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been almost entirely removed, there remains cured after half-a dozen successive fusing3 by pure malleable iron.
the old plan. The exact quality of the iron One great drawback upon the employment or drawn off depends, however, upon the extent to this process for the preparation of malleable iron, which the blast has been carried. The mass has hitherto been the heavy expense of the fuel passes gradually, during purification, through that of necessity has to be employed in the re- the condition of cast-steel and hard steel into peated meltings. Some of the best kinds of that of soft malleable iron. There is an interiron are only procured after six successive fus-mediate form, which Mr. Bessemer calls semiings. In addition to this difficulty, it has always steel,' which is harder than iron, and less brittle been found impossible, also, to prepare any very than steel, and which he states will prove to be large quantity at once. Founders have thought of inconceivable value for all purposes where they had effected wonders when they have turned lightness, strength, and durability are required out some four or five hundredweights by one to be combined. The cast iron loses eighteen puddling. The railings which surround the per cent, by the time the purification has been cathedral of St. Paul's in London were made of carried to the utmost. iron, procured by the puddling process in Sussex Such, then, is the new promise which has just at the expense of £7000.
been held out in these iron days. The metal All this, however, appears now to pertain to which is in such enormous demand for works of the past rather than to the present. A civil en- surpassing extent and strength, is to be furnished gineer of London has just patented a plan for in the most perfect state, in tenfold quantities, the preparation of malleable iron by a new pro- and with more than a tenfold saving of the cost cess, by which he is able to deal with the metal of the fuel used in the preparation. There is to in almost any quantity at once. He has experi- be one roasting and one melting in the place of mentally shown his ability to convert five tons half-a-dozen tedious and costly fusings; air is to of molten cast iron into a vast lump of pure be blown through the molten liquid, and presto! malleable iron, in thirty-five minutes; and it is in a few short minutes, huge masses of the finest stated that, by the use of his process, an equal grained iron are to be ready for the hammer and quantity of iron railing with that which stands the anvil. If this promise be fulfilled, the best round St. Paul's might be furnished at the com- steel, which is now worth from £20 to £30 the paratively trifling cost of £230.
ton, will be furnished in any required quantity This new process of Mr. Bessemer's consists at the cost of £6 tbe ton, and malleable iron merely in forcing air through the molten pig iron, will be sold at the same price, instead of £8, in the place of splashing up the molten iron into 10s. the ton. It has been calculated that the air. The molten iron, drawn off from the this improved process of Mr. Bessemer's will slag in the usual way, after the first roasting and produce, when generally adopted, a saving to melting, is received red-hot into a sort of basin Great Britain of a sum equal to five millions of instead of into moulds. This basin has holes at pounds sterling every year.—Chambers' Journal. its bottom, communicating with a very powerful pair of blast-bellows worked by steam. The airblast is turned on before tbe red-hot liquid metal
LACONICS. is received into the basin; and the result is, Promptness and energy.--Do not wait to that the metal is prevented from running into strike till the iron is hot, but make it hot by the holes by the out-set of the blast, and that striking. the streams of air rush through it, tossing it “How," said one to Sir W. Raleigh, of violently to and fro with a sort of fiery boiling. I whom it was said he could toil terribly,” “how The fierce air-blast forces the carbon combined do you accomplish so much, and in so short a with the iron into a furious combustion, and the time?” “When I have anything to do, I go and heat of the molten liquid is thus raised higher do it," was the reply. and higher as the blast goes on. The carbon, Punctuality.-Appointments once made bewhich is a superfluous impurity, is itself convert- come debts. If I have made an appointment ed into a valuable fuel through the force of the with you, I owe you punctuality ; I have no blast. First, a bright flame and an eruption of right to throw away your time, if I do my own. sparks burst from the mass ; then the fiery liquid
Cecil. swells, and throws up the impurities to the sur Self-rule.—The most precious of all possesface as a kind of earthy froth, which is composed siops, is power over ourselves; power to withof these impurities entangled with oxide of iron stand trial, to bear suffering, to front danger; by fusion: The sulphur and phosphorus are power over pleasure and pain ; power to follow burned off with the carbon, and after a few min- our convictions, however resisted by menace and utes, when the flame subsides, there remains scorn; the power of calm reliance in scenes of nothing behind but the perfectly cleansed iron, darkness and storms. ready to be drawn off through the vent-hole of Progress in life. No man becomes fully evil the basin, and more pure than the metal pro- at once; but suggestion bringeth on indulgence; indulgence, delight; delight, consent; consent, / ing been called for the consideration of that subendeavor; endeavor, practice; practice, custom; ject. Another letter being received from Sir custom, excuse ; excuse, defence; defence, ob- Edmond Andross, another meeting of the Assemstinacy; obstinacy, boasting; boasting, a seared bly was called, and they again refused to surrenconscience and a reprobate mind.
der it. Slander.-Believe nothing against another, In October, 1687, the Assembly held its but on good authority; nor report what may hurt regular session, as usual, and continued till the another, unless it may be a greater hurt to an- last of the month. The foliage had then fallen other to conceal it.-W. Penn.
from the trees, so that the eye might look far
into the surrounding forests. In the afternoon THE “CHARTER OAK."
of one of those mellow autumnal days, Oct. 31st, From an Address, before the Genealogical Society of Massa
a troop of soldiers, about sixty in number, with chusetts, by Sylvester Bliss.
Sir Edmond and his suite at their head, were Among the early settlers of Hartford was Mr. seen emerging from the woods; and they encirGeorge Wyllys, who appears not to have arrived cled the place where the Assembly were in sestill a year or two later, and who became Governor sion. Sir Edmond, with his suite, entered the of the colony in 1642. Before coming to Ameri- hall, demanded the Charter and declared the ca he sent forward his steward to prepare a place government under it dissolved. for his residence, and who selected the beautiful The Assembly were extremely reluctant and site which contained within its grounds this oak. slow to surrender it. Governor Treat representIt was in the height of its glory, but far past its ed at what expense and hardship the colony had prime, as was evident from the decayed hollow been planted, and that to give up their Charter in its trunk. As the steward was cutting away was like giving up life. The affair was debated the trees on the beautiful hill-side, a deputation and kept in suspense until lights were needed in of Indians came to him and requested that he the evening, when the Charter was brought in would “spare this old hollow oak.” They said: and laid on the table where the Assembly were. “ It has been the guide of our ancestors for cen-Great numbers of people had now assembled, turies as to the time of planting our corn : when and some sufficiently bold for any expediency. the leaves are the size of mouse cars, then is the The Governor and his associates then appeared time to put the seed in the ground.”
to yield the question, and Sir Edmond was adThe tree was spared at their solicitation, and vancing towards the table to take the parchment, remained an ornament of the Wyllys estate some when suddenly the lights were extinguished and fifty years before the occurrence of the historical | they were all in total darkness. There was no incident that give it name.
noise or confusion, and the candles were officiousIn 1662, Charles II. granted a charter con- ly relighted, but the Charter was gone! veying most ample privileges to the colony of One Captain Jeremiah Wadsworth silently Connecticut. It arrived in Hartford, probably had seized it, and disappeared with it before the in September, though its precise date is not room was again lighted. It is said by tradition known, and on the 9th of October was publicly that Jeremiah had often sat in the moonlight read, and entrusted to a committee, one of whom with one Kate Wyllys, beneath the spreading was Mr. Samuel Wyllys, a magistrate of the branches of the tree that her grandfather's stewcolony, for safe-keeping.
ard had spared at the solicitation of the red man; The government of the colony was conducted and to whom should he run with the Charter bui in accordance with its provisions. But in July, to Kate! To deposit it in some unsuspected re1685, soon after the accession of James the II., treat was of course his object, and her woman's a quo-warranto was issued against the governor ready wit at once suggested the hollow in the and company of Connecticut to appear and show old Oak. It was hardly sooner thought of than by what warrant they exercised their powers and it was there deposited, where no human eye privileges. In reply, the colony pleaded the would think of searching for it. charter granted by the king's royal brother, Sir Edmond was disconcerted at the disappearmade strong professions of loyalty, and begged a ance of the Charter. He declared the governcontinuance of their rights."
ment of the colony to be in his own hands, apIn 1636 two other writs of quo-warranto were | pointed officers of government, and returned issued against the colony, requiring their appear- with his troop to Boston. ance before his majesty. On the 19th of De- This was not the first time Sir Edmond Andcember of the same year, Sir Edmond Andross ross had been disconcerted by the Connecticut arrived at Boston, commissioned as the governor colony. Twelve years before, when governor of of all New England. He soon after wrote the New York, he appeared with an armed force at Governor of Connecticut that he was empowered Saybrook, for the purpose of annexing the colony to receive their charter, and requesting their to the government of the Duke of York. A devoluntary surrender of it; but the colony declined tachment under Capt. Thomas Bull had been 80 doing-a special session of the Assembly hav- sent from Hartford for the defence of Saybrook,
and he raised the King's flag on the Fort there. I brighten and multiply upon you. These will be Sir Edmond did not dare to fire on the flag; and your treasures, and treasures for heaven, too,on learning that the commanding officer was the delights of which mainly consist in the afnamed “ Bull," he was so pleased with his spirit fections and feelings, and congenial employments and bearing that he said in compliment, “it is of the new creature. - Dr. Chalmers. a pity your horns are not tipped with silver.” The government of Sir Edmond was ex
For Friends' Intelligencer. tremely arbitrary and tyrannical, but was of short TRANSPLANTING OF FRUIT TREES. continuance. In April, 1689, news arrived at Bos Having for a number of years directed a porton of the landing of the Prince of Orange in Eng. tion of my time and attention to the cultivation land, and on the 18th of that month Sir Edmond of fruit trees, I find from observation and exwas seized and confined in Prison in Boston. On perience, that the manner in which they are the 9th of May, Gov. Treat of Connecticut resumed transplanted is of peculiar importance in prothe government of that Colony, under the pro-) moting the prosperity of the tree. And we disvisions of the Charter which had been so securely cover of late an increasing inquiry in relation deposited in the old hollow tree, and which con- to the best and most efficient mode of transtinued to be the organic law of Connecticut till planting; yet I apprebend that much informathe present Constitution took its place in 1818. tion is still wanting to convince the public mind
The Charter was beautifully written on parch- that a consistent and judicious course of treatment, and enclosed in a box of about three feet ment, a course best calculated to preserve a uni. in length, in which it was brought over, which form growth of newly planted trees, and to prois still preserved in the Hartford Athenæum, mote their prosperity and vigor through life, with the sap of the oak left upon it; and since although it may be attended with some extra then this tree has been known as the Charter trouble and expense, will in the end prove most Oak. It has been regarded with affection and beneficial and satisfactory. The first thing to be veneration by the people of that State, and has considered is the construction of the borders, and been a kind of Mecca to all persons visiting the component materials to be placed about the Hartford city. A daughter of Secretary Wyllys, roots Deep planting I conceive to be one of the fifth in descent of the first from that name, the most fatal errors in forming new plantations, wrote to Dr. Holmes in reply to an inquiry of and the most difficult to correct, as the people his, as published in his “ Annals” in 1805 : . generally are not sufficiently aware of its in
That venerable tree which concealed the jurious effects. Charter of our rights stands at the foot of Wyllys | It is not my intention to criticise upon the hill. The first inhabitant of that name found it course practised by others, but simply to point standing in the height of its glory. Age seems out my own experience, and the course I have to have curtailed its branches, yet it is not ex- adopted of latter years, in regard to the trans. ceeded in the height of its coloring, or richness planting of fruit trees ; and this I will mostly of its foliage. The trunk measures twenty-one confine to a small orchard of apple trees, eightyfeet in circumference, and near seven in diame five in number, set in the fall of 1851, which was ter. The cavity which was the asylum of our an unusually dry season, thus rendering transCharter was near the roots, and large enough to planting more difficult. The month previous, I admit a child. Within the space of eight years drew from a muck swamp four cart loads of peat that cavity has closed, as if it had fulfilled the earth thrown up a year previous. This I placed Divine purpose for which it had been reared.” upon the ground which I interded for the orchard,
and added to this the same quantity of yard
manure, carefully mixing the eight loads together BEGINNING AT ONCE. .
for decomposition. Directly after harvest I laid Faith is the starting-post of obedience; but out the ground in diamonds, thirty-five feet apart what I want is, tbat you start immediately, that in the rows. you wait not for more light to spiritualize your The soil being rather a sandy loam, with obedience, but that you work for more light by gravelly subsoil, I then turned up a deep cut yielding a present obedience up to the present back-furrow one way of the rows about six feet light which you profess; that you stir up all wide, as I intended cultivating the entire ground the gift which is now in you, and this is the way the coming season. Quite early in the fall the to have the gift enlarged, that whatever your borders where prepared for the reception of the hand findeth to do in the way of service to God, trees. The holes were dug four feet square and you now do it with all your might. And the two feet deep, carefully placing the surface soil very fruit of doing it because of his authority, is by itself, and the subsoil in a separate heap. that you will at length do it because of your own About the middle of 10th mo. We commenced renovated taste. As you persevere in the labors setting the trees. First filling the holes about of His service you will grow in the likeness of half full of partially rotted sods from the backhis character. The graces of holiness will both / furrow closely placed together. Then the heap
of top soil previously thrown out was thoroughly in order that the entire quince stock may be enmixed with a portion of the compost heap, at the abled to throw out an increased portion of roots, rate of one cart load to about eleven trees, and that will give it a permanent support, and more the remaining portion at the hole filled with this equally balance the roots with the top ; and even mixture of fine mould, leaving the mould in then the tops and side branches should be anually the centre, where the trees were to be placed, shortened in, which will materially add to the some four or five inches above the level of the beauty, vigor and longevity of the pyramid, and surface, and at the borders about the same depth increase the size and flavor of the fruit. below the surface, leaving the mould to place the
DANIEL E. GEROW. roots upon in the form of a little hillock. After | Fairfield Co., Connecticut. smoothly paring all the mutilated roots, the trees were placed upon this mound, apd the roots ex
On reading the above in manuscript I will tended, placing them in their natural position; |
take the liberty of adding that I have found in then with a shovel the prepared mould was care- my own experience, as well as heard it highly fully sifted upon the roots, guarding them with recommended by others, that it is very important the hand during the process, in order that the to wet the roots of the trees just before covering roots might be rightly arranged, and every crevice them with the mould, as this causes them to be filled up. The roots being thinly covered, we then sifted on about two quarts of slacked lime surrounded entirely by a coatiog of earth. I and the same quantity of wood ashes; then filled should think also that in planting standard pear up the holes with the remainder of the prepared trees, the roots of which are more vertical and soil, leaving the top roots at the base of the stem descend deeper than the apple, that the hole just covered, and these top roots at least four or shonld not be filled quite so full as to within six five inches above the level of the surface, making this allowance for settling. This I conceive
inches of the surface at the outside of the hole, very essential to the well-being and prosperity though of course much would depend upon the of the tree, that it may at all times receive a suffi size of the tree; but I unite fully with D. E. G., cient portion of light and air. When placed in that planters cannot be too careful in guarding this position in windy, exposed places, they may require fastening for a time, by a small stake; / 18
? against settling their trees too deep in the soil. but this I did not do, with the exception of a few trees.
LOTTERIES. We then placed about the base of the trunki The Providence Journal is publishing a hisa sufficient quantity of earth or sods to guard the tory of lotteries in Rhode Island, from which it roots during the winter; this to be entirely re. appears that there was scarcely a church or re. moved the following spring.
ligious society in the State which did not, at some In the early part of spring I shortened in the period of its existence, derive advantage from entire tops, taking care to balance the same, and them, however shocking it may now appear. to remove all superfluous branches, leaving from Some societies built their churches with money four to six equally arranged on all sides, the
raised through lottery grants, others received astrees being from two to three years old from the sistance after their own means,
sistance after their own means had been exhaustbud. Instead of mulching in the spring with ed, while others merely used the money so raised coarse litter from the yard, as I had previously to build steeples, “ which would tend greatly to done, saw-dust from the mill was applied, which
the ornament of the town," where the steepleless was found a good substitute, drawing the saw
churches stood, to set up clocks “ for the great dust from the trees in the coming fall.
convenience of the market people,” or otherwise These trees all lived, and to all appearance expend it in similar superfluitios. scarcely received any check in their growth tho ensuing summer, and have continued to grow
BYE-AND-BYE. and flourish beyond my expectations, and fail
There's a little mischief-making
Elfin, who is ever nigh, not, more or less, to attract the attention and
Thwarting every undertaking, admiration of those that pass by, especially those
And his name is “ Bye-and-Bye.” that feel an interest in borticultural pursuits.
What we ought to do this minute The above recommendation I find cqually ap
Will be better done, he'll cry, plicable to nearly all fruit, as well as deciduous
If to-morrow we begin it
“Put it off”-says Bye-and-Bye. and perennial trees; yet we find there are ex
Those who heed his treacherous wooing, ceptions to this rule : for instance, the dwarf
Will his faithless guidance rue, pear tree, that is the pear budded upon the What we always put off doing, quince stock, which is generally inserted near
Clearly, we shall never do, the ground, and at the age of one or two years
We shall reach what we endeavor
If on “ Now” we more rely, should be transplanted, and the union that has
But unto the realms of “ Never" taken place, set an inch or two below the surface,
Leads the pilot “ Bye-and-Bye,”
From The National Era.
" Then row thy boat, oh, fisher ! THE CONQUEST OF FINLAND.
In peace on lake and bay;
And thou, young maiden, dance again
Around the poles of May !
“ Sit down, old men, together;
Old wives, in quiet spin ,
Henceforth the Anglo-Saxon
Is the brother of the Finn!” J. G. w.
THE GUILT OF CONTEMPT.
Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time,
thou shalt not kill: and whosoever shall kill, shall She saileth not for pleasure,
be in danger of the judgment : but I say unto you, She saileth not for gain.
that whosoever is angry with his brother without a But still by isle or mainland,
cause, shall be in danger of the judgment: and who
soever shall say to his brother, raca, shall be in She drops her anchor down,
danger of the council : but whosoever sball say, Where'er the British cannon
thou fool, shall be in danger of hell-fire. Matt. v. Rained fire on tower and town.
21, 22. Outspake the ancient Amptman,
In order to take in clearly the spirit of this At the gate of Helsingfors : " Why comes this ship a-spying
passage, let us settle in our minds the import of In the track of England's wars ?”
its leading terms. We have here an allusion to « God bless her,” said the coast-guard,
three distinct kinds of offence, and to three dis“ God bless the ship, I say;
tinct kinds of penalty. First, “ be not angry The holy angels trim the sails
with your brother without a cause," or you shall That speed her on her way!
be in danger of “the judgment." Secondly, - Where'er she drops her anchor,
call him not “ Raca,” or you shall be in danger The peasant's heart is glad ;
of "the council.” Thirdly, say not unto him Wher'er she spreads her parting sail, The peasant's h art is sad.
“thou fool,” or you shall be in danger of “bel).
fire"—the gehenna of fire." Here is a climax 66 Each wasted town and hamlet She visits to restore;
of penalty; we infer, therefore, a climax of guilt. To roof the shattered cabin,
The « council” was a subordinate Jewish court. And feed the starving poor.
The “ judgment” implies a still higher authority. The sunken boats of fishers,
The “gehenda of fire" may be understood from The forayed beeves and grain,
its uses. It means the valley of Hinnom, a place The spoil of flake and store house ;
near Jerusalem, were once children had been The good ship brings again.
sacrificed to Moloch, and into which, long after" And so to Finland's sorrow
wards, it was the custom, from the abomination The sweet amend is made,
that attached to it, to cast the dead bodies of As if the healing hand of Christ Upon her wounds were laid !”
malefactors. These and other substances need. Then said the gray old Amptman,
ing to be consumed, a fire was incessantly sus- The will of God be done!
tained in it; and thence it came to be called the The battle lost by England's hate,
gehenna of fire. By England's love is won !
Following the analogy so common in our Lord's 6. We braved the iron tempest
-indeed, in all Eastern teaching, by which the That thundered on our shore; But wben did kindness fail to find
spiritual is elicited from the literal-we bave The key to Finland's door ?
an intimation of the order in which these "No more from Aland's ramparts
several offences stand by the decision of the Shall warning signal come,
holiest and the best. Anger is a passion of reNor startled Sweaborg hear again
sistance; and this unjustly or excessively perThe roll of midnight drum.
mitted, is worthy of rebuke. But resistance 6 Beside our fierce Black Eagle
concedes to an opponent a species of equality. The Dove of Peace shall rest; And in the mouths of cannon
Anger is a passion, therefore, that in some sepse The sea-bird make her nest.
implies honor in the object, and does not wholly « For Finland, looking seaward,
debase him. It is not, therefore, as guilty as to No coming foe shall scan;
call him “ Raca”-a term of levity and ridicule And the holy bells of Abo
which, by robbing its object of the dignity that Shall ring, Good-will to man!'
anger presupposes, merits a still deeper condem*A late letter from England, in the Friends' Review, nation. But, “ Thou fool”—or, as the original says: “ Joseph Sturge, with a companion, Thomas more strongly has it, " Thou impious, thou Harris, has been visiting the shores of Finland, to
wretch," covers a human being with such odium ascertain the amount of mischief and loss to poor and
and such abhorrence, that he who applies the peaceable sufferers, occasioned by the gun boats of the Allied squadrons in the late war, with a view to ob- phrase or entertains the spirit of it, subjects taining relief for them.”
himself to the reprobation of outraged humanity