roots—the first one belong to the same species, but are variations in June or July, to be cut before the pannicles apcaused by differences of soil and climate, or by pear, which would be green and succulent, like a disposition to sport after the manner of Indian young Indian corn, and the other a month or two corn, and other plants under cultivation. The later, at the time or before the seed is fully maChinese sugar-cane differs from the others, in tured. In the extreme Northern States, where containing a far larger proportion of juice, and the season is too short and cool to ripen the seeds consequently is more valuable for fodder and in the open air, the cultivator will necessarily other economical uses.
have to obtain his seed from regions further In 1776, a plant analogous to the one in ques- south. If it were important for bim to raise his tion, was experimented upon at Florence, in own seed, he could start the plants under glass Italy, by Pietro Arduino, for the extraction of in the Spring, and remove them to the field or sugar; yet it must have been of a different va- garden at about the period of planting Indian riety, as he describes its seeds as of a clear, corn, after which they would fully mature. Two brown color, while those of the Chinese sugar- quarts of seed are found to be sufficient to plant cane are of a shining jet black, in appearance an acre. If the soil be indifferent or poor, they identical with those of the sorghum vulgare of may be planted in rows or drills three feet apart, the old collections.
with the plant from ten to twelve inches asunThe Chinese sugar-cane, when cultivated on der; but if the soil be rich, they may be planted ordinary land in the United States, somewhat in hills, five or more seeds to each, four or five after the manner of broom-corn, grows to a height feet apart in one direction, and three or four in of from eight to sixteen feet, while in Europe it the other. The plants may be worked or hoed does not attain more than half this altitude. Its twice in the course of a season, in a similar manstems are straight and smooth, often covered with ner to Indian corn. Any suckers or superfluous a white bloom or down, having leaves somewhat shoots which may spring up should be removed. flexuous, falling over and greatly resembling in the seed should not be harvested before it acappearance those of Indian corn, but more ele- quires a dark or black hue. Should the plants lodge gant in its form. Where cultivated in hills, or fall to the ground by the excessive weight of the containing eight or ten stalks each, it puts forth heads, during storms of wind or rain, before the at its top a conical pinnacle of dense flowers seed matures, they may remain for weeks withgreen at first, but changing into violet shades, out injury. In collecting the seed, a convenient and finally into dark purple, at maturity. In method is to cut off the stalks about a foot below France, and in the central and northern sections the papnicles, tie them up in bunches of twentyof the United States, it has thus far proved an five, and suspend them in any secure, airy place annual; but, from observations made by M. sheltered from rain. If intended solely for fodVilmorin, as well as some experiments in our der, the first crop should be cut just before the Southern States, it is conjectured that, from the pannicles would appear, and the second as soon vigor and fulness of the lower part of the stalks as the seed arrives at the milky stage. It may be in Autumn, by protecting them during the Win-1 tied up in bundles, shocked and cured like the tops or stalks of Indian corn. If not intended ple lunatics into raving madmen. Supposing it to be employed for any other economical use, were possible to construct a microscope that after the seed has been removed, and the weather should magnify, say a bull-dog, only sixty diamebe cool, and the average temperature of the day ters, and that there were eyes capable of using does not exceed 45 deg. or 50 deg. F., the stalks such a microscope—what a monstrous bull-dog may be cut up close to the ground, tied in bundles, the image would be. Dr. Lardner coolly discollected into shocks, or stowed in a mass for courses of “the superior class of instruments, fodder in sheds or barns in a succulent state, where magnifying power is pushed to so extreme where they will keep without injury, if desired, a limit as fifteen hundred or two thousand.” Of until Spring. In this condition, however, the course first-class microscopes such as these delower parts of the stalks will be found to be quite mand the most masterly skill from the optician, hard and woody, and will require to be chopped and are affected by infinitesimally small deinto small pieces for feeding.
rangements. Mr. Quekett gives drawings of Particular care should be observed not to cul- Naviculæ magnified twelve hundred and two tivate this plant in the vicinity of Dourah corn, thousand diameters respectively ; only making Guinea corn, nor broom-corn, as it hybridizes, or you wish for a good microscope to bear upon mixes freely with those plants, which would these, the magnified drawings. render the seeds of the product unfit for sowing. Again, for your comfort, dear reader, with
Specimens of the sugar and molasses produced limited means like myself, one of the first mifrom this cane in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, croscopists living, M. le Dr. Ch. Robin, tells and other Northern States, and numerous letters you that the magnifying power of the microscope attesting its great value, have reached this city.— can reach as far as a thousand or eleven hundred N. Y. Tribune.
real diameters; that faulty modes of mensuration have been the only cause of making people
believe they had obtained more considerable amMICROSCOPICS.
plifying powers. It ought, moreover, to be [Copcluded from page 702.]
known, he says, that when once eight hundred Leeuwenhoek's plan of having a multiplicity diameters are passed, object-glasses and eyeof instruments is a good one, for many reasons. glasses which magnify further, fail to show the Only to mention two; first, the saving of the slightest novelty; not that the light is absolutely time required to screw on, and unscrew, object- too feeble, or the colors of the object too diffuse, glasses. Secondly, the feebler instrument will but simply because nothing additional is perceived act as a finder for the stronger. It will play the beyond what was seen at seven or eight jackal to the lion, and often inform you whether hundred diameters. It very rarely or never there is anything worth looking at. In justice, happens that there is any need to go beyond six be it added, that, in this country, Mr. Ross, and hundred diameters for pathological observations; also Messrs. Powell and Lealand, enjoy a cele- which in general require the highest magnifying brity as microscope-makers, which they would powers. Bear in mind, also, what Leeuwenhoek not have attained if they had not deserved it : did with a hundred and sixty diameters as his while, in Paris, M. Nachet's name is in every extreme power. Look at a cheese-mite with a microscopist's mouth. There is an old-fashioned, power of thirty only, and you will be astonished little, simple, pocket microscope for transparent if you have never so seen one before. Students, objects only— Wilson's, who flourished about whose aims at starting are not quite extraordinseventeen hundred-which is a great favorite ary, will learn more than they can anticipate in with many a peripatetic Paul Pry, and which their wildest dreams, if they have at hand the is so convenient and entertaining as to be worth means of magnifying an object two hundred and purchasing-good and cheap-when it falls in fifty diameters, at the outside. Nevertheless, it your way in its antique mounting.
is good for them to be able to get at a more The more powerful and refined the instrument, powerful instrument from time to time. the more difficult is its management, and the If you can, get the maker himself to show you greater are the skill and tact required to make the special mode of handling the instrument you it of any service to its owner. The apparent in select. Generally, the thing to be viewed, on a crease of size given to an object is usually spoken slip of glass, is held down on the stage by of in diameters, or the linear measure across it springs, or is slipped through grooves, something in any direction. Thus, fancy a circle magnified like the painted sides of a magic lantern. In to another which has a hundred times its original order that it should be clearly seen, the instrudiameter, and you have an increase of some con- ment must be brought to its exact focus (the siderable importance. A moon shining in the Latin word for fire-place,) or the point where the heavens with a diameter a hundred times that converging and concentrated rays meet, and of our own monthly moon, or fifty degrees across, which is, in fact, the point at which a burninginstead of half a degree, would be enough to glass becomes incendiary. First, the approximake every sane man a lunatic, and convert sim- mate or rough focus is found, either by slipping