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he has found reason “ to doubt of its correct- I knowledge pervades the whole ; but personal ness.” He now entertains the opinion, that incidents or the results of particular observadeath was caused by “ some sudden affection tion are rarely met with. This mode of comof the heart." We refrain from any comment position perhaps imparts value as an instrueton either facts or opinions - and will content ive exposition, but rather detracts from the ourselves with adding a picture of the last popular character. Mr. Cruickshank, morescene of all from the narrative of this eye-over, is rather too prone to reflection or diswitness :
cussion, which often gives to his pages the In those warm latitudes interment follows air of a sermon or lecture. In spite of these death with a haste
' which often cruelly shocks drawbacks, the book is a full and lifelike picthe feelings. Mrs. Maclean was buried the ture of a people whose hardships as plantasame evening within the precincts of the castle. tion-slaves have brought them more fully Mr. Topp read the funeral service, and the whole before the world than their own importance of the residents assisted at the solemn ceremony. or deeds would have accomplished; whose The grave was lined with walls of brick and character and condition at home has been the mortar, with an arch over the coffin. Soon after subject of much dispute ; and whose social the conclusion of the service, one of those heavy position is well worth study. The institushowers only known in tropical climates suddenly tions and civil state of the Negroes seem to came on. All departed for their houses. I re- bear a closer resemblance to that of the Germained to see the arch completed. The brick- manic tribes than might have been expected ; layers were obliged to get a covering to protect while some of their customs and laws are them and their work from the rain. Night had counterparts of those of the Hebrews as recome on before the paving stones were all put corded in the Mosaic writings. down over the grave, and the workmen finished their business by torchlight. How sadly yet discusses are Fetish — their religion or super
The subjects Mr. Cruickshank most fully brance ! How sad were then my thoughts, as, stition; laws, and usages having the effect of wrapped up in my cloak, I stood beside the grave laws; slavery, and the results of missionary of L. E. L., under that pitiless torrent of rain teaching, with the future prospects of this I fancied what would be the thoughts of thou- part of Africa. The system of Fetish has sands in England, if they could see and know often been handled before, but never so fully the meaning of that flickering light, of those or 80 philosophically, with such a complete busy workmen, and of that silent watcher! I exposure of the arts of Fetish men, or so fair thought of yesterday, when at the same time I an estimate of its results. Bad and frauduwas taking my seat beside her at dinner, and lent as, is the system, it was held by the now, 0, how very — very sad the change!
principal and best-informed natives that its The second volume of this work contains a abolition, without something to put in its good account of the manners and customs of place, would be dangerous, since it still exerthe native tribes of the Gold Coast - but these cised a control over the conduct of the people have not sufficient interest to warrant ex- by means of fear. Circumstances, however, tract.
have lately enabled the government to thor. oughly expose the fraud, and they have done
so, without apparent evil consequences. On Part of an Article in the Spectator.
the contrary, it has extended a nominal ChrisMR. CRUICKSITANK has passed the last eigh- tianity, and led to the building of chapels. teen years of his life at Cape Coast Castle, or The extent of African slavery, the tyranny the settlements under its influence, engaged which the native master can exercise over his for a considerable portion of the time in the slave, and very often does, except when discharge of public duties which brought checked by British influence, give some counhim into constant connection with the natives tenance to the planter's argument, ridiculous in matters of law and custom. His book is as it sounds, that the Negro is worse off at the result of his long opportunities and expe- home. Slavery is interwoven with the whole rience ; and it contains the most thorough system of life. Almost every man is born a and complete account of the character, cus- slave, or is liable to become a slave. In the toms, superstitions, laws, and social state of case of captured, purchased, or slaves born of the Western Negroes, that we have seen. To slaves, the case is intelligible enough. The this survey Mr. Cruickshank has added a his- peculiarities of African law render almost tory of our settlements on the Gold Coast, every one a slave, or so deeply indebted that with a geographical sketch of the region. his freedom is unsubstantial. By a singular
The book is full of stories or cases illustrat- and rather complex system of marriage-laws, ire of the topics in hand, but it is rather a children are not often born free ; but besides series of essays upon classes of subjects than the father or mother may belong to the father's anything approaching to what is understood or mother's family. As in many other nike hy travels. Here and there the author throws tions, a debt which cannot be discharged in a description, and an evidently living reduces a man to slavery. There is also a
system of pawning. The head of a family be paid to purchase rum for the judges, 11. for may pawn his relations to raise money; and the gratification of the followers, ten shillings to though they may have an option on some the man who took the trouble to weigh out these occasions, the point of honor prevents its different sums, and five shillings to the courtbeing enforced. Till the debt is repaid with criers, . Thus Quansah had to pay 121. 15s. to fifty per cent. interest, the pawned are prac- bring his case before this august court ; the memtically slaves, and so are the children unless bers of which during the trial carried on a pleasthey are redeemed; while the pawnee scems
ant carouse of rum and palm wine. to possess a summary sort of foreclosing to their satisfaction, the defendant Oboo was then
The preliminaries having been thus arranged power, by which he may sell them all. This brought before them ; and, notwithstanding his state of things renders our direct interference protestations of innocence, he was compelled to on the subject of slavery a ticklish affair, es- pay 121. 15s. as Quansah had done. An invespecially as we have no political rights in the tigation then took place amid the wanton jokes country either by conquest or cession; in and obscene ribaldry of the crowd, who prolonged fact, we are truly no more than tenants of the the entertainment while the drink lasted. factories we occupy.
The Colonial Office Quansah had nothing to ground his charge could not be made to understand this; and at upon but his own suspicions, drawn from several a more fanatical period, or perhaps when the inconclusive circumstances not deserving of conanti-slavery party were supposed to be more sideration. His wife was examined, and declared powerful than they now are, it directed pro- mained unsupported by a single iota of evidence.
her innocence ; and the charge altogether receedings that would have inevitably ended in war, had they been carried out by the au- and his wife should take the oath of purgation,
As Quangah, however, insisted that both Oboo thorities at Cape Coast Castle. Even now the Pynins were not allowed to declare their inthe office persists in “ignoring" the subject.
nocence until this ceremony was concluded. But The Negro mind is litigious and casuistical. even this oath did not satisfy Quansah ; be repFew persons are found without a knowledge resented that the Fetish by which they had sworn of the laws, or the power of conducting a was not sufficiently powerful to reveal their guilt, case ; for a man's fortune or freedom may and that he would not be satisfied until they had depend upon his skill. Mr. Cruickshank gives made a journey to the Braffoo Fetish at Manil very bad account of their law and practice. i kassim, and taken the oath of purgation before Abstractedly such may be the fact; but it the priests there. This being considered the does not strike us that Negro jurisprudence is principal Fetish of the country, an appeal of this much worse than law in other places. The kind is not made without considerable expense ; case of Quansah versus Oboo, which our au. Oboo's innocence without the confirmation of the
but the Pynius declared themselves satisfied of thor adduces as an instance of African judicial Braffoo Fetish, whom they made it optional for iniquity, is not without parallel at home in him and the woman to consult or not as they its main features. The plaintiff
, Quapsah, thought fit. was jealous of his cousin and family head, This finding made Quansah liable for the pay. Oboo, though on no better grounds than some ment of Oboo's expenses ; but there was little superstitious notions. He proceeded against compensation to be found in this, for to raise the the suspected ; but in lieu of going before his funds to enable him to begin this prosecution, proper chief, Ottoo, he carried his case before Quansah had pawned his services to one of the the Pynins, or assembly of headmen — the head men who assisted at this mockery of justice ; Collective Wisdom.
and, unless by any extraordinary good fortune
he was enabled to repay the loan, he would very The decision of the Pynins conveys to the mind probably pass the remainder of his life in servi. of the Fantee a species of abstract necessity, an tude. irresponsible kind of fatality, which admits But the evil consequences of this iniquitous neither of resistance nor redress.
transaction did not stop short here. Oboo and When the day arrived for the hearing of Quan- his family were simple tillers of the ground, sah's charge, a large space was cleanly swept in whose entire riches consist for the most part in the market-place for the accommodation of the their periodical crops of corn, yams, plantain, assembly : for this a charge of ten shillings was and cassada, which barely suffice to support the made and paid. When the Pynins had taken family, and to supply them with funds to purtheir seats, surrounded by their followers, who chase a few articles of clothing and a little rum squatted upon the ground, a consultation took for the performance of their annual customs ; place as to the amount which they ought to upon any sudden demand for money, they hare charge for the occupation of their valuable time; no other resource than that of selling or pawning and, after duly considering the plaintiff's means, themselves and their relations. On the occasiou with the view of extracting from him as much as which we have been describing, Oboo was obliged
they could, they valued their intended services to pledge two of his nephews to obtain the 121. at 61. 158.; which he was in like manner called 15s., which was shared among the head men and upon to pay. Another charge of 21. 5s. was their myrmidons. Thus we have seen, in this made in the name of tribute to the chief, and as brief history, with what a fatal facility the coran acknowledgment of gratitude for his presence rupt nature of the native tribunals becomes itupon the occasion ; 11. 10s. was then ordered to strumental in gratifying the passions of vindio
From the Athenæum.
tive men. The instance here cited is far from stroyed, Mr. Moore was not legally liable to being a solitary one, either in its criminality or repay the two thousand guineas to Mr. Mur. in the injuriousness of its consequences, and it ray: has been selected as of late occurrence, having come under the official notice of the
Albemarle Street, May 19, 1824. writer ; who had the pleasure of being able to Dear Sir — On my return home last night, I restore to freedom the nephews of Oboo, by means found your letter, dated the 27th, calling on me of a process of disgorging to which he compelled for a specific answer whether I acknowledged the Oboo and his head men to submit.
accuracy of the statement of Mr. Moore, commu
nicated in it. Howerer unpleasant it is to me, Twelve pounds fifteen shillings is undoubt your requisition of a specific answer obliges me to edly a large sum for the Gold Coast; but if say that I cannot by any means admit the acthe costs of each litigant in our courts on a curacy of that statement ; and in order to explaiu somewhat similar occasion were reduced to to you how Mr. Moore's misa pprehension may African value, they doubtless would amount have arisen, and the ground upon which my asto as much at least. The plaintiff failing in sertion rests, I feel it necessary to trouble you his suit, and not being worth the cost, of the with a statement of all the circumstances of the defendant, sometimes occurs in happy Eng: case, which will enable you to judge for yourself. land, where men are also occasionally ruined
Lord Byron having made Mr. Moore a present by law or its charges. The decision was sound of his Memoirs, Mr. Moore offered them for sale enough ; and from all the cost, anxiety, and to Messrs. Longman & Co., who however declined wearing suspense of the law's delay the liti- to purchase them ; Mr. Moore then made me a
similar offer, which I accepted ; and in Novemgants were freed. The job was settled out of ber, 1821, a joint assignment of the Memoirs was hand and finally. Had Mr. Quansah been a made to me by Lord Byron and Mr. Moore, with British litigant, he probably might have been all legal technicalities, in consideration of a sum able to carry his case before a British court of 2,000 guineas, which, on the execution of the which should be analogous “ to the Braffuo agreement by Mr. Moore, I paid to him ; Mr. Fetish at Mankassim."
Moore also covenanted, in consideration of the said sum, to act as editor of the Memoirs, and to supply an account of the subsequent events of
Lord Byron's life, &c. Some months after the LORD BYRON'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY.
execution of this assignment, Mr. Moore requested
me, as a great personal favor to himself and to We expressed, our readers will remember, Lord Byron, to enter into a second agreement, last week, a doubt as to whether the property which I had in the Memoirs, and give Mr. Moore
by which I should resign the absolute property in the manuscript of the Byron Memoirs was and Lord Byron, or any of their friends, a power legally in Mr. Moore at the time of Lord Byron's of redemption during the life of Lord Byron. death — though we argued the question of Mr.
As the reason pressed upon me for this change Moore's conduct in the matter on the ground was, that their friends thought that there were of the right over the document assumed by some things in the Memoirs that might be injurious bimself. We have now had communicated to to both, I did not hesitate to make this alteration us the following letter from the late Mr. Mur- at Mr. Moore's request ; and, accordingly, on the ray, of Albemarle street, to Mr. Robert Wil- 6th day of May, 1822, a second deed was exemot Horton, the friend of Lord Byron's cuted, stating that, “Whereas, Lord Byron and family; written, it will be seen, shortly after Mr. Moore are now inclined to wish the said work Byron's death, in answer to a statement made not to be published, it is agreed that, if either by Mr. Moore relative to the sale and destruc- of them shall, during the life of the said Lord tion of the Autobiography. A limited nuin- Byron, repay the 2,000 guineas to Mr. Murray, ber of copies of the letter have been printed if the sum be not repaid, during the lifetime of
the latter shall re-deliver the Memoirs ; but that by the present Mr. Murray for distribution Lord Byron, Mr. Murray shall be at full liberty among his father's friends — not so much, it is understood, in needless vindication of his three months* after the death of the said Lord
to print and publish the said Memoirs within father's conduct on this occasion, as in reply Byron.” I need hardly call your particular atto certain passages in Moore's journal which tention to the words, carefully inserted twice Lord John Russell, after cancelling the prin- over in this agreement, which limited its existcipal entry, has, nevertheless, allowed to ence to the lifetime of Lord Byron; the reason stand and contradict his own summary of of such limitation was obvious and natural, Moore's conduct in this unfortunate affair. namely, that although I consented to restore the The letter, our readers will observe, confirms work while Lord Byron should be alive, to dithe statement which we made, that the MS. had been offered by Mr. Moore for sale to the • To this passage the present Mr. Murray has Messrs. Longman, and refused by them, before added this note : - The words “ within three it was offered to Mr. Murray ; - and states, Mr. Moore's request — and they appear in pencil,
Months,” were substituted for “ immediately," at among other points of moment, a new and in his own handwriting, upon the original draft of important fact — that when the MS. was de- the Deed, which is still in existence.
rect the ulterior disposal of it, I should by no doubt that, under all the circumstances, the pubmeans consent to place it after his death at the lic curiosity about these Memoirs would have disposal of any other person.
given me a very considerable profit beyond the I must now observe, that I had never been large sum I originally paid for them ; but you able to obtain possession of the original assign- yourself are, I think, able to do me the justice ment which was my sole lien on this property ; of bearing witness that I looked at the case with although I had made repeated applications to Mr. no such feelings, and that my regard for Lord Moore to put me in the possession of the deed, Byron's memory, and my respect for his surwhich was stated to be in the hands of Lord By- viving family, made me more anxious that the ron's banker.
Memoirs should be immediately destroyed, since Feeling, I confess, in some degree alarmed at it was surmised that the publication might be inthe withholding the deed, and dissatisfied at Mr. jurious to the former and painful to the latter. Moore's inattention to niy interests in this par As I myself scrupulously refrained from lookticular, I wrote urgently to him in March, 1823, ing into the Memoirs, I cannot from my own to procure me the deed, and at the same time knowledge say whether such an opinion of the expressed my wish that the second agreement contents was correct or not; it was enough for should either be cancelled or at once executed. me that the friends of Lord and Lady Byron
Finding this application unavailing, and be- united in wishing for their destruction. Why coming by the greater lapse of time still more Mr. Moore should have wished to preserve them, doubtful as to what the intentions of the parties I did not nor will inquire ; but having satisfied might be, I, in March, 1824, repeated my demand myself that he had no right whatever in them, I to Mr. Moore in a more peremptory manner, and was happy in having an opportunity of making, was in consequence at length put into possession by a pecuniary sacrifice on my part, some return of the original deed. But not being at all satisfied for the honor, and, I must add, the profit, which with the course that had been pursued towards I had derived from Lord Byron's patronage and me, I repeated to Mr. Moore my uneasiness at the friendship. You will also be able to bear witness terms on which I stood under the second agree that, although I could not presume to impose nn ment, and renewed my request to him that he obligation on the friends of Lord Byron or Mr. would either cancel it, or execute its provisions by Moore, by refusing to receive the repayment of the immediate redemption of the work, in order the 2,000 guineas advanced by me, yet that I that I might exactly know what my rights in the had determined on the destruction of the Meproperty were. He requested time to consider of moirs, without any previous agreement for such this proposition. In a day or two he called and repayment, and you know the Memoirs were told me that he would adopt the latter alternative, actually destroyed without any stipulation on my namely, the redemption of the Memoirs, as he had part, but even with a declaration that I had defound persons who were ready to advance the stroyed my own private property, and I theremoney on his insuring his life, and he promised fore had no claim upon any party for remunerato conclude the business on the first day of his tion. I remain, Dear Sir, your faithful servant, return to town, by paying the money and giving (Signed)
John MURRAY. up the agreement. Mr. Moore did return to To Robert Wilmot Horton, Esq. town, but did not, that I have heard of, take any proceedings for insuring his life ; he positively neither wrote, nor called upon me, as he had Tue LAST MOMENTS OF Rob Roy. - His deathpromised to do (though he was generally accus- bed was in character with his life ; when contomed to make mine one of his first houses of fined to bed, a person with whom he was at encall), nor did he take any other step, that I am mity proposed to visit him.
“ Raise me up,” aware of, to show that he had any recollection of said Rob Roy to his attendants, " dress me in iny the conversation which had passed between us best clothes, tie on my arms, place me in my previous to his leaving town, until the death of chair. It shall never he said that Rob Roy MacLord Byron had, ipso facto, cancelled the agree- gregor was seen defenceless and unarmed by an ment in question, and completely restored my enemy." His wishes were executed ; and he reabsolute rights over the property of the Memoirs. ceived his guest with haughty courtesy. When
You will therefore perceive that there was no he had departed, the dying chief exclaimed : "It verbal agreement in existence between Mr. Moore is all over now - put me to bed — call in the and me, at the time I made a verbal agreement piper ; let him play · Ha til mi tulidh' (we rewith you to deliver the Memoirs to be destroyed. turn no more) as long as I breathe.” Mr. Moore might undoubtedly, during Lord obeyed — he died, it is said, before the dirge was Byron's life, have obtained possession of the Me- finished. His tempestuous life was closed at the moirs, if he had pleased to do so he, however, farm of Inverlochlarigheg (the scene, afterwards, neglected or delayed to give effect to our verbal of his son's frightful crimes), in the Braes of agreement, whicli, as well as the written instru- Balquhidder. He died in 1735, and his remains ment to which it related, were cancelled by the repose in the parish churchyard, beneath a stone death of Lord Byron, and there was no reason upon which some admirer of this extraordinary whatsoever why I was not at that instant perfectly man has carved a sword. His funeral is said to at liberty to dispose of the MS. as I thought have been attended by all ranks of people, and a proper. Had I considered only my own interest deep regret was expressed for one whose characas a tradesman, I would have announced the ter had much to recommend it to the regard of work for immediate publication, and I cannot Highlanders. Memoirs of the Jacobites.
From the N. Y. Journal of Commerce.
which pervades the whole, and which, in conseTHE SPIRIT RAPPINGS.
quence, produces, in each of these divisions of
society, evil instead of good. ROBERT Owey having done us the honor to
I have applied all my powers of mind as send us a copy of his Manifesto to All Nations, honestly and fearlessly to investigate these new touching the new light which has beamed manifestations, said to be made by departed upon his understanding through the medium spirits, from another advanced state of our
existence. of spiritual rappings, we lose no time in lay
Until the commencement of this investigation, ing it before our readers, together with his a few weeks since, I believed that all things are ** Narrative” of the ways and means by which eternal, but that there is a constant change in he became converted to the new delusion. In combinations and their results, and that there this Narrative he states that he has had was no personal or conscious existence after numerous interviews with the spirits ; that all death. his questions relating to the past and present By investigating the history of these manihave been answered by them promptly and festations in America, and subsequently, as will truly except one (the result of his own error), be narrated, through the proceedings of an and that he has received “ very rational re- American medium, by whose peculiar organizaplies as to the future.” One of the questions tion manifestations are obtained, I have been which he states to have been answered compelled, contrary to my previous strong con
victions, to believe in a future conscious state promptly and truly, is as follows:
of life, existing in a refined material, or what is Q. Have I (Owen) been assisted in my called a spiritual state. And that, from the writings for the public by any particular spirit? natural progress of creation, these departed Ars. “ Yes."
spirits have attained the power to communicate Q. Whilt spirit? Ans. “God.”
their feelings and knowledge to us living upon
the earth, by various ineans. This last answer, Owen tells us, was made From the communications which have been in such a manner as to create “a peculiarly made to me, through the aid of this American meawful impression on those present.” We dium,* from Jefferson, Franklin, Grace Fletcher, should think so. For a veteran infidel, who and the father of our present sovereign, I am through a long life has been diffusing his per- informed that these new manifestations, or revenicious doctrines far and wide, to be told that lations, from the spiritual, or, more truly, the he has been specially assisted in these writings refined material world, are made for the purpose by God, or the Spirit of God, is indeed awful of changing the present false, disunited, and
miserable state of human existence, for a true, - horrible - blasphemous. And this an
united, and happy state, to arise from a new swer he supposes to have been given by the universal education, or 'formation of character, spirit of Benjamin Franklin! Much more from birth, to be based on truth, and conducted likely by the Spirit of Darkness. But we in accordance with the established laws of human will let the old gentleman (Owen) tell his nature. own story in his own way.
A change which, with the concurrence of the
existing authorities in Europe and · America, ALL GOVERN- disregarding all old prejudices, may be now
easily effected, to the lasting benefit of all upon
earth. Peace, Charity, Love, Union, and, Progress, to all the Inhabitants of the Earth.
To delay the public announcement of these all
important truths, now that they are known to A great moral revolution is about to be effected me, would be to delay unnecessarily the change for the human race, and by an apparent miracle. from ignorance to knowledge, from poverty to
Strange and incredible as it will at first appear, wealth, from disunion to union, from falsehood communications, most important and gratify- to truth, from deception to honesty, from evil to ing, have been made in great numbers in Amer- good, and from general misery to universal hapici, and to many in this country, through mani- piness. festations, by invisible but audible powers, pur The means to effect this change in all countries porting to be from departed spirits, and to me are known. especially from President Jefferson, Benjamin The means by which the evils enumerated are Franklin, His Royal Highness the late Duke of created have become obvious. Kent, Grace Fletcher, my first and most en The means by which the good may be secured lightened disciple, and many members of my own family, Welsh and Scotch. No one who knows me will attribute superstition
* The medium referred to is Mrs. Hayden, residto me, or want of moral courage to investigate ing at No. 22 Queen Anne streot, Cavendish Square. truth, and to follow it wherever it may lead.
All who have had opportunities of becoming well
acquainted with Mrs. Hayden will testify to her I have honestly and fearlessly applied my best simplicity of mind, to the kindness and benevofaculties to examine the religions, laws, govern- lence of her disposition, and to the truthfulness ments, institutions, and classifications, of all of her professional statements, as well as to nations and peoples, and I have found them to her extreme sensitiveness when her veracity is be based on a fundamental principle of error, I doubted.
MANIFESTO OF ROBERT OWEN TO
MENTS AND PEOPLES.