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pumpague, or wampeague, or wampam- Multnomah with the Columbia, twenty peague, of which wampum seems to be a miles long and ten broad. Its numerous contraction.

ponds abound with the common arrowWANDERING; a technical term with head (sagittaria sagittifolia), to the root German mechanics, to denote their cus- of which is attached a bulb, growing in tom of travelling into foreign countries the mud. This bulb, to which the Inafter finishing their apprenticeship. For- dians give the name of wapatoo, is the merly, they were bound by law, in all great article of food, and almost the staGerman states, to travel in this way, oth- ple article of commerce on the Columbia. erwise they could not make their master. It is never out of season, so that, at all pieces; that is, those specimens of their times of the year, the valley is frequented skill, by which they proved to the corpo- by the neighboring Indians, who come to ration that they were fit to become mas- gather it. It is collected chiefly by the ters, and which they are still bound to women, who take a light canoe in a pond exhibit in several parts of Germany where the water is as high as the breast, where corporations exist. Whether this and, by means of their toes, separate the habit of wandering arose from the uni- root from the bulb, which, on being freed versal disposition of the Germans for from the mud, rises immediately to the travelling into foreign countries, which surface of the water, and is thrown into scatters German mechanics all over the the canoe. This plant is found through the world, or from the unsettled habits of whole extent of the Columbia valley, but many classes in the middle ages, as the does not grow farther eastward. knights, the vacantivi (see School, vol. xi, WAPPING; a village and parish of p. 251), or the frequent campaigns of the England, in Middlesex, on the north bank Germans in Italy, where the servants of of the Thames, one of the out-parishes of the noblemen learned many arts not London, on the east side of the city, inknown in Germany, we cannot here dis- habited chiefly by persons employed in cuss. In summer, mechanics may al- trade, connected with the shipping of the ways be seen on the roads in Germa- port of London; population, 5889. Here ny, carrying knapsacks and sometimes are the London docks, St. Catharine's a few tools. They receive dinner and docks, &c., and the stupendous warelodging, or money, from the corporation in houses belong to the custom-house, &c. each place, or from the master-workmen, (See Docks, and London.) if there are only a few in a place. Many War, in general; a state of hostility peculiarities and absurdities are connected and violence between individuals, or, in a with this receiving of presents. Instead more common sense, between sovereign of a passport, they carry “wandering- nations, who, having no superior power to books," so called, which must be kept in which to appeal for the decision of their good order, and shown to the police of the disputes, have recourse to force and arms. places through which they pass.

In contradistinction to international or WANKER, Ferdinand Geminian, doctor public war, civil war designates a similar of theology, professor of moral philoso- state of violence existing between differphy in the university of Freiburg, was ent portions or members of the same naborn in 1758, in Freiburg, in the Brisgau, tion. International wars are generally was made professor of morals in 1788, distinguished into offensive wars, or wars and elected archbishop, but died in 1824, of attack, and defensive wars, or wars of before the papal confirmation arrived from defence. The party which carries on Rome. His works would prove instruc- what is called an offensive war is not, tive to many Catholics who believe that however, by any means, always the origithey abandon their faith if they give up nal author of the hostile measures, since certain things which are inconsistent the seeming assailant is often forced into with the present state of intelligence, or his position by the violation of his rights, with the testimony of history. Among or the menacing posture of the other parhis works are the following :-On Rea- ty. It is well known that both belligerson and Revelation, with a view to the ents aim to acquire the credit of acting Moral Wants of Mankind (Vienna, 1802, on the defensive, partly to conciliate pub2d ed., Freiburg); On the Matrimonial Tie, lic opinion, which, though often misconsidered with Respect to Natural Law takenly, commonly pronounces a defenand Pure Morality (1810); and System of sive war justifiable, and condemns an ofChristian Morals.

fensive war; and sometimes, also, to seWAPATOO Island; an island of North cure the assistance of foreign powers, America, formed by the junction of the which has been guarantied, by treaty, to one or both parties, who may become the (See Middle Ages, and Feudal System.) object of offensive measures. The right Their example was followed by their of declaring war, in monarchical govern- subvassals, and the countries of Europe mients, is commonly in the king, as the were perpetually ravaged with internal actual sovereigu power, or the head of the hostilities. In England alone, of all feuexecutive, as in constitutional monarchies. dal countries, this scourge was little felt; In England and France, the king has the and, though it cannot be said that the right to declare war and make peace; practice of private wars was unknown but this power is virtually controlled by under the Norman kings, yet the right of the legislative power to grant or withhold waging these feuds was never recognised : supplies. In the 0. Siates, the consti- theiroccurrence wasdenounced, and some. tution provides (art. 1, sec. 8) that the times punished, as an offence against the congress shall have power to declare war, king's peace, that is, against the supreme grant letters of marque and reprisal, raise authority of the crown. (See Hallam's and support armics, and provide and Middle Ages, vol. ii, chap. 8.) By the maintain a navy. It is not, in modern feudal customs of the continent, the right times, a common practice to make a for- of private war was extended to all per. mal declaration of war, or official previ- sons of noble quality, or, in other words, ous notice to the enemy; but a domestic to all possessors of fiefs on knightly tenmanifesto of the sovereign to his subjects, ure. But they must be equal, in the scale or to the nation, is considered as suflicient of infeudation, with their adversaries; cor to apprize neutrals that a war actually did every civil carise of offence justify a: exists. Thus, in the war between Eng- appeal to arms, bu: such deadly injuries land and France, in 1778, the recalling of only as are usually deemed capital crimes the British minister from Paris was con- in modern jurisprudence, or such outsidered the first publie act of hostility; rageous insults as no knight might endure. and there was no other declaration of When the war was once begun, it might war. So, in the war of 1812, between legally be espoused by the relations of Great Britain and the U. States, hostilities both parties ; and it was even incumbent were commenced, on our part, as soon as on them, in some cases, to give aid in the the necessary act of congress was passed, quarrel, under pain of forfeiting the clainas without waiting to communicate our in- and inheritance of kindred. Still more tentions to the English government. In- were the vassals of each combatant individuals have no right to commit acts of volved in the contest, since, by the very hostility, except in self-defence, without a essence of the feuclal obligations, they commission from the proper authorities, were bound to defend and assist their and are liable to be treated as pirates and lords. The means by which this pernirobbers if they undertake hostilities on cious custom was finally abrogated, were their own responsibility. (See Privateers, various. The most remarkable was the and Prize.)--On the rights and duties of truce of God (9. v.), by which men were belligerents in general, see the articles Na- forbidden to assail their adversaries dur. tions, Law of'; and Conquest. See, like- ing any of the holy festivals, and also durwise, Soldiers, Strategy, Military Sciences, ing the interval between every Wednes. Army, Navy, Tirailleurs, &c.

day evening and Monday morning, as War, Private, or Club-Law (jus manua- embracing those days of the week which rium ; in German, Faustrechi, fist-law). had been sanctified by the passion and Throughout the countries which com- resurrection of the Redeemer. At first, posed the Carlovingian empire, no feudal the truce of God, extending from France, right was more universally established was adopted throughout Europe ; but, and exercised than that of private war, notwithstanding the anxiety of the church, the immediate cause and systematic com- and repeated decrees of popes and mencement of which are sufficiently to councils, its provisions appear to have be found in the anarchy of the ninth been little regarded. The interposition and tenth centuries. During the abe;- of royal authority was necessary to reance of all regal or national authority, strain, and finally to extinguish, these the great feudatories were, in fact, in the bloody feuds; and the first step towanis condition of foreign powers to each oth- the accomplishment of this object dates er: they were without any common su- from the ordinance of Louis IX, forbidperior jurisdiction, to which, lind they been ding, under penalty of treason, the cominclined, they could appeal for the redress mencement of any private war until forty of injuries; and the power of the sword days after the commission of the act alone remained to decide their quarrels. in which the quarrel had originated. The opportunities of accommodation But, while yet at the head of 10,000 men, between the parties, given by this he suddenly deserted his followers, on the edict, which was known under the approach of Henry, and took refuge in name of the king's peace, or royal truce, the sanctuary of Beaulieu. Having finalappear to have contributed essentially tó lý surrendered himself into the hands of diminish the number of private wars the king, he was obliged to read a confesin France; and the endeavors of St. Lou- sion of his imposture, while standing in is, being followed up by Philip the Fair, the stocks, and then thrown into the Towand successfully completed by Charles er (1499). Here he met with Edward VI and Louis XI, led, soon after the mid- Plantagenet, earl of Warwick, son of the dle of the fifteenth century, to the total duke of Clarence, and rightful heir to the abolition of the practice in that country: crown, who had been a prisoner there for In Germany, truces of this kind (called fifteen years. The unhappy boy listened landfriede, peace of the land) were repeat- with eagerness to the projects, suggested edly declared for a certain period, during by Warbeck, for their deliverance, and which private war was illegal. But the they were both charged with a conspiracircumstance that Germany always con- cy to set themselves free, by seducing tinued to be divided among a great num- some of the guards and destroying the ber of petty but independent sovereign rest. Warbeck seems to have been exprinces, retarded the accomplishment of cited, by the king, to inveigle Warwick. the efforts of the clergy and the emperors into acts which would give a pretence for to effect the entire abolition of the practice. effecting his death. Bacon darkly hints, In 1486, a landfriede of ten years, the that Ferdinand of Spain was unwilling longest that had ever been established, to assent to the marriage between his was proclaimed ; and it was soon followed daughter, the unfortunate Catharine, and by the perpetual peace (ewiger landfriede), Arthur, prince of Wales, while the earl entirely forbidding private war. (See of Warwick lived. However this may Chamber, Imperial, and German Empire.) be, Warbeck was convicted of treason,

War, NORTHERN. (See Northern War.) and hanged at Tyburn (1499); and War

WAR OF 1812—15. (See Russian- wick was likewise convicted of high treaGerman War.)

son, by a jury of peers, and put to death WAR OF THIRTY YEARS. (See Thirty for an offence which his faculties did not Years' War.)

enable bim to comprehend. Rey (Essais WAR, PEASANTS'or Rural. (See Peas- Historiques et Critiques sur Richard III, ants' War.)

Paris, 1818) maintains that Warbeck was WARBECK, Perkin; an individual who the son and lawful heir of Edward IV. played a singular part in the reign of WARBURTON, William, a celebrated Henry VII, giving himself out as the sec- prelate of the English church, born at ond son of Edward IV, who was sup- Newark-upon-Trent, in Nottinghamshire, posed to have been murdered, in the Tow- in 1698, was the second son of an ater, by Richard III. It is difficult, at this torney, and, after being educated at distance of time, to decide upon his pre- school, was, in 1714, articled to an attortensions ; but his ill success has set him ney at East Markham, in his native coundown with posterity as an impostor. ty. After completing a clerkship of five He was first heard of at the court of the years, he was admitted in one of the duchess of Burgundy, sister of Edward courts at Westminster, and, returning to IV, about the year 1490, when all were Newark, he engaged in legal practice. struck with his resemblance to that prince. Not finding the profession adapted to his Some authors have asserted that he was taste or talents, he relinquished it, and, the natural son of Edward. Supported in 1723, took deacon's orders in the church. by the duchess of Burgundy in his pre- His first work, consisting of Miscellanetensions, Warbeck at length (1496) ven- ous Translations, in Prose and Verse, tured to make a descent upon England; from Roman authors, was published with but, being worsted in the attempt, he re- a Latin dedication to sir George Sutton, tired to Scotland, where he was well re- who, in 1726, bestowed on him a smalí ceived by the king, who gave him the vicarage. Shortly after, he visited Lonhand of Catharine Gordon, a young lady don, and formed an acquaintance with akin to the royal family. The Scotch some of the inferior wits of that period, king was, however, soon after prevailed among whom was Theobald, then enupon to abandon his cause ; and Warbeck gaged on an edition of Shakspeare, to landed in Cornwall, where he was pro- which Warburton became a contributor. claimed king by the name of Richard'IV. In 1727, he began to distinguish himself


as an original writer by his Inquiry into 1757, and, two years after, bishop of the Causes of Prodigies and Miracles, Gloucester. The fifth voluine of the Diwhich he dedicated to sir Robert Sutton, vine Legation was published in 1765; and through whose interest he was placed in some remarks which he introduced on the list of the king's masters of arts, on the character of doctor W. Lowth, father his majesty's visit to Cambridge, in 1728; of the bishop of London, involved him and he thus supplied the want of an aca- in a new controversy, in which he was demical education. His patron also pre- assisted by doctor Richard Hurd. In sented him to the rectory of Brand 1768, he established a lecture at Lincoln's Broughton, in Lincolnshire, where he re- inn, on the evidence in favor of Christimained several years, during which he anity from the prophecies of the Old and composed most of those works which New Testament. The last years of his contributed to the establishment of his life were embittered by the decease of an fame. In 1736 appeared his Alliance be- only son, who fell a victim to consumptween Church and State, or the Necessity tion at the age of nineteen. Bishop War. and Equity of an established Religion burton died at Gloucester, June 7, 1779, and Test Law, which passed through four and was interred in the cathedral church, editions during the life of the author, where a monument was erected to his though it is said to have given satisfaction memory. His works were collected and neither to the zealois of the church nor published by his friend bishop Hurd, in to the advocates for religious liberty. 1788 (6 vols., 4to.); and a biographical meThe first volume of his chief work was moir, forming a seventh volume, appearpublished, in 1738, under the title of the ed several years after. Doctor Johnson, Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated in his Life of Pope, says of Warburton, on the Principles of a Religious Deist, “ He was a man of vigorous faculties, a from the Omission of the Doctrine of a mind fervid and vehement, supplied, by Future State of Rewards and Punish- incessant and unlimited inquiry, with ments in the Jewish Dispensation. This wonderful extent and variety of knowlparadoxical performance met with adver- edge, which yet had not oppressed his saries among all parties, who concurred imagination, nor clouded his perspicuity. in criticising and censuring the theory on To every work he brought a memory full which it is founded. Undismayed by an- fraught, together with a fancy fertile of imadversion, he published a Vindication original coinbinations, and at once exerted of his opinions, and persevered in the the powers of the scholar, the reasoner prosecution of his work. Having pub- and the wit. But his knowledge was too lished, in the literary journal called the multifarious to be always exact, and his Works of the Learned, in 1739 and 1740, pursuits were too eager to be always caua defence of the Essay on Man, against tious. His abilities gave him a haughty the remarks of De Crousaz of Geneva, consequence, which he disdained to corPope acknowledged bis obligations to his rect or mollify; and his impatience of opadvocate, and an intimacy ensued between position disposed him to treat his adverthem. On his death, in 1744, Pope be- saries with such contemptuous superioriqueathed to our author half his library, ty as made his readers commonly his edand the copy-right of such of his works emies, and excited against the advocate already printed as were not otherwise some who favored the cause. He seems disposed of. Among the numerous an- to have adopted the Roman emperor's tagonists of Warburton and his Divine determination, Oderint dum metuant. He Legation, were doctors Middleton, Po- used no allurements of gentle language, cocke, R. Grey, Sykes and Stebbing, but wished to compel rather than to peragainst whom he published, in 1744 and suade. His style is copious without se1745, two defences, in which he treats all lection, and forcible without neatness; he his opponents, except Middleton, with a took the words that presented themselves; high degree of asperity and self-confi- his diction is coarse and impure, and his dence. He became, in 1746, preacher to sentences are unmeasured.” the society of Lincoln's inn; and, in the Ward, Artemas, the first major-general following year, he appeared as the editor in the Aincrican army, graduated at Harof Shakspeare. He now rapidly advanced vard college, in 1748. For several years, in the course of pr«ferment in his profes- he was an active and useful member of sion, becoming prebend of Gloucester in the general court, and, in 1774, one of the 175.3, king's chaplain in ordinary in 1754, provincial congress. He served in the then prebond of Durham, D. D. by arch- war previous to the peace of Paris, and, iepiscopal mandate, dean of Bristol in when the revolutionary struggle com

menced, he was appointed major-general, tism, obstructions, cutaneous eruptions, and was even thought of as generalissi- &c. The environs are romantic. mo. He commanded the troops at Cam- WARNEFRIDUS. (See Paul the Deabridge until the arrival of Washington, con.) when he was placed at the head of WARP, in manufactures, is the threads, the right wing at Roxbury. His firmness whether of silk, woollen, hemp, &c., that and intrepidity were strikingly displayed are extended lengthwise on the weaver's on various trying occasions. In April, locm, and across which the workman, 1776, he resigned his commission, though, by means of his shuttle, passes the threads at the request of Washington, he contin- of the woof, to form a cloth, riband, fusued for some time longer in command. tian, or other stuff. He was afterwards chosen one of the WARP; a rope or hawser, employed council of Massachusetts, where he was occasionally to remore a ship from one distinguished for his integrity and inde- place to another, in a port, road or river. pendence of spirit. In 1786, he was Hence to warp is to change the situation speaker of the house of representa- of a ship, by pulling her from one part of tives, and chief justice of the court of a harbor, &c., to some other, by means of common pleas for the county of Worces- warps which are attached to buoys, to ter. On the organization of the general other ships, to anchors sunk in the botgovernment, he was elected to congress. tom, or to certain stations upon the shore, Hedied at Shrewsbury, Oct. 28, 1800, aged as posts, rings, trees, &c. seventy-three years, after a long decline. Warren, sir Peter, an English admi

WARENAM; a market-town and bor- ral, distinguished for his professional talough of England, in Dorsetshire, near the ents and his private virtues, was descendmouth of the Frome. By the reformed from an ancient family in Ireland, and act of 1832, it was deprived of one of received an education suitable to the emits members of parliament. Population, ployment for which he was destined. 2325.

Having entered young into the navy, he WARENDORF, on the Ems; a Prussian gradually rose to the rank of commodore, town in the government of Münster, and which he held in 1745, when he was approvince of Westphalia, with 4200 inhab- pointed commander of an armament desitants. Above 16,000 pieces of linen (or tined for the attack of Louisburg, North $60,000 ells) are woven by the peasants America, then belonging to the French. of the environs, in winter, when they He was joined by the fleet of transports cannot work in the fields.

from Boston, containing the New EngWARHAM, William, an English prelate land troops under sir W. Pepperell (q.v.), and statesman of the sixteenth century, in Canso bay, on the 25th of April; and was a native of Hampshire, and was edu- the combined forces took possession of cated at Winchester school and Oxford, Louisburg on the 17th of June. The where he obtained a fellowship in 1475. French considered the loss of this place He subsequently practised as an advocate of so much importance, that, in 1747, in the court of arches, and, after an em- they fitted out a powerful fleet for the bassy to Burgundy, was appointed chan- purpose of retaking it; and, at the same cellor of Wells, and master of the rolls. time, another squadron was sent to the Henry VII at length raised bim to the East Indies. The views of the French dignity of lord chancellor; and he suc- government were rendered abortive by cessively became bishop of London, and the courage and activity of admiral Anarchbishop of Canterbury. He was one son and sir Peter Warren. The latter, of the early patrons of Wolsey, whose who had been made a rear-admiral, with influence, under Henry VIII, gave um- a large fleet, fell in with the French brage to Warham; and, in 1515, he re- squadren, completely defeated them, and signed the great seal, and at length with- captured the greater part of their mendrew his attention from affairs of state. of-war. Peace being concluded the suclle died in 1532. This prelate was an ceeding year, he was elected member of encourager of learning, and was the friend parliament for Westminster. He died in and patron of the celebrated Erasmus. 1752.

WARMERUNN (also called Warmbad); a WARREN, Joseph,a major-general in the watering place in Silesia, a league from American army, was born at Roxbury, Hirschberg, 1077 feet above the sea, in a Massachusetts, in 1740. He graduated, romantic situation. It contains 1900 in- in 1759, at Harvard university, where he habitants. The warın springs are inuch bore the reputation of great talents, acresorted to for the cure of gout, rheuma- complishments, courage, generosity and in


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