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One feature of the section was the exhibition of school work sent ip by the cities of Sheboygan and Two Rivers. It consisted of work done on a kindergarten basis from the lower grade of the high school.

Miss E. STRICKLAND, Sec'y.. School Board Section,

Wm. Meyst, Chairman, The meeting of delegates from the various school boards of Wisconsin opened at Milwaukee on the morning of December 30th. William Meyst presided and Delos A. Fowle acted as secretary. The attendance was large and the various boards of the state were well represented. State Superintendent Emery opened the meeting with an address of welcome in which he pointed out the importance of school administrative work and the power of organization. He gave statistics showing the enormous amount of money expended in the United States for the maintenance of the public school system, every dollar of which must necessarily pass through the hands of school boards. He commended the members present for their zeal and earnestness, and hoped that their good work would continue in the future as it had in the past.

An invitation extended by the citizens of Milwaukee to attend the National Educational Association meeting was then read and accepted.

An address entitled “How Shall School Boards be Chosen" was delivered by Wm Geo. Bruce. The topic was ably discussed by Mr. P. H. Perkins, of West Superior; Hon. G. D. Jones, Wausau; H. C. Flett, Racine; F. M. Givens, Fond du Lac, and Carl Doerflinger, Milwaukee.

A committee on nominations, consisting of F. M. Givens, E. H. Sprague and W. G. Bruce, was then appointed.

At the afternoon session the following officers were elected for the ensuing year:

President-P H Perkins, West Superior.
First Vice-President-F. W. Watson, Fond du Lac.
Second Vice-President-A J. Frame, Waukesha.
Secretary-Wm Geo. Bruce, Milwaukee

Executive Committee—Thomas M. Blackstock, Sheboygan; N. H Snow, Mineral Point; D. H Flett. Racine.

Upon motion the officers of the State Teachers' Associa. tion were to be requested to provide for more suitable quarters next year in the main building where all sectional meetings were being held.

Hon. A. J. Lindemann read a paper on "The National School Board Movement," reciting its history and the transactions of its first meeting at Buffalo. The paper was listened to with interest, and came largely in response to many inquiries as to the full import of the national movement.

Hon. G. B. Jones then read an exhaustive paper on the "Pepsioning of Teachers ” He vigorously opposed the idea of granting pensions to teachers; described the conditions under which pensions are granted in Europe; drew a comparison with the schoolmaster of that country and the school. mistress of the United States. He described the various pensions now in vogue, and held that an injustice is wrought against the young teachers who are compelled to contribute to the maintenance of the older workers.

A vote of thanks was extended to those who delivered addresses and to the retiring officers.

Private School Section.

W. S. Axtell, Chairman. Soon after the appointed time, the meeting of the Private School Section of the Wisconsin Teachers' Association was called to order, with the chairman and all the speakers present, and two or three persons as audience. It being manifest that there would be no attendance worthy of the time and effort, the section adjourned to attend other sections.

Following is a synopsis of a paper prepared for the section: Denominational Schools AS College PreparatORY

Schools, Dr. Rufus C. Flagg. Education involves training. Educators must evoke the powers and guide the development of youth into large and symmetrical manhood. Educators necessarily fall into two

companies, differing with respect to controlling ideals. In one class are those who would have young people educated simply as prospective citizens. They should be prepared for social, political and industrial duties. The state itself is such an educator; and it must of necessity maintain neutrality and indifference with respect to all ideals of education not having exclusive regard to the production of good citizens. In the second company are those educators who say that men stand in relation not only to each other in or. ganized society, but also, and primarily, to God. That is, men are not only political beings, but also, and more, they are religious beings. Ideals ruling in his education should be derived partly from his political relations, but even more from the truths of religion. These ideals should be present and constitute the atmosphere of student life.

These two companies of educators differ after the manner of two overlapping but not concentric circles. They are asunder to what is central and essential but in agreement as to almost everything «Ise. It is the type of character resulting in each that is different. These two classes of educators can not be combined into a single system. Both companies admit this. The state may further secular interests; the church or private initiative must further religious interests. By necessity, then, both the church and the state must take a hand in education; the state for its secular pur. poses, the church for its religious. For the church to abandon its educational function would be to give the field to that secular conception of things which in her mind is, in the long run, mischievous.

The proper attitude of these two companies is to be that of a friendly, generous, determined rivalry. The contest will be long and severe. Each class of schools needs a strong competitor for its own healthful and useful development. One function of a preparatory school is to select those whom it will advance to the college grade. The Christian seeks for the lad of moral earnestness, for the lad of moral as well as mental "pairts." The youth who comes from such a school is apt to come not only with scholastic training, but also with a strong purpose to be of use, and a feeling of responsibility to God. It is of immense advantage to the colleges to have this kind of material selected and forwarded to them; for there is a need and a demand that the institutions of higher learning become centers of a more strenuous moral and spiritual life.

Normal Section.

Pres. Pray, Chairman. Chairman Pray opened the meeting with a few introductory remarks, stating the object of the meeting to be a conference of normal teachers for discussion and mutual benefit.

The topic. "Observation in the Model School,” was presented by a representative of each of the seven normal schools in a ten minute talk. Each speaker reported upon observation work in his school under the following questions: Observation. What Is It? What is its Object? What are the Results, how Presented or Accomplished in your School?

Prof. Hewitt represented the Oshkosh school. He outlined the professional work of the school as school management, observation, practice, psychology, history and science of education. Observation work lasts about eight weeks. Owing to difficulties in coordination of observation with the program, no observation by the whole class is required. The work of student practice teachers is observed as well as that of the department teacher. Members of the class are given blanks which, when filled out, constitute a report of classes visited. From eight to twenty sketches are required from each student. The object of observation stated to be to present models of good teaching, followed by discussion with supervisor. Observation of practice work defended on the ground of necessity and also of benefits derived.

Pres. Harvey of Milwaukee, outlined the work of that school. The work was reported to be very similar to that of the Oshkosh school, with the addition of observation of the public schools. He reported an experiment tried there of puttiog five weeks of observation in last quarter of senior year as being highly successful and worth more than five weeks of practice at that time. The observation class accompanies the supervisor to the model department to obProf. Sanford, Stevens Point, illustrated exemplification of method of department teacher, by his own work in his. tory. He aims to break the bondage of the single textbook. This leads to the library and to comparison of au. thors' views, also to enlargement of students' views, broadening of students' methods and a cultivation of the spirit of investigation and research.

Prof. Mitchell, Milwaukee, emphasized the thought that the normal teacber must be conscious of psychological principles involved in his work. He must not only teach his subject, but must leave consciously and intentionally with the class the psychological principles exemplified. These principles must not be left to the chance of the student's inference. Every member of the faculty should pick of the threads of the psychology class and weave into a whole.

The general discussion was confined to the question as to whether the student's attention should be consciously directed to the method used. It was participated in by Prof. Shutts, Pres. Albee, Prof. Ewing, Prof. Harvey, and Pres. Parker. The latter asserted that every department teacher is an exemplar whether he will or not, that there was no real difference of opinion or practice in the seven normal schools on this question, all seeming differences were trifling and easily reconciled. Meeting adjourned.

County Superintendents' Section.

David Throne, Chairman.

The section was called to order by the chairman, Sup't Throne, of Rock county.

Sup't Nye, Grant county, read a paper on "Some needed changes in the Laws Governing the Certification of Teach

ers."

serve work and then returns to the recitation room to discuss the work. Students are expected to state the purpose of the recitation and how it was carried out. They discuss the methods and means used.

Prof. McGregor of Platteville, spoke from the standpoint of what ought to be, rather than what is. He held that the student who observes is entitled to have his observation di rected to the best the school affords. This would preclude observation of fellow students' work,

Pres. Parker of River Falls, explained the seemingly prolonged observation work of that school, thirty weeks being given to it in the first year. The main consideration here is the enormous first year class who will never touch the school again. The inception of the work is physiologicalHow do you see? How do you hear? The purpose being to establish somewhat the power of introspection. The work following is much the same as at Oshkosh, with the exception that there is no observation of practice work. A thesis on some pedagogical subject coming as a result of self-directed individual research and observation is required of each student in fourth year class.

Pres. McNeil reported for Superior normal. Before one can observe with profit, he must know for what to look, and then know what to do with it. He held that the most profit able observation comes after failure in practice. The object of the work is to teach pupils to do the right thing in the right way.

Pres. Salisbury of Whitewater, spoke of the small amount of actual observation work done in that school owing to difficulties of coordination of programs. He doubts the value of lessons given for "show'' purposes. The main work of the observation class the first quarter is upon the "Manual" for country schools. Students go to model schools for the purpose of seeing the Manual exemplified. This is merely the objective method of getting an understanding of it. He is very strongly opposed to observation of practice work, sees nothing but evil coming out of it. Pres. Pray, Stevens Point, reported the Manual to be the

Point reported the Manual to be the basis of the work there as being the one guide which the teacher of the country school has. In other respects his report of work done in Stevens Point coincided in the main with the others given.

The general discussion was participated in by Prof. Harvey of Superior, Mrs. Bloomfield of Milwaukee, Prof. Hewitt of Oshkosh.

Topic-The Normal Department Teacher as an Exemplar of Method. Opened by Prof. Shutts, of Whitewater. The department teacher should not be an exemplar of method except under normal conditions, that is, where subject matter is adapted to maturity and advancement of class. Department teachers' work is twofold-academic and professional. Subject should be studied completely by pupil, that is, so he can present it to another. The depart. ment teacher often directs his attention to the one reciting to the neglect of the remainder of the class. Pupils should be trained to follow a recitation closely. Normal schools should not attempt to do the work of the other schools. Academic work may be done, but must be done for professional purposes.

Prof. Harvey, of Superior, objected to the term department teacher, as in harmonious with the idea of the unity of the normal school. The methods which a normal teacher should exemplify are methods adaptable to the public schools. The methods should be based upon a conscious. ness of the purpose for which the subject is taught and the pedagogical content of the subject taught. He illustrated the thought by an outline of purposes sought in teaching zoology

Prof. Sims, of River Falls, spoke of the two ends which the normal student has in view---acquisition of knowledge, and of methods. Two things are to be kept in mind-the end to be secured and the means to that end. The teacher may be an exemplar in his own knowledge of the subject and in his economy of energy in presentation and clearness of presentation of essentials of subject taught. The essentials should be presented sometime during pursuance of the subject. Normal schools err in emphasizing too strongly the inductive method. Too much presentation of things in the concrete may exclude activity of the mind in other directions

ABSTRACT 1. The surplus of teachers is caused mainly by the low standard fixed for third grade certificates.

2. Two examinations in each year in each inspection district are unnecessary. One term of examination in the fall by the superintendent then one or more examinations held at the county seat in the spring would give better results.

3. Raise the standard of qualifications for third grade certificates and grant not more than three to the same person.

4. Add school law to the requirements for certificate of any grade.

5. Require six months successful experience for a second grade certificate and one year for first grade.

6. Create a special certificate called primary certificate, requiring one year successful experience in primary work, and special qualifications, issue for three years with privilege of reissue without examination if practicable. Limited to primary and intermediate grades.

7. Fix minimum age of teacher at eighteen years by legislative enactment.

Discussion was opened by Sup't A. J. Smith, Waukesha county. To have the examinations held prior to June 30th in each year would leave the teacher free for summer vacation, and the superintendent for the work of inspection. It would be well to add school law to the requirements. Progressive examinations and credits were recommended.

The discussion was continued by Sup't L. D. Roberts, Shawano county. His paper was read by Sup't Nattrass, La Fayette county.

Sup't Roessler, Sauk county: School boards engage teachers holding third grade certificates in preference to those holding second or first grades, because they can get them cheaper. A bound copy of the school law, the Manual of the Course of Study, and a copy of the Election Laws, should be placed in each district school library.

Sup't Havenor, Wood county: It is wrong to require each teacher to write every year on the subjects he does not use. Primary teachers should be exempt from certain work. The best test in reading is the result achieved in actual school work, and cannot be made in a written or an oral examination.

Sup't Williams, Kewaunee county: Will not excusing from examination increase the number of sluggish temperament in the work?

Sup't Nye, Grant county: The thought was not to excuse i

BOOK TABLE. teachers from work, but to require additional work in drawing, music and calisthenics. Sup't G. G. Williams, Douglas county: Let teachers be

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. exempt from reexamination in those subjects in which they

--The Riverside LITERATURE Series has won for itself have shown themselves proficient, and require instead exam.

wide acceptance as a most attractive, cheap and convenient ination in general and professional literature, the superin

form of school classics. Five new numbers have come to tendent announcing in time for preparation, the books upon which examination may be had in place of subjects

our table bound in brown muslin and sold at twenty-five

cents each. They are: No. 100, Burke's Speech ON CONexempted

CILIATION WITH THE COLONIES, edited by Robert Anderson, Sup't Nye: The county superintendent has no legal

who has provided a biographical sketch of Burke; an anright to fix an age limit.

alysis of the argument, and a careful and useful statement of Ex-Sup't Kelly: The personality, the common sense,

the rhetorical principles illustrated by the speech, with such and the rugged integrity of the county superintendent will

explanatory foot notes as are needed by young students; accomplish more than can ever be brought about by law,

No. 101, Pope's ILIAD, books I, VI, XXII, XXIV, with an Paper-Sup't J. F. Shaw, Pierce county: Methods in

introduction discussing Pope's translation and the circumSchool Visitation. Discussion-Sup't Taylor, Waushara county: Visit most

stances which made it such as it is, followed by a brief an

alysis of the whole poem; No. 102, MACAULAY's JOHNSON often the poorly prepared teachers, and the new ones. Sug

AND GOLDSMITH, edited by W. P. Trent, with an introducgest to district boards the things that are needful concern

tion discussing Macaulay's life and merits as a writer and ing changes in outbuildings, etc. Give attention to those

considerable foot-notes; No. 103, MACAULAY's Essay ON things which suggest weakness.

MILTON, by the same editor and on the same plan; and Sup't Keeley, Washington county; It is a good plan to call a teachers' meeting in the vicinity where the superin

No. 104, MACAULAY's ESSAY ON ADDISON, with the same

editor. tendent has been visiting, and discuss the work seen.

Sup't Havenor, Wood county: Observe what is done American Book Company. and talk the work over quietly with the teacher.

- The Story of the Romans, by H. A. Guerber (288 Sup't Maloney, Kenosha county: It is the duty of the

pp.; 60c.), makes an attractive book for young or old. As superintendent to call attention to the excellent things. the title indicates the biographic and anecdotal form of Leave with the teachers notes of the things observed.

treatment is followed, but the stories, of which there are Sup't Nattrass: Find out whether the teacher is making one hundred and two told with much narrative skill, have her influence felt in the community. Compare the attend.

been so selected as to represent faithfully the whole course ance with the number of children of school age in the dis of Roman history down to the fall of the western empire, trict.

and leave vivid and on the whole valuable impressions upon Sup't Throne introduced the following resolution, which the minds of young readers. Like the other volumes of the was adopted:

"Eclectic School Readings," this book is richly illustrated Resolved, by the Superintendents' Section of the State by fine half-tone pictures, taken for the most part from disTeachers' Association, that we favor fixing the minimum tinguished works of art, and we cannot but regret that the age at which a teachers' certificate may be granted by a publishers did not add to its value still further by stating county superintendent at eighteen years.

at least the name of the artist of each, and we could wish Sup't Keats moved that a committee of three be ap- also very brief biographic notes. pointed by the chair to discuss the advisability of forming a Superintendents' Association. Motion carried. Com -HANDBOOK OF GREEK AND ROMAN History, by George mittee Sup'ts Keats, Shaw, and Anna Smith.

Castegnier, (110 pp. ; 50c.). We have in this compact little Sup't G. G. Williams, Douglas County, moved that a volume a cyclopædia of Greek and Roman history which committee be appointed to ask State Sup't Emery to call a will at once command favor for two qualities-brevity and County Superintendents' Convention at the time of the next convenience. The book is a marvel of skillful condensaState Teachers' Association Motion carried. Sup'ts Will tion and contains just the facts in regard to important periams, Hunt, and Underwood were appointed as such com sons, places and events of ancient history which every mittee.

scholar ought to know or have at instant command. It is Sup't Havenor, Wood county, offered the following reso intended primarily to facilitate the work of students in relation, which was upon motion adopted:

viewing subjects already studied in larger text-books, and in Resolved, by the County Superintendents' Section of the preparing for college examinations. It will also be found Wisconsin Teachers' Association, that it is the sense of this useful for general readers who wish to refresh their minds section that a certificate for primary teachers shall be pro- on classical and historical subjects. vided to embrace the subjects usually required to be taught by a primary teacher, together with a knowledge of the

Ginn & Co. elements of vocal music, natural history, and pedagogy.

---The Ninth Book of Virgil's Æneid, edited by Edward 7:15 o'clock P. M. The committee appointed to consider

H. Cutler, (178 pp.; 50c.) adds another volume to a most the advisability of forming a state organization of county

satisfactory series of books. This series is to include the superintendents, reported as follows:

Books of the Æneid beyond the sixth, with which preparaResolved, 1. That an organization be formed to be known

tory reading now usually terminates. Each of these books as the Wisconsin County Superintendents' Association.

is complete in itself, with text, full and scholarly notes and 2. That the officers of this association be a president,

vocabulary. One handles the volume with satisfaction at vice-president and secretary, and an executive committee of

its convenient form, mechanical attractiveness and the disthree members to be appointed by the president, together

cerning scholarship which everywhere characterizes the with the officers, ex officio, and that the terms of such officers

editing. be one year

-NAPOLEON, edited by Alcie Forter, (136 pp.; 55c.) is a 3. That a program be prepared annually by the executive

unique and interesting reading book in French. The editor committee, such program to consist of papers and addresses

has combined extracts from the histories of Henri Martin, upon such matters relating to the superintendent's duties as

Victor Duruy, Nepoleon's Memorial de Sainte-Helene, sball be deemed advantageous and necessary.

Thiers, Chateaubriand, Edgar Quinet and Madam de Rem4. That the meetings of this Association he held at the same time and place as the meeting of the Wisconsin Teach

usat, uniting them with a narrative of his own in such a

way as to build a complete sketch of the career of this woners' Association. Upon motion the resolutions were adopted and the follow

derful man. The book is thus a reader in French history ing officers elected for the ensuing year:

and a most interesting story and timely by reason of current President-Sup't Myron E. Keats, Fond du Lac county.

interest in its theme. Vice-president--Sup't Kate L. Sabin, E Dist., Dane county. -Easy LATIN FOR Sight READING, for secondary schools, Secretary-Sup't J. H. Nattrass, Lafayette county.

by B. L. D'Ooge, (146 pp. ; 45c.) seeks by furnishing suitAdjourned.

Kate L. Sabin, Sec'y. able material to promote sight reading of Latin in second250.

ary schools. The selections are easy fables, and selections books of S. W. Straub & Co., Auditorium Building, Chifrom Viri Romæ and from the Noctes Atticæ of Aulus Gel- cago. The price of the book is 35c. lius. The book has an introduction dealing with the dif. ficulties of sight reading, and each of the selections has its

-The First SUPPLEMENT OF The Second Year Book of new unusual words explained by synonyms placed be

the National Herbartian Society, contains the essay on low it.

Training for Citizenship by Jeremiah W. Jenks, of Cornell

University, discussed at the meetings of the club in IndianAllyn & Bacon.

apolis this year. Charles A. McMurry, Chicago Univer- COMPOSITION-Rhetoric, designed for use in secondary

sity, secretary, of whom the pamphlet may be obtained for schools, by Fred N. Scott and Joseph V. Denney. (373 pp.; $1.00) makes a new departure in books of this class and one full of promise. The fundamental idea is that rhetoric in -We are indebted to Supt. Henry Sabin, of Iowa, for secondary schools should be closely allied to practice, and advanced sheets of his annual report, and a pamphlet con. that not in criticism of authors but in determining and taining three interesting addresses of his. guiding the student's own writing. It therefore concerns

---Prof. W. S. Monroe has kindly sent us a copy of his itself only with really helpful precepts and enforces these

valuable address on feeble minded children in the public with abundant examples. While aiming primarily at con

schools, six syllabi on child-study and a bibliography of struction it also develops critical ability by furnishing

Henry Barnard. He is professor of pedagogy in the state abundant interesting and valuable matter illustrative of its teaching. The book is rich in such extracts, indeed our

normal school at Westfield, Mass. chief fear for it is that in unwise hands this wealth of ma. --Modern BOOK-KEEPING, single and double entry, by J. L. terial will be allowed to usurp too much attention and thus · Montgomery (New York; Maynard, Merrill & Co.; 240 pp.. the fundamental aim be thwarted. How practical it is will Soc.), seems to be a thoroughly practical manual, prepared by be clearly indicated by the following titles of its seven one with sufficient business and teaching experience. It is chapters: External form of the paragraph, paragraph not cumbered with useless theories, develops the subject sysstructure, what to say, how to say it, in what order to say tematically and aims at business and the actual need of the it, how much to say, what not to say. The exercises pre

pupil. sented in each section are very ingeniously contrived and will develop well the pupil's power of expression. In short

LITERARY NOTES. this is a book to be examined by every high school teacher of English.

- The weekly issue of The Living Age, bearing date Feb. Werner Book Co.

13th, is the monthly supplement number, and including the -The WerNER ARITHMETIC, by Frank H. Hall, (Book

supplement, contains 96 pages. Among its most striking one, 256 pp.; Book two, 320 pp.) embodies the new doc

features are "All Souls' Eve in Lower Brittany," a delighttrines regarding the teaching of this branch which have

ful sketch of the customs and folk-lore of the Breton peasbeen gaining ground in the last ten years by reason of our

ants, translated for The Living Age from the French of Anmore thorough studies of pedagogy. We read in the pref

atole le Braz; the first part of “The Land of Suspense," ace: "In the first two books of the series definitions are

Mrs. Oliphant's latest story of the seen and upseen; a pasintroduced after the pupils are familiar with the terms de

sage from Mrs. Steel's stirring story of the great mutiny, fined. Formal rules are omitted entirely, and the uniform

"On the Face of the Waters;" Herbert Spencer on "The direction to the teacher is: If the child cannot solve the

Fallacies of Soci Jism;"' a discussion of Political Ideals problem presented, do not explain, but give him problems

and Realities in Spain," by Emilio Castelar, translated for that he can solve and so lead up to and over the difficulty."

The Living Age; and a paper by W. Holman Hunt on "ReIn this book measurement problems appear on pages 43, 53,

ligion and Art" 63. 73, etc.; a certain class of fraction problems on pages -John Fiske has prepared for the March number of the 45, 55, 65, 75. etc. ; facts of addition, subtraction, multipli Atlantic Monthly the most notable contribution that has cation and division on pages 41, 51, 61, 71, etc. This decimal been made to the discussion of the Arbitration Treaty. He arrangement of subjects makes the books almost as con shows by a sweeping historical survey how the progress of invenient for reference as are the books that are made on the dustry and the relations between the United States and Great strict classification plan, while the frequent recurrence of Britain make such a treaty a logical event; and he explains the similar matter insures thorough review." The general ar. incalculable benefits that are sure to come from it in the fu. rangement of the book is determined by the grade, such ture He points out how nearly all our disputes in the past subjects being presented with suitable problems as he is could have been adjusted under such a treaty, and how the ready to deal with. Grade teachers will appreciate this treaty is a natural ally of commerce and industrial advancefeature and also the rich supply of new and progressive ment for the bringing of a new era in the history of govern problems presented with the entire absence of conundrums

ment. and the ubsolete subjects which have cumbered our texts so long.

--The March magazine number of The Outlook contains

an editorial entitled “The Story of Jonah," in which Dr. Peter Paul Book Co., Buffalo, N. Y.

Lyman Abbott gives his views of the iwo meanings of this -- MAMIE BROWN AND Enward Kennedy, by Mildred

Biblical warrative. The newspaper discussion which has Rutherford (140 pp., $1.00), sketches in a simple, straight been going on cuncerning Dr. Abbott's recent sermon on forward way. girl life in Georgia boarding schools, and boy this topic, and the wide-spread absurd mis-reporting of his life at college. Of course there is a love story, and several

utterances make this article of particular interest. youthful pranks, with glimpses of the Georgia darkie and the "cracker'' to give variety and a touch of dialect. The

-Among the announcements of Gion & Co. we note The story is rather taking for its very directness, and its author,

Student's American History, by D. H. Montgomery, deas principal of the Lucy Cobb institute for girls at Athens,

signed for high schools and colleges. The announcement Georgia, and daughter of a professor in the University of

indicates a fuller treatment than has been common of poGeorgia, may be assumed to know well the life which she

litical and constitutional history and of the nation's developportrays. She has made two lively sketches which are not

ment. They also announce Stories from English History likely to lack for readers.

for boys and girls ten to twelve years of age. Miscellaneous.

-The March Century is an "Inauguration Num--The New York TRIBUNE ALMANAC for 1897 is full of

ber," devoted especially to articles on life in the Wbite valuable information as to politics, finance, trade, agricul

House and at the Capital, illustrated with a great number of ture, education, societies, railroads, telegraph and telephone

interesting pictures, including two new portraits of Major companies, public debt, government officials, etc. -in fact a

McKinley and one of President Cleveland at his desk,-all perfect mine of information up to date and arranged for from photographs taken especially for The Century. convenient reference. Price 250.

-Mr. Anthony Hope is just finishing a sequel to his pop--BEAUTIFUL SONGS AND LIVING FOUNTAIN puts into one ular story "The Prisoner of Zenda" which is to appear in volume two of the most popular Sunday School singing McClure's Magazine,

Journal of Education

Vol. XXVII.

MADISON, WIS., APRIL, 1897.

No. 4

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................

75-80

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v-vii

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO

life in many families, but also with the new JOURNAL OF EDUCATION,

and effective means thus provided of promo• 208 East Main Street, Madison, Wis.

ting and spreading new knowledge. ImproveJ. W. STEARNS, I

ments in cookery have so far been left to A. O. WRIGHT, T ... .EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS.

spread as they would, sporadically; but with SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 81.00 A YEAR. the creation of cooking schools an agency

is produced for the prompt and effective (Entered at the Madison postoffice at second-class mailing rates.)

dissemination of new ideas. The teachers

will feel the necessity of keeping up with the TABLE OF CONTENTS.

times; they will constantly apply the knowl

PAGE. EDITORIALS...........:

edge of science and economy which is accu

73-75 Brief Comments—The Sentinel's Historical Con mulating; they will seek out new methods and test-Town Libraries.

new receipts to give to their classes, and thus The MONTH,......

progress will be systematically promoted. The Wisconsin News and Notes - Kindergartens in Wisconsin-The Sentinel History Prizes—Manual effect of all forms of manual training upon the Training in Wisconsin High Schools-Cookery in ideals of life must be very great. The silly the Madison Schools—Manual Training in the

prejudice which regards useful work as someJanesville High Schools. The SCHOOL ROOM.....

....... 80-90

how degrading, fostered by exclusively literWashington Irving-Manual Training: Its Educa

ary training, will disappear under this new tional Value.

departure in public education. CONTRIBUTIONS .......

......... 91-93 Manual Training for Girls.

A Normal School Teacher makes some OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT.....

........ 93-96 “Confessions” in the March Popular Science Department Meetings of the Wisconsin Teachers' Association.

Monthly which challenge attention. He tells BOOK TABLE.........

of a lady, graduate of a normal school and

with twelve years of experience, who, when EDITORIAL.

seeking a high school position, was told by a Teachers' Agency, “It is not easy for a teacher

to obtain a high school engagement unless she SCHOOL FESTIVALS will be the special feat

is a college graduate.” The lady is said to ure of the May number of the JOURNAL. In

have had culture equivalent to a college course, the popular American Literature series, Walt

and when she urged this and her professional Whitman will receive attention. The special

training and experience, was told, “but we interest awakened in History in the Public

have to cater to the demand.” To the writer Schools makes timely an article to appear on

of the article this seems to set the case culture History in the Schools of Superior. We have

versus professional training, the college standa fine paper from Leipzig on Schools in Ger

ing for one and the normals for the other. The many by F. E. Bolton which we hope to pub

only way of combining both which he appears lish in May.

to recognize is to make the scholastic training NO MORE satisfactory presentation of the of the normals equal to that of the college, for educational value of manual training has yet he recognizes the importance of the culture. been made than that of Superintendent Bal. The enormous expense of this solution will liet, which we republish in this issue from the stand in the way of its adoption, while the Report of the Massachusetts Board of Educa- cheaper plan of adding professional training tion. The article is deserving of careful study in the university prevails at the west. There It is satisfactory to note the progress in Wis- can be no question of the desirability of comconsin in providing manual training for girls. bining both qualifications, and indeed we canIn estimating the value of cooking schools we not long be satisfied with either alone. That must reckon not only with the useful knowl- the degree is at best a sort of rough and ready edge and habits acquired by the pupils, and test of the culture, which sometimes excludes the effect of these in improving the mode of competent persons and sometimes admits in

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