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thereto.

MEMORIAL.

MARTHA MELLOR.

While walking on the street in Philadelphia the im

pression presented solemnly that she must thus prove ESTEEMED EDITORS :—The enclosed Memorial her allegiance to her Maker. And she said she did may seem an. act of tardy justice to one we dearly plied therewith

she was conscious of a renewal of her

not question that it was for her good, and as she comloved, but the monument to Martha Mellor is reared strength for the performance of greater requirements. in the sacred memory of those whose pleasure it was She has often been heard to say, her strength consisted to be intimate with her in life, and no outside gar- in the faithful performance of little duties. lands can add to its beauty. She was truly a noble

For several months previous to the close of her character.

Your friend,

earthly sojourn it was her portion to endure severe

bodily suffering, but she had endeavored to work out

CHAS. LINTON. her own salvation while in health, and now as it was Fox Chase, First mo. 29th, 1885.

her Heavenly Father's will she patiently submitted At Abington Monthly Meeting of Friends, held

A dear daughter-in-law who was a member of the First month 26th, 1885, the following paper, intro- family, and ministered to her in this trying time, duced by women Friends, was read, and directed to spoke of the sadness of her own spirit in witnessing be recorded in the Minutes, and forwarded to Friends' this mortal conflict in one whose daily life was beau

tiful. Thus did her children arise and call her blessed. Intelligencer for publication.

Hoping that theremembrance of her example among

us may stimulate to fresh endeavor to fill up the Under a solemn sense of the great importance of an

measure of duty assigned (as she said) while time and upright walk among men, we feel constrained to opportunity are afforded, we are willing to bring these revive in our memory the consistent example of this things before us, that she being dead may yet speak. precious Friend. Feeling in an eminent degree that she was respon

RELIGIOUS GROWTH. sible to the God of her life for every talent and good gift that she had been entrusted with, it was the EDITORS FRIENDS' INTELLIGENCER.--I enclose an prayer of her spirit, as she has been heard to say, that article from the Chicago Weekly Magazine of Sixth she might live one day at a time, and as she could not retrace her steps to rectify any errors, she wanted to month, 1882, which recently came to my notice. do all the good she could while time and opportunity Would not its quotation from Dr. Holland's discourse were afforded her. And to those of us who were delivered at a Diocesar Convention of the Episcopal favored to mingle with her she appeared to be carry- Church, held in Chicago in the summer of 1882, be ing out this resolution in the fear of God and

love to worthy of publication in your columns, because of the whole human family. Indeed, this love extended to all; high and low, rich and poor were alike recipi- its intrinsic merits, the evidence that truth familiar ents of her thoughtful attention.

to us are being spoken in unusual places and that it The rich in this world's treasures she viewed only is being done by clergymen in high position without as stewards of the good gifts of their Father, and in causing disfellowship in one of the prominent evanever be used to the glory of the

Giver. And when gelica! denominations. Liberty is certainly increasunsanctified affluence was apparent she was as a pre-ing within most religious societies, and as a consecious minister pointing the way to a truer life. quence truth is being more eagerly sought for and

Her needy brethren and sisters she visited in their man's limitations of it extended. May we humble homes, bringing sunshine in her face and love branch of the church keep full pace with this growth, in her spirit as she dispensed the comforts their necessities demanded ; yet, with a wise discretion, she en- ing the inward movings of our spiritual being the

by greater faithfulness in searching for and obey. couraged individual effort and self-reliance. Her quick perception of wrong wherever apparent, Christ within or Inner Light.

J.W.P. and prompt attention to what she believed her duty

The extract is as follows : to her fellow-man, caused her at times to be considered by some as sharp and censorious. But while showing "If God's work is a finished work, if His revelation up wrong in its deformity and reproving therefor she is complete, if He has said His last word to the spirit was a faithful witness against the spirit of tale-bearing of man, if His inspirations are withdrawn, so that man and detraction. She would lovingly comment on the can no more speak by the movings of the Holy Ghost, virtues of those she mingled with, but their faults and the race of prophets is extinct, and all authority were thrown in the background, or touched upon only of truth dwells in a distant and inaccessible past, then in pity and an enlarged charity; Having had much He is virtually a dead God... He may live in heaven, forgiven herself, as she thought, she freely forgave those but he is dead to the world." who, perchance, misunderstood or treated her amiss. The inclusion of pagan religions could not have

She believed all to be equal objects of the Heavenly been spared, for they gave to Christianity a variety of Father's care, and as her position in life enabled her rites and traditions which enabled it to naturalize itto have a wider intercourse among mankind than self in many lands, and become in fact, as well as in many, her power for good was thus more extended. spirit, a universal worship."

She was a faithful attender of all our religious meet- " The church will stand. No scepticism can preings, and when assembled with her friends her rever-vail against her. Her trust is not in any book. She ent attitude gave evidence of the gathered spirit was not created by the Bible, but created it. Itswithin, and that the worship of the dear Father"in gospels and epistles were indited by her ministers, not spirit and in truth” was to her a living reality, as a series of infallible definitions, nor as a formulated

A few years before her death she was placed in the science of salvation, but as a plain story of Christ's station of Elder in this Monthly Meeting, a situation love and as letters of exhortation to holy living, she was eminently calculated for. Quick to perceive prompted by transient needs." the evidence of spiritual life in any, she acted as a 'Her books are inspired only as the church itself is tender mother encouraging to heed the gentle moni- inspired."' tions and not stand questioning, as did the beloved What is true to one age, is to a certain extent false disciple, whether they were from heaven or of men. to the age that follows, because less than the total

Her own experience when required, as she believed, truth which that subsequent age apprehends. to adopt the simple garb of the Friend, is thus related: For truth grows."

as a

EDUCATIONAL.

ETHICAL TEACHING IN FRIENDS' SCHOOLS.

Read at an Educational Conference, held First month 24th, 1885,

at Race Street Meeting-house,

may

ance.

The Teacher's Library. The interest manifested in the proposed Library has been far greater than its most earnest advocates anticipated; this is en

In these days, when departures from rectitude are

so frequent, it may be well to inquire what can be on as rapidly

as possible. It is believed that books done to instil correct principles into the minds of the will soon be upon its shelves, and periodicals upon beauty of the right, the deformity of the wrong,

young?

How can we most forcibly present the its table; and it is hoped that none will be disap- and the conditions of entrance upon the two paths pointed in the results

. If we are wise in the selec; which lead, respectively, to happiness and to misery? tion and use of the books we may expect great good How shall we impress upon the plastic mind of to ourselves and to our pupils. The teacher should read as diligently as do doctors and lawyers, and we youth the importance of taking the right road at the should exercise as much care in securing a profes- point where the two begin to diverge; and how shall sional library as they do. The best that has been we convince them that the intermediate ground is written in relation to our profession should be upon These questions, and the attempt to answer them,

an inclined plane sloping downward to the bad ? its shelves. The lives of the great teachers should

furnish us with a reason why there is a demand knowledge of the science and art of education should for ethical instruction, and what are the difficulties

in the way of its supply. be at hand. The activity displayed in the educational world is an evidence of life, and an encourages of study in the ordinary college course. Text-books

Ethics, or Moral Philosophy, is a distinct branch activity should be properly directed. There is a are provided, and lectures are delivered to the studesire to be better prepared for work; we should aim dents, generally during the Senior year. Metaphyto increase this desire and to satisfy it. There is a sical studies being considered the most abstruse of growing interest in educational problems and we any that are pu sued at college, are usually deferred should seek to promote the growth of that interest. until the intellect is supposed to be sufficiently The principles that lie at the basis of true educational trained to grapple with them successfully. processes are getting to be more and more under

As an intellectual exercise, the pursuit of this stood and settled, and as these are studied and ap. study may be compared to entering a labyrinth, plied our work will increase in interest and import- and following its mazy paths until there seems to

Our time for reading is necessarily very be no way out to the open road; so many chances limited, and if thorough preparation is made for the of going wrong to the one of going right, theories daily class work the opportunities for professional have been proposed, arguments advanced, axioms reading may seem very poor indeed; but as we come claimed, and premises established by one school of to realize more and more the value of such reading, philosophers, to be brushed away by their antagoour interest in it will increase, our taste for it grow, nists, who must in turn give way to their successors, and we will find spare moments which we can very

until the bewildered student, who bas been trying profitably and agreeably devote to pedagogical read- to trace the history of the science, and to follow ing, and it is believed that very soon such a course up the arguments, may be led to exclaim : “ But would be found not only a very profitable one, but a

what is truth?" very pleasant one. If all our teachers could study Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, among the Greeks : the history of education before commencing their Leibnitz, Kant, Wolf, Schleirmacher and Hegel, in professional career, fewer mistakes would be made in Germany; Hobbes, Cumberland, Butler, Bentham, their work, for they would have learned that many Paley and Mill, in England; and a formidable array problems of the school-room had been definitely set- of hard-headed Scotchmen haveendeavored to explain tled long ago, and that no further investigation need the underlying principles of this much controverted be made of them. But unfortunately this has not science. France and Italy has each furnished a been done; may it not be done now? It is confi. quota of original thinkers and theorists, while in our dently believed that the reading and study suggested own country there has been no lack of authors and by the Library will bring its own pleasure, and that expounders on the disputed territory of Moral Philthe burdens of the hard working teachers may be osophy.

Jonathan Edwards leads the van, and lightened rather than increased. It is hoped that all James McCosh brings up the rear; while in the the members of the Association will cheerfully lend ranks are to be found the worthy names of Timothy a hand; if they have suggestions to offer in regard Dwight, Mark Hopkins, Francis Wayland, Nathaniel to increasing the value of the Library or the efficiency W. Taylor, Laurens P. Hickok, Noah Porter and of the Association, let them be made; if they have Joseph Haven. other hints, let them be given ; let us all co-operate. If we adopt an axiom from Intellectual Philoso

H. R. R.

phy—“The greatest truths are the simplest”-we Woodbury, N. J., Second mo. 9th, 1885.

may well inquire whence all this confusion ? A short and comprehensive definition of ethics is, "the

science of duty.” The word duty is sometimes limNATURE, when she sends a new mind into the ited by the insertion of human. President Porter world fills it beforehand with a desire for that which tells us that it implies actions, not as they are, but she wishes it to know and do.-Emerson.

as they ought to be; and Sir James Mackintosh lays great stress upon the word ought as applied to observation, and confirmed by experience, that in morals.

the school-room, as in the great world, there is a But how is all this mass, this heterogeneous com- practical as well as a theoretical view to be taken of pound of pure truth and glittering falsehood—of the situation; there is a real condition of affairs as sound logic and ingenious sophistry--to benefit us as well as a sentimental aspect. To harmonize--for we instructors in Friends' schools? Which is our text-cannot unify-these two elements, should be the prebook, and who is to be our guide through the ethical vailing consideration in all that pertains to the moral labyrinth? These questions, like many others, are side of school government. Unless the teacher be more readily asked than answered. Friends are "a possessed of sound views, calm judgment, and some peculiar people.” They do not learn a catechism by experience (his own or that of another, he will be rote, study the Scriptures with the aid of a Com- likely to make many failures in his attempts to mentary, or prove the tenets of their creed by the assimilate the real and the ideal; for even with the application of the syllogism. The founder of our most enlightened judgment, and the most mature denomination laid down one precept, which is short experience it has been proved to be a difficult task. and simple in words, but vastly comprehensive in It is to be regretted that there are to be found in meaning: “ Mind the Light." This injunction, ap- the ranks of teachers those who seem to ignore all plied in fulness, covers the whole practical side of theory, and to govern their schools by a personality ethics; and it includes much that does not come which makes no appeal to principle. They insist on within the range of the present topic. We may, strict conduct on the part of the pupils, but the law without bigotry, feel reasonably cautious about the is not announced until a case occurs for its applicaintroduction of any text-book, or any study, that tion, and then the ipse dixit of the lawmaker is the may even threaten to invalidate our cherished tenet only reason assigned for its enforcement. Such which is based upon Fox's injunction. It is true teachers are often credited with being successful; there is much, very much, to be found in support of they may have the ability to command, and the will our great doctrine, and in furtherance of several of to enforce obedience; thus compelling their pupils to our special testimonies; but it is also true that, ac yield to a semi-physical force, without an attempt to cording to our views, duty cannot be subjected to the convince the judgment, or any appeal to the moral rules of reason, nor scruples formulated by the laws sepse. In the opinion of more enlightened educators, of logic.

theory is as essential in didactics as it is in the medical In view of this condition of things, shall we not or the legal profession; and the attempt to govern a look to the teacher to impart that kind of moral in school without it, is mere empiricism. It is presumable struction which is adapted to the capacity of his that this is the view generally entertained by those hav. pupils, to the time, the place and the occasion, and ing charge of Friends' schools. The moral code should which is not at variance with the principles and be based on the principles of justice and benevolence, practices of the Society of Friends ?" It has been and framed with reference to the greatest good of the well said that an instructor teaches more by what he greatest number, as well as the interzsts of each indi. is than by what he says, and in a moral point of view vidual. For the corner-stones of our moral fabric I we must all admit that such is the case. It might would choose sincerity, courtesy, respect and conbe well for him to study the different theories of sideration. Let each term be explained, and pointed moral philosophy-particularly those of Plato and by illustration, until the pupils fully comprehend its Aristotle—and to have on his book-shelf a modu meaning, and then with serious earnestness let the ern text-book on the subject, to be studied or read at practice of all four be enjoined. A pupil who conhis leisure, and chiefly for his own benefit. There forms his conduct to a course of action based upon are four other books that I would especially recom- these, will not be likely to violate the rules; but if mend for places on the same shelf, to be read often, he should do so, it might be well to inquire which is and pondered well: the New Testament, Friends' most at fault the pupil or the rule ? Should the Discipline, Thomas à Kempis, and Cowper's Poems. conduct of the teacher be a model in these particuA familiarity with these will furnish him with many lars, he may observe the force of the old proverb, available precepts, and can scarcely fail to make " Example is more powerful than precept. ” him a better moral instructor, as well as a better If, on the contrary, he should practice deception man. Having prepared himself by reading, study, in his intercourse with his pupils, or resort to artiand much reflection, let him enter his school-room fices, for any purpose whatever, he may expect to and teach ethics by endeavoring to set a good ex- forfeit their confidence and lose their respect. He ample, and by the administration of a just, benevo- who is destitute of refinement, or a stranger to the lent and orderly system of school government. ordinary rules of good breeding, would better select

The importance of having a proper code, and of some other vocation than that of instructing the making a judicious application of it, will be among young; and he who fails in consideration for the the first subjects to claim his attention. Those who comfort of his pupils, and who takes no especial have had least experience in the management of pains to promote their enjoyment will be likely to schools, will probably find least difficulty in pre- find them violating the proprieties of time and place, paring the code ; as the simple principle of right must and manifesting a general disregard for the fitness underlie all intention, and strict propriety of conduct of things. must be the rule of action. This seems to be all that To insure sincerity or candor, there must not be is needed : a conscientious analysis of the motive, and too much fear. A proper respect for authority is a the application of the “Golden Rule” to the per- very different mental condition from that of abject formance of the deed. But it will be discovered by fear which is the result of undue force. This fear

season,

is one of the most fruitful sources of deception. it is the result of a mistake, and that in the course of Tyranny in the family, the school-room, or the a few hours he will be vindicated. nation is almost certain to produce either servility or These private interviews have a tendency to bring rebellion, according to the temperament of the sub- teacher and pupil very near together; and if conjects; while the wholesome restraint which is peces ducted in a proper spirit, they afford excellent opporsary to secure good order in every community, is tunities for a word of advice or caution on some entirely compatible with self-respect and candor.

subject other than that for which the interview was Courtesy must be manifested by acts rather than called. A short, but applicable lesson in Ethics explained in words: and where it has been properly may then and there be given, which will be likely to attended to at home, the teacher will find little diffi- prove more effective than whole chapters of speculaculty in cultivating it in the school, provided he be tive philosophy. an exemplar of refinement and good-breeding. What courtesy is to our peers, respect is to our to moralize too much.

Lastly, and mostly, we must be very careful not

While it is our duty to superiors ; let the superiority be that of age, station embrace suitable opportunities to drop“ the word in or merit. It seems to be a sort of half-way mark

we must strictly observe that it fall upon between courtesy and reverence, and a certain

attentive ears and enter willing minds. An overamount of it is an ornament to any young person. Consideration is more likely to be violated than charge at any time,

may close the way for even a any of the other three particulars. The pupil who of the teacher's conduct will be a lesson which the

seasonable remark in the futurebut example would scorn to be found derelict in candor, to whom courtesy has become as a second nature, and who is festation of his unselfish interest in their welfare will

pupils are daily learning; and every sincere maninot lacking in respect, often fails to regard the time, be sure to meet its reward. the place, the circumstances, and even the property.

HUGH FOULKE. He does not mean to be naughty, but just at the critical moment his love of fun predominates, he

Clifton Springs, N. Y., 1st mo. 22, 1885. does not stop to consider consequences, and hence the misdemeanor is committed. In dealing with

EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS. offences of this kind, the teacher should be able to discriminate between motive and result; for while the latter may cause great annoyance, and even WHAT a beautiful law of compensation the Divine serious inconvenience, the former may be free from Father has established for His creature, man, that, any taint of malice or evil intention. In such cases even amid our heaviest sorrows, the more we seek whether property or feelings have been injured, the unselfishly to alleviate the sorrows of others, to lift pupil must endeavor to place matters upon the same their burdens, to sympathize with their trials, the footing that they occupied before the mischief more do we find our own sorrows ass occurred. Let him feel all the responsibility, and burdens lifted, and a healing balm applied to our have the entire charge of the repairs ; for the teacher wounds. will be fully occupied in preserving his own equan- I seem to be a marvel to myself at times, with'all imity, and in restraining his tongue.

that has been crowded into my life the past year, This distinction between disorder and misconduct that no moments of depression have been mine to should be well defined; the former being, merely endure. Although at seasons my sorrow would seem something out of time, or out of place; while the about to overwhelm as a flood, then there would latter is wrong at all times, and in all places.

come some loving mission to perform, some asking It should be constantly borne in mind that the heart to minister unto, calling me out of self, and formation of character is a matter of far greater resulting in a quiet, peaceful, restful state, calling moment than the orderly appearance of a school out a deeper love than before for my Heavenly room. The more responsibility is placed upon a Father. pupil, the greater is the opportunity to discover latent traits of character, and to develop the good that is in him; while the more he is compelled to Now for thyself a little word of encouragement yield to the force of mere authority, the less will he seems to arise. Do not be too anxious regarding the be likely to respect himself or the governing power. future of our Society. Just do, day by day, what is

The right of appeal, which is accorded to a crimi- unfolded, and then thy part of the work will be all nal in a court of justice, should not be denied to a completed, and God will care for the rest. I somepupil in a well-ordered school. But, by all means, times think we hinder our own usefulness by an over encourage an appeal to the teacher, rather than from anxiety regarding what others ought to do, both in him. When a direct command has been given in a temporal and a spiritual point of view. I think, the class-room, the pupils must know that then, with that there are too many, who cling to old

ways, forget that there may be a progress in a collective organization as well as in individual experience,

and they may bind fetters upon younger minds that and if each one has the knowledge and assurance are hard to bear. And yet there needs the exercise that before the close of the day he will have the of much patience on the part of the younger memopportunity to appear before his teacher and make a bers not to go off in other directions hastily, or to full statement of his case, he will cheerfully obey conclude the wisdom of age is always dimmed by an the command, or accept the reprimand, knowing that I undue reverence for the past.

" Theirs not to make reply,

Theirs not to reason why,
Theirs but to do."

or

I SEE by the papers that Friends in Philadelphia Does it not tend to the lowering of the standard of are making quite a stir trying to find some means to the church, and its loss in membership? interest the young and build up our Society, which Ridicule may be made a powerful weapon for evil I suppose is all right so far as it goes, but I think as Friends have found by experience in their attempt the trouble lies far back of our meetings. It is in to civilize Indians, some of their most promising our homes, in our every-day walks in life, to throw pupils and converts have after return to their people around our children good and kindly influences, to cast aside every vestige of civilization, rather than make them feel that they have our love and sympa- bear the name of " white man ”

white woman, thy, and to try to draw them to us in loving trust. given to them in derision by their associates, and The longer I live the more I am convinced that why should the members of a religious Society whose many parents, ourselves not excepted. hold their principles are founded on right and truth assume to children too far away from them, not because they be what they are not? If Hume's account of the do not love them, but in their youth they do not“ violent enthusiasm of the sect” was a proper cause want to be bothered, or their noise worries them; for such a title in the days of our fathers, no such hence they are made to be quiet, or allowed to find charge can be made against its members of the amusement some place else; thus they grow up with- present age, and the title is now inappropriate as out that kind and loving care that should be ex- applied to us. What would be the condition of an tended to them: we are even more ready to censure individual who, having in younger life acquired some than to praise. In childhood they need encourage- ridiculous nick-name should in maturer years insist ment, they need the loving care of the parent to upon using that title as a signature to important guide them in the right path, and to set then a good public papers, would not his associates consider him example in well doing, and in youth to impress upon an imbécile? If it would be injurious for an individual their minds the importance of attending to or obey- thus to degrade himself, how much more improper is ing that “still, small voice” in their own hearts, it for a minister of the Society of Friends, an editor however small it may be, that if attended to will be of a Society paper, or a member of the Society, to their guide in all their business, as well as private speak of their religious Society by that scornful affairs in life ; then we would have no trouble to get name of “ Quakers. our children to go to meeting.

The words "Quaker” and “ Quakerism” do not Too many build up their religion on the tradi- appear in our rules of discipline or titles of religious tions of the forefathers—they depend on the letter meetings, hence are not officially owned by the instead of the spirit that giveth life; as long as this Society of Friends, why should members of the is the condition of the Society we cannot prosper. Society use them or acknowledge them as applicable

to them and their religion. I repudiate the name of SOCIETY SELF-RESPECT.

Quaker as applied to myself, I have frequently felt

it my duty to reprove Friends when using it, and Any association whose reputation is not pro- now lay the subject before the Executive Committee tected by its members, must necessarily suffer loss. of the Association on Reforms in the Society for its History informs us, that the founders of our religious consideration. Society call themselves “Friends," in accordance

BARCLAY WHITE. with the language of Jesus to his disciples, “ Ye are my friends if ye do whatsoever I command you.'

AND THAT IS ALL.
In the year 1651 Jervas Bennett, a prosecuting
justice of the peace, gave George Fox the name of
Quaker because he bade the magistrates before whom A little dreaming such as mothers know :

A little lingering over dainty things; he was then arraigned, to “tremble at the word of A happy heart, wherein hope all aglow, the Lord.” Hume gives the following cause for the Stirs like a bird at dawn that wakes and singstitle, “the violent enthusiasm of this sect, like all high passions being too strong for the weak nerves to A little clasping to her yearning breast; sustain, threw the preachers into convulsions and A little musing over future years; shakings and distortions of limbs, and they thence A heart that prays, “Dear Lord, Thou knowest best, received the appellation of Quakers."

But spare my flower life's bitterest rain of tears"

And that is all. This title given in scorn has since attached itself to the Society, and it is now more generally A little spirit speeding through the night; known by the name Quakers than that of Friends. A sad heart, groping blindly for the light,

A little home grown lonely, dark and chill; Webster defines Friends to be “one of the religious A little grave beneath the hillsects usually called Quakers by those not of the sect. If the words Quaker and Quakerism were A little gathering of life's broken thread; applied to the Society and its doctrines, by only those A little patience keeping back the tears; not of the Society, we might rest content, for persecu- A heart that sings, " Thy darling is not dead, tion is growth to the church. But Friends them

God keeps him safe through His eternal years". selves have, in a semi-official manner, embraced the

Macmillan's Magazine. false title and we find it used by them from the meeting-gallery, in controversial writings, schoolbooks and society papers, it can also be found spread HAPPY are they who set apart some portion of over our Monthly meeting minutes. Is it proper, time, as did the pious King David, in order to think dignified, useful or truthful for Friends to do so? of their God, and to think of nothing else.

And that is all.

And that is all.

_

And that is all.

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