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ness.

But one thing is certain. Nothing can be The case, therefore, stands thus. There are more precarious than the nature of the influence three parties besides the czar interested in this of Russia, over populations whose sympathies she loan, which he can make nowhere but in England; has cultivated, to effect the disintegration of the the populations of Eastern Europe, the British empire which it is her ambition to absorb. community at large, and speculating capitalists in

The Emperor Nicholas, inflated by success, particular. Considering the interests of the first, may not choose to trust to our continued apathy and supposing they will but distantly affect us, for the slow but sure undermining of Turkey, we may be content that our moneyed resources and may be on the point of striking impatiently, should be poured out to enable Russia to perpetuupon the principle that it is “ now or never.ate its desolating rule. But with reference to The threatening attitude of his armies, and the what in that case will sooner or later befall the position which, according to the last accounts, they second, ought the problematical gains of a few to have taken up in Wallachia, which they occupy be allowed to drag the whole community into in defiance of treaties, and under the pretext of eventual expenditure and war? And, lastly, are its unsettled state, strongly favor this presumption. the unscrupulous participants in the proposed transIf the sinews of war, and means of corruption more action themselves well assured that their money extensive, are furnished by this country, a similar will be more secure than the “ unreturning' milpretext will not be wanting for more extended ons poured into South America and Spain? We occupation, till the moment shall arrive when, the think not. The United Statesman sold his musmask thrown off, the appropriation of the Danu- kets to the Mexicans, alleging that if he had not bian provinces, or a more adventurous advance, supplied them England would, and“ because he calwill bring Russia at last into direct collision with culated that they would soon be recovered by the England.

victorious armies of the States," a prediction veriIt is argued that any attempt to make the fied by the event. To the subscribers of the lender responsible for the purposes to which his Russian loan we can promise no such fortune as inoney is devoted, is an impertinent interference that; their capital, once parted with, is not very with the rights of commercial dealing, and the likely to be recovered by any contingency of either appeal of Mr. Cobden to the moral sense of the peace or war. The prospectus ushered into the country has been parodied by applying his denun- world by the great house of Baring promises reimciation of the Russian loan to that of the United bursement of these advances within fifty years. States, for defraying the expenses of the war But who that is conversant with the politics of with Mexico.

Eastern Europe, who that saw the Austrian emBut public opinion should and does, in certain pire and Prussian kingdom immutably propped up cases, control the disposal of capital, and prevent by bayonets in 1847 and revolutionized in '48, can its devotion to purposes of infamy or danger. No feel sure but that long before fifty years, perhaps one would be allowed to propose investment in a before fifty months, have elapsed, even Russian slave-trade or a gaming-house speculation, though despotism may be only a tradition? Who that both were legalized in the country from which the knows the feelings of the Russian people can beproposal came ; and if a loan had been attempted lieve that they would, in such a case, acknowlin this country to succor the Affghans with arms, edge any debt their autocracy had made? And, or to complete the equipment of the Sikhs, capi- finally, what speculator, who did not intend to talists would have been compelled to manifest their palm his bargain on another, would, even with dissent more decidedly than by an increased per- doubled advantages held out, advance a single shilcentage of the funds demanded. There exist, we ling to Russia with the knowledge that it was to are aware, admirers of the principle upon which be devoted to a warlike purpose? Yet to the the Dutch sold powder to our men-of-war employed conclusion that such is its intent we feel convinced in battering their cities ; upon which the Dey, that a due investigation of the Turkish question threatened with the bombardment of his capital, would as irresistibly incline our readers as ourinquired the expenditure it would involve, and selves. offered to destroy it himself for half the money ; and in pursuance of which a United States man is

From the Spectator, 19 Jan. alleged to have sold, during the late war, eighty

GERMANY. thousand States' flint locks to the Mexicans, receiving from his government the usual facilities The revolution of March, 1848, has wrought erfor payment. But in all these cases it is obvious tensive and permanent changes in Germany. The that only that was proposed or done, which, if left territorial divisions and the political institutions undone, would have been effected by another ; and of all the states remain substantially as they were this consideration (though we deny the justice of before ; but in each of them the representative the parallel and consequently the point of the system has been more or less modified, and each parody) applies equally to the American and Rus- has had its relations to the rest of the confederasian loans. America does not ask us, or at least tion materially altered. The successes of the depend exclusively upon us, for the funds she princes and their armies have not reëstablished raises ; whilst Russia can nowhere else obtain them in their old positions. The German rulers them.

find that the hurricane which has passed over has

et to Prussia has many advantages. In the first

left them amid the ruins of their former power, to posts and observation is waged by diplomacy bereconstruct the edifice as they best may out of the tween these two powers ; each is determined readiest materials at hand.

either to obtain the ascendant in united Germany, Austria is busy devising constitutions for each or to clutch the largest share of it in the event of of the nations subject to the imperial sceptre, and a partition. a central organization to make the federate king- At present the game has rather the appearance doms move harmoniously in one system. The of going against Austria. Her finances are in a King of Prussia and his people are squabbling state of utter dilapidation. Her miscellaneous about the division of power in a new unitarian populations impart a non-German character to her constitution, not quite completed. The secondary policy. She has in Germany none but half-hearted states are either employed in constitution-tinker- and distrustful allies, except the ultra devotees of ing, or undergoing a succession of ministerial crises the Jesuit party in the Church of Rome. The and parliamentary dissolutions, according as the princes of South Germany would throw themselves popular or the princely power gains a momentary into the scale of Austria, but only as a counteradvantage. No one political institution is at this poise to Prussia, not to give Austria any real moment regarded in Germany as definitively set- power over them. The protectionists of South tled; nothing but interim arrangements are to be Germany dread almost alike the semi-free-trade met with.

propensities of Prussia and the protective system The general organization of confederated Ger- of Austria, which would expose them to Italian many is the most unsettled of all. The old diet and Sclavonic competition. The constitutionalists has disappeared ; and the vicar of the empire, and of South Germany hate and fear Austria. In the the national assembly or Frankfort parliament, north of Germany, the Kings of Saxony and Hanhave already followed it to the tomb of all the over retain, it may be, a hankering after an AusCapulets. In their stead is to be seen the shadow trian alliance ; but in all other quarters Austria of an interim executive at Frankfort, and the is detested. shadow thrown before it, by a parliament yet to be elected, at Erfurt. The interim commission place, the government and its policy are essentially of the confederation is composed of two Austrian German. Next, Prussia with a large army and and two Prussian ministers; whose sole function tolerable financial condition, surrounds, as it were, appears to be that of thwarting, counteracting, or the territories of all the secondary and minor soveundermining each other. The commissioners dis- reigns of North Germany. She has been fighting agree in the views they take of the source, nature, (after a fashion) the battles of the people of and extent of their power; they disagree in their Schleswig-Holstein ; by an armed intervention she views as to the authority that will be entitled to has put down revolt in Baden and Würtemburg, call upon them to make place for it; they are not and established pecuniary claims against the govrecognized, or are only recognized under reserva- ernments of these countries; she has garrisoned tions, by the secondary and minor German states ; the free town of Hamburg. Except in Bavaria and, worst of all, they have no money. As for and the Austrian-German dominions, Prussia

posthe parliament in posse, it is admitted on all hands sesses a large amount of real power. This power, that it will represent, not Germany, but only the though based principally on the military strength populations of the territories subject to the three of Prussia, is increased by the position of that allied sovereigns and such princes as shall adhere government as possessing most territory and to them; and how many these may be, or wheth- wealth of all the members of the Zollverein. The er even the three will remain true to the league, princes involved in her toils struggle in vain remains to be seen.

against her preponderating influence. There is Amid the inorganic heavings and commotions in every one of their states a party of moderate of this political chaos, the most conspicuous and constitutionalists, disposed to side with Prussia, widely felt is the contest between Prussia and as not thoroughly and inveterately hostile to conAustria. The old struggle between the houses stitutional government, and as sufficiently strong of Hapsburg-Lorraine and Hohenzollern, which to maintain an efficient executive amid the contests began when the first Frederick placed a kingly of popular assemblies and democratic agitation. crown on his head with his own electoral hands, The counteracting influences which impair the is still in progress. The Austrian monarch is power and prospects of Prussia are derived princistill ambitious of exercising over Germany the pally from the personal character of the present power which the Emperor Francis renounced king and the councillors 'to whom he listens. when, on the constitution of the confederation of With more of a mystical, imaginative disposition, the Rhine, he declared the empire dissolved, and he has much in common with James the First of drew back into his hereditary states. The Prus- England. He is a despot in principle and disposian, after having added first one territory and sition, without the persistent energy required in a then another to the Mark of Brandenburg, till his despot. Then he is bewildered by fantastical possessions extend from the Vistula to the west dreams of being in his kingly capacity a special bank of the Rhine and from the Maine to the Bal- vicegerent of the Almighty upon earth, and bound tic, is ambitious of incorporating all Germany into to uphold what he believes to be divine laws his dominions. An incessant sleepless war, of against all popular opposition. He imagines that

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610

THE MESSAGE OF THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT.

he stands in some such relation to the divine All these circumstances are in favor of the authority on the one hand and his people on the Prussian scheme of assembling a parliament, in other as the governor of an English colony does which the greater part of Germany shall be repreto the crown and the colonists. To much instinc- sented, at Erfurt. If such a body can be brought tive benevolence and love of approbation, and an together, and if the Prussian government can be ambition of being thought energetic and consistent brought to act along with it in harmony and good in action, Frederick William adds much of that faith, the Austrian half of the shadowy interim mischievous sophistry which enables mystics to commission at Frankfort will not be able to offer suit their professions to circumstances, and palliate much resistance to it. But the silly mysticism to themselves and others the grossest violations of the King of Prussia inspires such general disof promises. The king, cursed with this unhappy trust, that the possibility of bringing a decent moral constitution, has gathered around him a show of German representatives to Erfurt is still circle of congenial spirits, who confirm him in his extremely problematical. extravagant views and conduct. Hence, the wreiched policy of the Prussian government; ever rash

From the Examiner, 12 Jan. and ever vacillating, and so shameless in its ter- THE MESSAGE OF THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT. giversations that “ Punica fides” is an inadequate phrase to express its falsehood.

The message of a whig president of the UnitThe strength of the Prussian government is ed States to a Congress in which a democratic derived from the social condition of Prussia and majority has shown iiself in the house of repreGermany: its weakness from the personal charac-sentatives, is necessarily very moderate in tone ter of those who are now at the head of affairs. and ambiguous in language. It affronts no diffiWere the king a man whom the moderate consti- culty, and would exasperate no party. The new tutionalists, the moderate free-traders, and the president is feeling his way; and on the great liberal religionists, could trust, he might rally democratic questions which agitate the Union, around him a Prussian and German party, strong General Taylor seems to propose to himself to enough to insure the establishment of a central play the part of arbiter rather than of partisan. government for Germany, (with the exception, per- That portion of the message to which we first haps, of the Austrian dominions and Bavaria,) look is necessarily the paragraphs that regard more united and more powerful than Germany has England. In a political point of view, nothing ever enjoyed. The most intelligent merchants can be more satisfactory. There is not the most and politicians of the secondary and minor states,* remote allusion to annexation, to the superiority feel that the interests of their respective countries of republican constitutions, or to the determination demand a more centralized and powerful govern- of the Washington cabinet to exercise sole and ment than existed either under the empire or the first influence in the New World. The only confederation. The imaginations and sentiments cause of difference, that of the proposed canal of the scholar class-a numerous class in Ger-across the Isthmus, is alluded to in terms which many-harmonize with the practical views of show that the communications of Sir Henry Bulthese men of the world. The educated classes in wer had already removed any possible contention. Germany are in the main predisposed to second And yet even these expressions of the message are the ambitious views of the Prussian government, adroitly worded. They profess a determination as the most likely means of obtaining German to support Nicaraguan rights, without giving it to unity. The sovereigns of Baden and Würtemberg be understood what these rights are. Nicaragua are debtors to the Prussian government; the Prus- is perfect mistress of the proposed line throughout sian government holds military possession of the greater part of its course. But whatever Hamburg ; fear of his subjects holds the King of rights the republics of central America might Hanover in subjection to the Prussian govern-claim upon the eastern outlet of the proposed pasment;

the princes of both the Hesses and of Old- sage, belong now most unquestionably not to Nienburg expect personal advantages from a plan for caragua, but to Costa Rica, another of the four arranging the Schleswig-Holstein controversy pro- republics. And the name of Costa Rica is nos posed by Prussia; the minor dukedoms must fol- mentioned in the message. low, and are in many instances disposed to follow, But whatever reason we may, have, in political the lead of their betters. Saxony and her king respects, to be satisfied, and highly satisfied, with alone are uncertain ; the king is disposed to court the tone of the new president's message, its indithe Austrian alliance; the national pride of Sax- cations of commercial policy excite different sentiony, which since the seven years' war has seen ments. Even in that sentence where the presiher importance diminishing and that of Prussia dent announces the abolition of the Navigation increasing, revolts against the idea of being Laws, the message takes, we should think, needentirely absorbed into Prussia.

less care to add, that the abrogation is complete

unless some order in council should be issued * By secondary states,” are meant such as Bavaria, which militates against it. This looks as if some Würtemberg, Saxony, Hanover, &c. ; which really are states. By " minor states," the petty Principalities and obstruction was expected. We have heard, inFree Towns, from Nassau and the Saxon Dukedoms deed, though we cannot believe, that the Washdown to Kniphausen, with its territory of rather less than sixteen square miles, and its contingent of twenty-nine ington government had contemplated to include men to the army of the confederation.

the intercourse with California in the coasting

the poor.

trade. It is to be hoped that such surmises are California is too far for them to subject. And not correct.

Texas ought surely to satisfy their slave-extending General Taylor and his government, however, ambition. Parliamentary strife, however, there come forward openly as the partisans of prohibitive will be, wordy and fierce; and the more fierce, duties, not merely for revenue, but protection. as the contest must soon be brought to a close. The changing the ad valorem into specific duties, The Union is greatly fortunate to possess at and the levying duty by weight, must evidently, this epoch a president universally respected, as if protective on coarse manufactures, be prohibitive well known for his firmness as his moderation, and on fine. Such•a system may have the democratic better fitted, perhaps, than any other American, to excuse of being exclusively a tax on luxuries and hold the post of umpire and executive chief on the rich, but such sumptuary laws will soon throughout such a crisis. create a system of smuggling that must demoralize General Taylor might, indeed, have

From the Spectator, 12 Jan. kept his theory to himself. The fact of a deficit, President Taylor's first message to the Conincurred by the Mexican war, is excuse enough gress, is an interesting document ; far less diffuse to warrant an elevation of the tariff; and we fear than its predecessors of recent times, moderate, that one of the laws of a federal republic must practical, and yet more truly elevated in tone than ever be, that the expenses of the general govern- those same enormities. The whig semi-protectionment must be levied in the shape of customs. ist was expected to advocate an alteration of the We shall find this the case, we fear, in Germany tariff in a sense adverse to the freest importation as well as in America ; and we must admit it to of goods, and he does advocate the change from be one argument for sustaining monarchy against ad-valorem to higher specific duties ; but he puts federative republicanism.

foremost the necessity of raising the revenue to The American president, in his message, omits meet the cost of recent wars, and protection sinks the part of Hamlet; he says not one word of to the place of a secondary incident. In this reslavery. Perhaps he saw no need of calling at- spect, General Taylor is more moderate, perhaps tention to what was in every one's thoughts. In- more politic, than his own high-protectionist secdeed, California has spoken, and so emphatically retary. The president holds forth the most friendly and reasonably, that it leaves the abolitionists aspect towards England ; passes over the recent merely the trouble of silently supporting its re- dispute with France in a tone of good-humored solve. The Californians have decreed that they disregard, inviting that republic to send its reprewill have no slaves upon their soil. This is one sentative ; and gives other signs of a desire to of the good results of the “ diggings.” There maintain peace, not by the threat of prepared war, the white man labors, and is not ashamed to labor; but by fostering cordial relations.

The conqueror the crop is worthy of the workman; and the of Mexico holds out the hand of hearty fellowship Californian adventurer has no idea of a great slave to that state ; a magnanimity the more unusual, horde being driven down upon him, and niggers since Mexico was the injured party. In fine, the set to sweep and wash the course of the Sacra- message is an earnest of General Taylor's proInento for the profit of a master. It would be at fessed aspiration to restore in the councils of the once loss, rivalry, and disgrace to the Californian. model republic the spirit of Washington. This is the first time that the selfish and pure love of lucre has been found an effective antagonist to

From the Journal des Debats of January 12. slavery, or the love of lucre in another form ; and The message of the President of the United if the gold veins of California had produced no States is, on this occasion, remarkable for the calm other result, they would deserve honorable men- and conciliatory tone which pervades it throughout. tion for this. They it is that have set up the first Only a single expression has found a place in it barrier to the epidemic of the New World. which might afford a subject for regret to the Could the Southern Americans have been allowed friends of peace ; it is the sort of threat insinuated to work the gold mines of the Mexican regions with regard to Portugal. Leaving aside this paswith slaves, the amount of misery and oppression, sage, from which we, however, conceive that no as well as the extension of slavery, would have collision can ensue, nothing appears in the docubeen immense ; and were the gold of California ment which does not recall to mind that pacific, found in mines, it is probable that the Californian and, at the same time dignified, course which charemigrant would have preferred slaves to carry on acterized the messages of Washington himself. It the work. But as long as the ore is picked up is most gratifying to behold a man who has derived on the open river, or washed from the detritus on his title to admiration from a conquest to which its banks, so long they will prefer to work as others have forced his country, and who owes his freemen, and to declare their soil shall only be elevation to his victories, so moderate in his views. trodden by such. These circumstances form quite Precedents were not wanting for his assuming an a novel element in American prospects and politics, overbearing tone even towards the greatest powers. and will awaken fresh strife in Congress. Some Every one knows 'the provoking language more even go the length of prognosticating a rupture than once employed by Gen. Jackson, and which with the Union. But we do not see how the the last president, Mr. Polk, did not hesitate to Southerns are to benefit by recourse to arms. adopt towards Great Britain, on the subject of Oregon. General Taylor—as may be seen with-as Gen. Taylor's presidency lasts, they cannot rely out his declaring it—is convinced that wars, from upon support, direct or indirect, from the authorithe stimulus which they give to the spirit of domin- ties of the United States. The readiness and ion, from the division of interests to which new energy which he has displayed in putting down conquests necessarily give birth, through the opin- the expedition which had been prepared in the ions and jealousies of different states, must endan- Southern ports for the invasion of the island of ger the public liberties and shake the foundations Cuba, is a proof that, in case of need, General of the Union. May these wise and good sentiments Taylor adds example to precept and deeds to pass from the mind of the president to those of the words.-Nat. Intel. leaders in Congress ! Under any other president we should probably

From the N. Y. Evening Post, 1 March. have seen embittered the quarrel which has broken SWITZERLAND AND THE UNITED STATES. out between Mr. Chatfield, the Consul General of

It is a question worth discussing, even in the Great Britain in Central America, and the United midst of the angry controversies which now agitate States agent, Mr. Squier, about a little island, the country, whether the intelligence lately received which seems to be of some importance with regard from Europe concerning Switzerland imposes no to the proposed canal for uniting the two oceans duty on our own government. There seems to be through Nicaragua. This dispute was, moreover,

no doubt that the governments of Austria and Prusconnected with another, of a much more serious sia have required the expulsion of a large number nature, as the canal itself was the subject. Certain dred it is said, and that if this be refused, Switzer

of political fugitives from Switzerland, fifteen huncitizens of the United States had obtained a con- land is to be invaded and reduced to submission by cession for making this canal. The local agents the Austrian and Prussian armies. That France of Great Britain, and at their instigation the sover- will not even protest, that she will stand by and eign of the Mosquito Indians, who appears with encourage this atrocity seems to be certain. good reason to be merely a tool of British policy, land has been the refuge of exiles from all coun

Froni the earliest period of her history, Switzeropposed the execution of that enterprise. At other tries, the resort of all whom political or religious times the message on such a subject would have persecution had driven from their homes. In the been an explosion of warlike patriotism. General days of the Protestant reformation she sheltered Taylor, however, treats the question like a man of Calvin and Beza; she gave an asylum to the learned sense and business. He endeavors to come to an men whom the intolerance of Henry VII. would understanding with the British government, which not endure in England. At a later period, in our will no doubt on its part exhibit equal readiness to own day, when the Jesuits were expelled from compromise. The canal for the junction of the welcome in the valleys of the Catholic canton of

France, they found a safe retreat and an honorable two oceans should be, according to General Tay- Wallis. Those whose lives were menaced by the lor's views, a neutral passage, with its neutrality excesses of the French revolution, royalists and reguarantied by all the powers which might expect publicans, fled to Switzerland as an asylum. In io avail themselves of it. Such a solution of the Switzerland those who have made themselves odiquestion could not fail to satisfy all parties. ous to the absolute government of Germany, whethThis system of neutrality of the communications er by the freedom of their writings or by acts

offensive to the reigning powers, have always found to be established across the isthmus (for no doubt

a refuge and dwelt unmolested. In Switzerland several will in time be effected, as the isthmus is the Polish refugees claimed and were allowed hosnot less than five hundred leagues in length) is pitality. In the religious thanksgiving festivals of recommended by the president with regard to the some of the cantons public thanks are given to railroad from Chagres to Panama, now in progress Almighty God that in their country the politica] of construction by a company.

This will be the exile is safe. first convenient line of transportation between the

Hitherto, the governments of the old world seem Atlantic and the Pacific formed since the days of willing to give over the pursuit when they had

to have been content that this shonld be so, and Pizarro. The distance across will be about seventy- hunted their quarry into Switzerland. While five kilometres, and may be passed over by a loco- these tyrannies were in their full vigor, there was motive in an hour. The plan for a sincere under- something like magnanimity in their behavior to standing with all the great powers, which General this little republic of the mountains, and towards Taylor, to his honor, makes the basis of his foreign the fugitives who sought safety within it. They policy, will receive, by the adoption of the neutral- might well afford this magnanimity, for from Swiiity of the passages across the isthmus, a sanction trious population, content with their own liberty,

zerland they feared nothing ; her poor and induscalculated to arrest the attention of European states- did not seek to disturb the existing order of things men.

in the countries around them ; nor had she much There is reason to believe that the excellent for them to covet, since she had no sea-ports, no spirit of this message, with regard to foreign pol- navigable streams, no riches of soil, no opulent icy, will moderate the feelings of the people of the cities. Her mountains, her poverty, her inoffensivefrontier states, who have encouraged and excited ness, the hereditary bravery of her population, ideas of annexation among the inhabitants of Can- for her liberties, were her protection.

which had been tried in many a bloody struggle ada ; and for still stronger reasons should the

The despotisms of Europe have now grown old desires of the Canadian annexationists be calmed. and insecure, and are haunted by the fears which They cannot conceal from themselves that, so long belong to feebleness and decay. The cowardica

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