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literature and the care of historic documents, and the Christian profession, and the healing of differences, minutes of laid down meetings have engaged the at- was considered. Isaac Hicks spoke feelingly on the tention of the committee.

subject, citing the beatitude: “Blessed are the peaceThe various trusts and investments under the makers.” He encouraged all to live in peace, and to care of this Yearly Meeting are also fully reported cultivate peace amongst others, both in the Society upon. Memorials are also announced concerning and out of it. Esther B. Canby, of Baltimore Monthly Meeting, de- Phineas Nichols discoursed upon the nature of ceased; and of Wm. John Thomas, of Sandy Spring worship, and the manner of it; giving reasons why Monthy Meeting, deceased.

we ought to assemble at stated times at the appointed A committee was now appointed to nominate places to worship the Heavenly Father and to draw Friends to serve on the Representative Committee. nearer to each other in true Christian fellowship and (This committee acts jointly with that appointed by brotherly love. men Friends.)

The Third Query, which treats of the right trainEli M. Lamb on behalf of the First-day School ing and guidance of children, was answered very Association presented the subject of the recognition fully in the affirmative. of this important work. Men Friends had the sub- The important testimonies of the remaining Queries ject under consideration and invited the coöperative up to the Twelfth, then passed in review eliciting vaaction of women Friends. There was much willing- rious comments from concerned Friends, and much ness to take prompt action toward recognition, and counsel to greater and fuller dedication. there was unusually large expression in regard to the The committee set apart to consider the request vital need there is of the fostering care of the meet- from Nottingham Quarterly Meeting recommended ing for the education of our children in regard to the the payment of the $250 asked for, and with this, principles of our faith. The correct instruction of the this meeting united and the money was directed to youth needs not only the fostering care of the church, be paid out of the treasury. but its watchful oversight. Zeal, without any deep Phineas Nichols desired the prayerful sympathy ground of religious experience, is not to be trusted to of Friends for those engaged in the work of the minmould the plastic minds of the children of the istry. Then adjourned to 3 P. M., on the 28th, (meetchurch without the guardian care of the fathers and ings for worship being held on Fourth-day morning.) mothers of our religious body.

At the afternoon session of the women's meeting, Sarah Jane Dare said that most of the resigna- on the 27th, Thomas Foulke, accompanied by Abel tions of membership in Baltimore Monthly Meeting Hull, made an acceptable visit in gospel love to wohaye come from those who have had their religious men's meeting. The committee to nominate Friends training in the First-day school rather than in the to serve on the representative committee for the ensacred sanctuary of home.

suing year submitted a list of names which were conRebecca M. Thomas spoke earnestly, exhorting

sidered and approved. Friends to mind their calling in the vital work of A statement was received from men's meeting to training the minds of the children in a knowledge of the effect that they had taken into consideration the the blessed truths which are our landmarks and subject of providing homes for Friends attending watchwords.

yearly meeting from country meetings. The subject Alice Robinson spoke very feelingly in favor of was referred to a committee of one from each monthly the First-day school work, and of its importance in meeting. The coöperation of the women's meeting the religious nurture of childhood. It does not take was asked. There was full unity expressed, and a the place of the continual effort which religiously committee was appointed to the service designated. concerned parents must make every day in the week,

The committee to audit the Treasurer's account reand oftener than the returning morning.

port it correct with a moderate balance in the TreasMartha S. Townsend felt there was need of cau- ury. The committee advise the reäppointment of Mary tion. Many of the schools are conducted in accord- P. Townsend for Treasurer. Elizabeth Blackburn ance with our principles and testimonies, but in some advised increasing the quotas, in view of increased there is reason to exercise vigilant care of experi- expenses. The report of the committee was accepted. enced and devoted Friends,

The meeting then proceeded to the review of the Elizabeth W. Smith, of Wilmington, called the at- State of the Society as this is shown in answering tention of Friends to the good which is being done the Queries. It appears that several meetings have to those not of our fold who have no special religious failed to be held, but there is no exception as to right care in their own homes. She gave some very in- order and dignity. The second Query concerning the teresting particulars in her own experience as a First

maintenance of christian love and peace among day school worker. The discussion was of unusual

Friends, and the healing of difference was answered depth and earnestness.

with entire fulness of affirmation. A committee was appointed to take the matter

The Third Query, concerning the training of chilunder consideration, jointly with men Friends, and

dren in Friendly plainness in speech and dress, and report to a future meeting.

in profitable reading was next considered. It was

answered that many Friends endeavor to live up to THIRD-DAY AFTERNOON.

the requirements of the Discipline but more faithfulIn the men's meeting, the Second Query, concerning ness, it is believed, would be salutary. Several Friends the right maintenance of the love becoming our spoke in exhortation and counsel to those assembled



regarding the maintenance of our high standard of mony against the indulgence in the use of tobacco Christian rectitude in daily life. Watchful care over and against the culture of that plant is vigilantly upour own conduct and a loving care on behalf of our held by Friends of this Yearly Meeting, and a growth fellow-members are cardinal principles with this So- is very noticeable in our Society both as to the avoidciety. Several Friends spoke near the close of the ance of its use and its cultivation. meeting in regard to the several points in the con- The Fifth Query concerning the relief of those duct of life embraced in these queries.

needing aid was answered thus: “Relief is generally afThen adjourned.

forded when any among us are known to require aid.”

The Sixth Query, concerning the maintenance of FOURTII-DAY AFTERNOON,

Friends' testimony in favor of a Free Gospel minisIn the men's meeting, upon opening, William Wood try was answered fully in the affirmative. introduced a subject for consideration. A young The Seventh Query, in regard to business integriFriend desires an opportunity in general meeting to ty and moderation in living and in trade was considlay before this assembly, a concern resting on him ered. Generally the answers were affirmative. Alice that comes near the interest of the young of both Robinson spoke earnestly in regard to the beauty and

excellence of our testimony in favor of prudence and Darlington Hoopes would be willing to grant the honor in business life. The Eighth Query was also request, and open the shutters at the close of busi

replied to with fullness of affirmation; and the Ninth

Query, in regard to dealing with offenders was likeWilliam Haviland thought we should know what wise. his concern is, as it would open the door wide to those The Tenth Query was answered that a regular who have no ministry.

record of births, deaths and membership is kept." The Clerk suggested that a small committee be ap- The answers to the Eleventh, in regard to the espointed to confer with the young man, Thomas 0. tablishment of new meetings and the discontinuance Matthews.

of any were varied and unimportant, and not indicaThe report of the Indian Committee was then sub

tive of any marked or considerable changes. There mitted and passed the meeting with approval.

appeared a net loss of 13, in general membership.The report of the Committee to name Friends on

The time of holding Fairfax Quarterly Meeting has the Representative Committee was then submitted

been changed. and accepted. Darlington Hoopes, on the part of the The Twelfth Query, in regard to the guarded educommittee to confer with Thomas 0. Matthews on

cation of youth, was answered generally in full affirhis request, reported favorably. D. Hoopes was mative. But in some localities it is found difficult to named to confer with the women's meeting, and he obtain suitable teachers in membership with Friends. reported later that they also assented.

A. R. Paul exhorted Friends to “Bear ye one The report of the Committee on Education was another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ.” read and approved, the appropriation of a moderate Other Friends also spoke on the subject of fraternal sum being asked for, and granted. Haviland Hull helpfulness. asked what use is to be made of the money. E. M. The Report of the Committee on the Education Lamb explained its intended use and the explanation Concern was then offered. This body has held consatisfied Friends. It was decided to appoint a nom- ference, circulated essays, and assisted many schools inating committee to propose a new Committee on to needful apparatus. They feel that an interest is Education.

extendng throughout the borders of this Yearly MeetThe report of the Committee on Temperance was ing, which must in due time bear fruits. The comthen laid before the meeting. William Williams said mittee asks a moderate appropriation of the yearly that Intemperance was a giant evil, and we could not

meeting funds to be applied to its use. expect to overcome it at once. Part of the recommen- The report was approved and the appropriation of dation was that subordinate meetings should be in- needful funds favored. structed not to receive money from those who sold The committee on the recognition of First-Day liquor as part of their business. Our testimony is School work in our Society reported favorably to the against the sale or use of liquor as a beverage, and recognition, and advised the appointment of a small not in the arts. Some discussion ensued, and the central committee to have general care, and recommatter was laid over to another meeting.

mended the monthly meetings also to each appoint a The partition was then raised to give T. O. Math- committee for the oversight and care of the concern. ews an opportunity to present his views to Friends on

The meeting approved the conclusions of the committhe proper steps to be taken in order to arrest the

tee. present apparent decline in membership and in inter

FIFTH-DAY MORNING. est of this Society. His suggestions were of interest and they were listened to with sympathy generally.

The first business that claimed attention in men's Conferences, instruction, reading the works of our meeting was the consideration of the report of the ablest exponents, and a renewal of zealous activity Committee on Education. This was approved. on the part of old and young were his points.

The committee to visit subordinate meetings then In women's meeting, the Fourth Query was the reported their action during the past year. This was subject of discussion. The reply was, Moderation approved, as it was believed their work has been saland temperance appear to be observed." The testi- utary and not without good fruit.

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The committee to recommend measures for providing suitable accommodation for Friends attending yearly meeting reported acceptably, and advising the appropriation of a moderate sum to be put in the hands of a judicious committee to be used at their discretion.

Isaac Hicks engaged the meeting in fervent prayer.

Esther B. Canby's memorial, from Baltimore Monthly Meeting, was read, to the edification of the meeting. Thomas Foulke, Isaac Hicks, Abel Hull and others gave their sentiments, and expressed the feeling of the meeting.

The report of the Committee on Indian Affairs, Cyrus Blackburn, chairman, was very interesting. The Indians in which the meeting is chiefly interested are the Santee Sioux, Poncas and Flandreau in Nebraska. The resignation of the agent, Isaiah Lightner, has been accepted, and Charles Hill appointed in his place. In the allotment of the lands for the use of the Indians, besides a share for each man, the Committee on Indian Affairs gave to all minors and unmarried women eighty shares each. The number of acres divided among the Santee Sioux is 69,100. The United States government holds 1100 acres for the Santee agency and for school purposes. The remainder of the reservation, 44,700 acres, has been restored to the public domain, subject to entry and settlement by white persons. It is designed to put Indians and whites together. The 3500 acres in the reservation for the Poncas and Flandreau were not allotted. In this body of land there are 1100 acres for wheat, 585 for oats, 288 for flax, 1446 for corn and 200 for vegetables. During the year these two tribes raised 20,492 bushels of oats, 47,627 corn, 14,156 wheat, 6000 potatoes and 2845 flax. This is more than enough for the use of the tribes. The good work of Alfred L. Riggs, who represents the American Missionary Association, was referred to in the report. The Report of the Philanthropic Union, of which Edward Stabler is chairman, was read. It has rendered valuable aid to colored schools in the South. There were many reforms brought about in the prisons of Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania. The sum of $1100 from the Fair Hillschool fund was spent in aiding schools.

The treasurer recommended that $1300 be raised for the use of the Yearly Meeting. Edwin Blackburn was reäppointed treasurer.

In women's meeting on Fifth-day morning, the report of the Temperance Committee, detailing their efforts in the cause for the last year, was laid before the meeting. Many voices were raised in favor of the various efforts made by the committee. Elizabeth Passmore spoke with much earnestness of the great wrong which is done the poor and tempted man by the licensed liquor-seller who is permitted by the authorities to lure him down to destruction, moral degradation, beggary, and felony. The same government that licenses the tempter, punishes the victim without mercy. Let us petition for reform wherever our voices can reach the ear of legislators. Isabella J. Tyson gave her voice for this concern to petition legislatures and legislators.

Sarah Tudor spoke of partial successes in petitioning for better laws, and urged continued efforts,

with faith, believing that full success must come at last. The report was accepted and approved. The report of the Indian Committee was then read. It was fully approyed and accepted.

Abigail R. Paul then spoke in earnest approval of the recognition of the First-day School work, and the appointment of a judicious committee, but cautioned against subordinating the religious meeting to the First-day School. After some other exercises, the reading of an essay for an epistle to the next Yearly Meeting of Indiana engaged the attention of the Meeting. It was accepted and the meeting entered on the consideration of the essay prepared for New York Yearly Meeting. This was likewise approved and adopted.

On Fifth-day afternoon, in women's meeting, a memorial of Esther B. Canby, of Baltimore Yearly Meeting, of Baltimore, Md., was read at the opening of the session. This brief sketch of a dedicated Christian life was solemnizing, instructive and encouraging to those who aspire to live a life acceptable to God, and helpful to mankind. Rebecca Price and Rebecca M. Thomas endorsed the tribute of the montbly meeting.

The essay to Ohio Yearly Meeting was then read and was received favorably by the meeting. It was endorsed and accepted.

The Epistle Indiana Yearly Meeting to was then presented and was felt to be suitable and full of right Christian feeling. It was endorsed and accepted.

The Genesee epistle, forwarded by the committee was then read, and was also accepted though no epistle had been received from that body at this time. The essay prepared for Philadelphia Yearly Meeting was endorsed and directed to be forwarded.

The report of the committee to visit subordinate meeting was then submitted. They have held conferences in many places, which were generally of a very satisfactory character. The report was approved and many Friends spoke in encouragement to the Friends engaged in this service. Isabella J. Tyson said that she believed this committe have every reason to go on their was rejoicing. The interest manifested by our members generally in the work of this Yearly Meeting, is an indication of an awakening on the part of those who have not hitherto been so alive, and this is due to some definite cause. The same committee was continued in the service.

The Report of the Committee on Philanthropic Labor was then presented. The committee are very humble in estimating their work. But they have labored in such as their hands found to do. The general voice of the meeting was in approval of the action of the Committee and its continuance was agreed to.

The Standing Committee to disburse the Fair Hillfund, presented their report, which was indicative of much good accomplished by this income. This was cordially approved.

The Nominating Committee to report the names of suitable Friends to serve on the Education Committee, brought forward names which were felt to be judiciously chosen and were approved.

The report of the committee on the subject of providing accommodations for Friends attending

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THERE are those to whom the ills we bear seem in

yearly meeting reported the names of a central com- experience to take advantage of the relation between mittee, in whose hands it is recommended should be carbon and oxygen by planting trees in the streets placed a suitable sum applicable to its use. This was of our large cities, towns and villages, and giving fully approved and adopted.

room in our dwellings to an increasing abundance of After several religious exercises, Martha S. Towns- growing plants for the purpose of using the excess of end asked that the shutters might be raised, and the carbon generated by the very act of breathing. We closing moments of the Yearly Meeting be together. | plant our trees and ask them to absorb the breath This was agreed to by men Friends and after the which we exhale. In doing this we imitate nature reading of the concluding minutes, the partition was who clothes the earth in greenness and places animals raised.

in its midst. It was generally felt that this annual convocation The oxygen of the atmosphere as we know, unites had been a season of special blessing. The attend- with hydrogen to form water. This, the universal ance had been large, the harmony of feeling and of solvent, is one of the most powerful agents employed action marked, and the general participation of for beneficent purposes in nature. As needful to the younger members in the business very gratifying to welfare of our planet and its inhabitants as blood is Friends advanced in life.

S.R. to the body, it is yet so dangerous that an untaught

babe will manifest an instinctive dread of being

plunged into it. It will kill as effectually 'as carTHE BENEFICENCE OF THE NATURAL

bonic acid if it reaches the wrong place—the airFORCES)

cells of the lungs.

Whatever have been the ministrations of water consistent with the goodness of God. These to ours, such must have been its ministrations to persons ask why, if the supreme ruler has the power, other spheres where oxygen and hydrogen meet in he does not alleviate the miseries of mankind. Such combination. It is in the light of this widely expersons need the perspective which thought, knowl- tended blessing that we must view accidents by flood edge, age, experience and faith can give.

and shipwreck and drowning, to comprehend aright, The natural forces are all beneficial, but all pos- how grandly the general good outweighs the special sess attendant dangers, the due balance of which evil. constitutes the harmony of nature. Oxygen is the Water converted into steam and used by the ingreat sustainer of life; it will combine with carbon, a telligence of man, becomes a new agent of power, perfectly harmless element, and the combination will equally if not more dangerous than water itself. Let produce carbon dioxide, a gas so deadly that no lung- us for a moment imagine our return to the old conbreathing animal can exist when immersed in it. dition before the expansive force of steam was util

But plants could not live without carbon, nor ani- ized as a mechanical force. This would be to annimals without oxygen. On the interdependence of hilate the prosperity of millions and to cause poverty these two constituents of carbon dioxide rests the and distress far more cruel than the occasional exwelfare of the entire system of animal and vegetable plosions which may occur. The remedy for these is life. Oxygen forms one-half of the solid crust of the the extreme care which experience teaches. globe; over 88 per cent. of water, and about 23 per Water in the form of ice has its corresponding cent., by weight, of air. The other most abundant benefits and dangers. We die of cold, but if greenelements are silicon, and the bases of clay, magnesia, ness and fertility have covered the earth since the lime, potash, and soda, and these with iron, sulphur last glacial epoch, lasting as it did such an immense and carbon, make up .977 of the crust of the earth. period of time, we must understand the recurrence

Very early in the geologic history of our planet, a of intense cold as a part of an all-wise plan and a process of purification was begun. It proceeded needful alternation in the history of the maturing of through uncounted ages before lung-breathing ani- our globe. Doubtless much that was harmful to man mals could exist on account of the superabundance was eliminated during the last glacial epoch, and of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The carbon doubtless much more that is injurious, will be buried was laid down as graphite, marble, magnesia, lime under succeeding fields of ice. Such may be the fate and coal, and these, along with beds of iron, salt, and of the germs of fever, small-pox, and kindred disother material, contributed to the general purpose of eases which afflict mankind. If not extirpated sooner purification, this end being subserved by the action by the efforts of intelligent investigators, these may of atomic forces, chemic forces, crystallizing forces, be frozen out in the natural course of events. with the other forces of nature.

There are at the present time certain forms of life To-day we convert the stores of coal into heat and which will bear 2000° F. and will then survive after at the same time liberate the poisonous gas which being plunged into a freezing mixture, but it is an kills if we do not take proper care. No one doubts undoubted fact of geologic history, that as the surface the value of coal on account of the poisonous carbon of the earth has cooled from an extreme degree of dioxide. We have found in this case as in so many heat, beings of a higher and higher grade have sucothers, that danger and beneficence go hand in hand, ceeded each other until the present time. The inand provision is made that the latter shall always terior heat still continues, and what at one time overbalance the former. We have also learned by prevented the fulness of life, now sustains it. Both

the internal heat of the globe and the external 1A paper read at a Conference at Race Street Meeting, Tenth month 11th, 1885, by Grace Anna Lewis.

warmth of sunlight, are needed to preserve the


earth in beauty and fruitfulness. If water should The human being, however, retains many of the find its way to some internal lakes of molten material characteristics of the lower animals. Like these he and be at once converted into steam, there must be needs food and warmth and shelter, and like these, he an explosion without regard to the city which may will get what he needs if he has the power. We may have been builded above. It is due to a law of na- regard man as possessing a threefold nature, the aniture that the earth quakes and quivers before theim- mal, the intellectual and the spiritual. These also prisoned fiery fluids rend their way. An analogous have their dangers as well as their benefits. The anexplosion would occur if water should find access to imal nature may be in the ascendant, and woe to the a highly heated boiler of a steam engine and be as nation of which this can be said. The intellect may suddenly converted into steam. There is no more be the controlling force, and yet this condition be an cruelty in the one case than the other, except that exceedingly low plane of existence. It is only when in the case of the earthquake, the causes of the dis- the animal and the intellectual natures both contribaster are entirely beyond human control.

ute to the growth of the spiritual, that man can truly In the beautiful force of light, apparently, there harmonize with the plan of creation. is no danger, but beneficence only. The giver of As a whole, we can scarely believe that the world light seems to know better than we and to alternate is as yet bevend the stages where its animal needs darkness with it. Could we estimate aright the dan- are most pressing. Most certainly thought force is ger of undue stimulus such as light affords, we might not sufficiently in the ascendant, nor has spiritual find this to be one of thegreatest dangers which attends power been fully attained. The race has not reached

We know already the unmeasured benefaction it its maturity, and its growth partakes of this slowwhen “He giveth His beloved sleep.”

ness of the geologic ages. From the dawn of historic The forces of electricity and magnetism are equal- time we can perceive an advance, and have a right to ly dangerous and equally beneficial with those of hope that our progress is still onward and upward. light and heat. Each one of these may be converted Much which looks like pure evil, is only untrained into the other, and the probability seems very strong and wasted animal force, which is capable of being indeed, that no life of any kind could exist without converted into thought force and spiritual power. the concurrence of these, or other forces from which

Much also is perversion, as dangerous as fire and flood, they may have been derived, or into which they may the lightning's bolt, or the earthquake's destruction. be converted.

Before it all that is holy goes down in ruins. This The air we breathe being composed of the three fearful havoc is within the control of man, and the gases Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen, envelopes the heart of humanity will never be at rest until it is earth like a sea, its healthful motion being a necessary stayed. Every effort we make to encourage the growth condition of life. Its currents move in predestined of our highest qualities, tends to correct such pervercourses, with varying rates of rapidity, dependent up- sion, and to secure the control of the animal nature on causes affecting the general welfare. Without by the spiritual. Such efforts aid, not ourselves alone, these currents, stagnation and universal death would but the whole world, and help in the advancement be the consequence. It is better that the ship should of our own generation. There are some forms of sin be wrecked, or the town laid in ruins, than that the suffering and misery, which will never die out until winds should cease to blow.

the animal nature is subjugated and brought under Living cells are composed of the same elementary the guidence of the loftier principles of the human substances as are found in air, in water and in the mind. In our efforts to accomplish good, we seem to crust of the earth.

rise into the seren atmosphere of the eternal mind Under the mysterious action of the forces which and to be taught of Him the truths most valuable for control life, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, the race. In the highest phases of human advanceacquire entirely new potencies, The living substance ment we are led to expect the supremacy of the spiritwhich is formed by their combination, responds in a ual nature, when man will become the beneficent marvelous manner, to heat, light, electricity, and being which nature proclaims. Where Jesus commagnetism as well as to all the forces belonging to the mand “Be ye perfect even as your Father in Heavsystem of life such as growth, muscular, and nerve- en is perfect,” he set before us the aim which the forces etc., etc. From the atom to the mineral; from the grandeur of the universe justifies, and confirms as mineral to the vegetable; from the vegetable to the possible. animal, there is a continuous round of demand and supply, and where suffering is the consequence, it is

Take away love, and, not physical nature only, far more than counterbalanced by the end which is

but the heart of the moral world would be palsied.attained, atoms raised to men.

Southey. Chief of the forces of nature, are thought force, and spiritual power. It is these which link us with

Religion cannot pass away. The burning of a lit

tle straw may hide the stars of the sky; but the stars our creator as the child is linked with its parents. It

are there, and will reäppear.-Carlyle. is these which enable us to comprehend so much as we do of the grand system of nature of which we form

To believe everything is weakness, to believe nothing is a part. It is this which has already given us a par

folly.-Dillwyn. tial control, and which promises in the future almost illimitable command of that which is lower than our- WHEREVER the tree of beneficence takes root it sends selves.

forth branches beyond the sky.--Persian (Saadi).

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