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'always fold themselves up so closely in their (9) We have seen that the women wore hykes, that even without their veils we could dis- their hair long. On this they lavished all their cover very
little of their faces. But in the summer art, disposing it in various forms, and embelmonths, when they retire to their country seats, lishing it with divers ornaments. In the ancient they walk abroad with less caution; though even medals, statues, and basso relieros, we behold those then, upon the approach of a stranger, they always plaited tresses which the apostles Paul and Peter drop their veils, as Rebecca did upon the sight of condemn, and see those expensive and fantastic Isaac, Gen. xxiv. 65. They all affect to have decorations which the ladies of those times betheir hair, the instrument of their pride (Isai. stowed upon their head-dress. This pride of xxii. 12), hang down to the ground, which, after braided and plaited tresses, this ostentation of they have collected into one lock, they bind and jewels, this vain display of finery, the apostles inplait with ribbons; a piece of finery disapproved terdict as proofs of a light and little mind, and of by the apostle, 1 Pet. iii. 3. Where nature inconsistent with the modesty and decorum of has been less liberal in this ornament, the defect Christian women. St. Paul, in his First Epistle to is supplied by art, and foreign hair is procured to Timothy (chap. ii. 9), in the passage where he be interwoven with the natural. Absalom's hair, condemns it, shows us in what the pride of female which was sold (2 Sam. xiv. 26) for two hundred dress then consisted. “I enjoin that women adorn shekels, might have been applied to this use. themselves in modest apparel, with shame-facedAfter the hair is thus plaited, they proceed to ness and sobriety: not with broidered hair, or dress their heads, by tying above the lock, just gold, or pearls, or costly array; but (which bedescribed, a triangular piece of linen, adorned cometh women professing godliness) with good with various figures in needle-work. Among works.” St. Peter, in like manner, ordains that persons of fashion, this is covered with a surmah, the adorning of the fair sex should not be so much as they call it (of the like sound with the moon- that “outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and like ornaments of Isai. ii. 18), which is made in of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel ; the same triangular shape, of thin flexible plates but let it be the hidden man of the heart, in that of gold and silver, artfully cut through, and en- which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a graven in imitation of lace. A handkerchief of meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of crape, gauze, silk, or painted linen, bound close God of great price.” The men, on the contrary, over the sarmah, and falling afterwards carelessly wore their hair short; and this circumstance upon the favourite lock of hair, completes the formed a principal distinction in dress between head-dress of the Moorish female.
the sexes, and happily illustrates 1 Cor. xi. 14, (8) But none of these ladies think themselves 15: “Doth not even nature itself teach you,
that completely dressed, till they have tinged their eye- if a man have long hair, it is a shame to him? lids with Al-ka-hol, i. e., the powder of lead ore. But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to And as this is performed by first dipping into the her; for her hair is given her for a covering." powder a small wooden bodkin, of the thickness (10) As the Jewish and Grecian ladies never of a quill, and then drawing it through the eye- appeared in public without a veil, Paul severely lids, over the ball of the eye, we have a lively censures the Corinthian women for throwing off image of what the prophet (Jer. iv. 30) may be the decency and modesty of the sex, and exposing supposed to mean, by renting the eyes (not, as we themselves and their religion to the satire and render it, with painting, but) with pouk-lead calumny of the heathen. The whole passage ore. The sooty colour which is thus communicated beautifully and clearly exhibits the distinguishing to the eyes is thought to add much gracefulness to customs which then prevailed in the different persons of all complexions; and the practice is no doubt of the greatest antiquity. Besides the instance already noticed, we find that where Jezebel the powder is prepared : “Upon the principle of strengthening is said (2 Kings ix. 30) to have painted her face, tice among the women to black the inside of their eyelids
the sight, as well as an ornament, it is become a general practhe original is, “ she adjusted (or set off) her eyes applying a powder called Ismed, which appears to be a rach with the powder of pouk,” or lead ore. So Eze- lead ore, prepared by roasting it in a quince, apple, or trufile, kiel (chap. xxiii. 40) is to be understood. Karan- and then levigated with oil of sweet almonds on a marble stone.
Their method of applying the powder is by a cylindrical piece happuc, i. e., the horn of pouk, or lead ore, the of silver, steel, or ory, about two inches long, made very name of Job's youngest daughter, was allusive to smooth, and about the size of a common probe : this they wet this custom and practice.*
with water, in order that the powder may stick to it; and a plying the middle part horizontally to the eye, they shat the
eyelids upon it; and so drawing it through between them, it * Travels, vol. i., pp. 403–413. Dr. Russell gives the fol- blacks the inside, leaving a narrow black ring all roand the lowing account of this operation, and of the manner in which ledge."--Hist. of Aleppo, p. 102.
dress and appearance of the sexes, 1 Cor. xi. 4: And D'Arvieux gives a remarkable instance of an “ I desire you to observe, that of every man the Arab, who, having received a wound in his jaw, head is Christ; of every woman, the man; and chose to hazard his life, rather than suffer the surof Christ, the Deity. Now every man who prays geon to remove his beard.|| or speaks in public with his head covered, dero- (12) For the feet, the common dress was shoes gates from the dignity of Christ, his head. On or sandals. The former was a piece of strong the contrary, every woman who prays or speaks in leather, or wood, fastened to the sole of the foot public with her head uncovered, degrades the dig- with strings, tied round the ankle and leg, and nity of the man, who is her head; for this is a which are called shoe-latchets, Gen. xiv. 23, &c. singularity as uncharacteristical of the sex, as to when they approached God, in acts of worship, have the hair entirely cut off. But if a woman this part of the dress was laid aside : the priest will not consent to wear her veil, let her even always ministered barefoot. have her hair cut short like the man : but if it be (13) In describing the dress of the Jewish peoto the last degree scandalous and indecent for a ple, we must not omit their phylacteries, or tephewoman to have her hair cut short or shaved off, lim, which were held in such estimation among let her, for the same reason, be veiled. A man, them. These were little rolls of parchment, in indeed, ought not to have his head veiled, as he is which were written the following passages of the the glorious image of God; but the woman is only law: (1) “Sanctify unto me all the first-born : the glorious image of the man. For the man was whatsoever openeth the womb among the children not formed posterior to the woman, but the woman of Israel, both of man and beast, it is mine,” &c., was formed out of the man. Nor was the man Exod. xiii. 2—10. (2) “ And it shall be, when the formed for the woman, but the woman for the Lord shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanman. In your assemblies, therefore, the woman ites,” &c., to ver. 16. (3) From the 4th verse of ought to wear a veil, on account of the heathen the 6th chap. of Deuteronomy, “ Hear, O Israel, spies who are purposely sent to inspect your con- the Lord our God is one Lord,” to ver. 9. (4) From duct. I appeal to you, is it decent for a woman ver. 13 of chap. xi. : “ And it shall come to pass, to address the Deity without a veil ? Doth not if ye shall hearken diligently to my
commandthe universal prevalence of modern custom itself ments,” &c., to the end of ver. 21. They wore teach
you, that for a man to wear long flowing them upon the forehead, and the wrist of the left tresses
, dressed in the manner of women, is the arm ; the obligation to which they founded on highest indecency and disgrace ?* But the long Exod. xiii. 16; Deut. vi. 8; xi. 18. and flowing hair of the fair sex is their distin- (14) Nose-rings and ear-rings are very general guishing grace and ornament: for this was lavished parts of the dress of an eastern female, and they upon them by the hand of nature for a covering. are often mentioned in Scripture. See Gen. xxiv. But if any person appear disposed to litigate and 47; XXXV. 4; Isa. iii. 20; Ezek. xvi. 12, &c. raise disputes on this topic, let him be assured, Sir John Chardin says, “It is the custom in that neither we the apostles urge, nor the churches almost all the East, for the women to wear rings of God practice, any such custom.”+
in their noses, in the left nostril, which is bored (11) Of the veneration in which the beard was low down in the middle. These rings are of gold, held by the Jewish people, we have several exam- and have commonly two pearls, with one ruby ples in Scripture. Thus it was considered the between them. I never saw a girl or young wohighest insult, when Hanun, king of the Am- man in Arabia, or in all Persia, who did not wear monites, cut off the beards of David's ambassa- a ring after this manner in her nostril." Montdors, 2 Sam. X. 4, 5. And from ch. xx. 9, we see it was the custom for particular friends to salute each other by kissing the beard. The Jews were
il Tom. ii., p. 214. not singular in these respects, for the eastern
§ Harmer's Observations, vol. ii., p. 390. Mr. Roberts says,
“Nothing is more common than for heathen females to have a people generally held this mark of virility in the ring in the nose ; and this has led some to suppose that the highest veneration. Thevenot says, the Turks jewel alluded to in Gen. xxiv. 47, was put into that member, greatly esteem a man who has a fine beard ; that and not on the face. “I put a jewel on thy forehead' (Ezek.
xv. 2). The margin has, for forehead, 'nose. It does not it is a great affront to take one by his beard, unless
appear to be generally known, that there is an ornament which to kiss it; and that they swear by the beard. I is worn by females in the East on the forehead. It is made of
thin gold, and is studded with precious stones, and called
Pattam, which signifies dignity. Thus, to tie on the Pattam, * Set Lightfoot, Hor. Heb., 1 Cor. xi. 14, and Josephus, is to “invest with high dignity.' Patta-Istere is the name Antiq., b. xiv., c. 3.
of the first lawful wife of the sking. In the Sathur Aga| Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii., p. 97, &c.
næthe, this ornament is called 'the ornament of the forehead." # Tom, i., p. 57.
Oriental Mustrations, p. 27.
fauçon describes a statue of a female, which was -7. The Parable of the Ten Virgins-8. Polygamy-9. discovered at Ponto when he was at Rome, having
10. The Support of Widows-11. Laws relative to Mar
riage. II. TREATMENT OF CHILDREN.-1. Birth—2. Cir. in her ears two large pendants, on one of which
cumcision -3. Religious Instruction-4. Trades-5. The was the figure of Jupiter, and on the other that of First-born-6. Adoption. Juno. Will this circumstance help us to deter
I. There were several things connected with mine the reason for Jacob burying underground the nuptials of the Hebrews so essentially difall the rings that were in the ears of his family ferent from any thing among Europeans, that a when he came out of Shechem?* The prophet Eze- short notice of them is indispensable. kiel (xvi. 11) speaks of “chains on the neck," as
1. The first thing which merits attention was does Solomon also (Cant. i. 10); and there seems to the method of contracting this sacred obligation be a reference to the thread on which the precious their espousals. It sometimes happened that several stones forming these were hung, in Gen. xiv. 23: years elapsed between the espousals and the mar“I will not take from a thread even to a shoe-latchet," riage of the contracting parties,g during which &c. The following description of the dress of a period the bride remained at home with her paTurkish sultana will afford some idea of the nature rents, and was under the same obligations of of eastern ornaments : “ Round her neck she wore fidelity to her spouse as if the nuptials had been three chains, which reached to her knee; one of solemnized. See Matt. i. 18. In general, howlarge pearls, at the bottom of which hung a fine ever, only two or three months elapsed between coloured emerald, as big as a turkey's egg; another the time of the espousals and that of the marriage. consisting of 200 emeralds closely joined together, 2. It is seen, from several passages of Scripture, of the most lively green, perfectly matched, every that the custom of purchasing the bride prevailed one as large as a half-crown piece, and as thick as among the descendants of Abraham. Thus Shethree crown pieces ; and another of small emeralds, chem says to Jacob, whose daughter Dinah he perfectly round.”+ It is needless to say that the wished to espouse, “ Ask me never so much dorty costliness of these ornaments would be propor- and gifts,” &c. See also 1 Sam. xviii
. 25. The tionate to the condition of the wearer. Bracelets
custom still exists in many parts of the East, and seem to have been worn on the arms by both males hence a numerous family of daughters is a source and females (2 Sam. i. 10; Isa. iii. 19; Ezek. xvi
. of great wealth. Where the bridegroom is not 11), and by the females on the leg also, Isa. iii. possessed of sufficient property to obtain the object 20. Chardin says, that in Persia and Arabia, of his desire by purchase, he obtains her by servi“ the females wear rings about the ankle, which tude. “They build houses, work in their riceare full of little bells.” This will explain Isaiah plantations
, and do all the services that may be ii. 16: “They walk, mincing as they go, and necessary, and this often lasts three or four year making a tinkling with their feet.”! Another before they can be married."This will illustrate accompaniment of female dress was the hand- Gen. xxix. 27. mirror, which was made of metal ; for of some of 3. This sacred and important obligation was these Moses made the foot of the laver (Exod. | contracted at a very early age among the Jews, in xxxviii. 8); and Dr. Lowth informs us, that he compliance with eastern customs ; and hence the was possessed of one which had been found in the bride calls her husband, “ the guide of my youth" ruins of Herculaneum, not above three inches (Prov. ii. 17; see also ver. 18). At the age
eighteen the males could marry, and the females
when they were twelve and a day; till which time SECTION II.
they were called little maids.** Celibacy and
sterility were considered great afflictions (Judges MARRIAGE, AND TREATMENT OF CHILDREN. xi. 37; 1 Sam. i. 11, &c.); and large families, as 1. MARRIAGE.—1, Esponsals—2. Purchasing the Bride-3. peculiar marks of the providential blessing of God.
Marriages contracted at an early Age-4. Marriage Cere. Prov. xvii. 6. monies-5. Public Processions-6. Nuptial Entertainments 4. Concerning their marriages, Dr. Brown has
collected the following particulars from the Jewish * See Calmets Bib. Ency., art. “Ear-rings.” Mr. Roberts writers. On the day of the marriage, the bride
“The rings of the Hindoos have a figure of their gods, or was as elegantly attired as her circumstances sone symbol of their power, engraved on them, for the purpose would permit; and was led by the women into of guarding them from their enemies."-Oriental Illustrations,
+ Lady M. W. Montagu's Letters, vol. ii., Let. 39.
Much curious information relative to the eastern dress may be seen in the Fragments to Calmet, Numbers 667-672, &c.
|| Notes on Isa. viii. 1,
See Josephus, Antig., b. xiv., c. 15.
** Lightfoot, Hor. Heh., Mark v. 23.
the dressing-chamber, without her veil, and with a modern invention, instead of the sum of money dishevelled hair, marriage-songs being sung before anciently given as the dowry), and putting it on her as she went. There she was placed on a beau- the finger of the bride, said, “ Lo, thou art martiful seat, where they disposed her hair in ringlets ried to me with this ring, according to the form (hence compared to the long curled hair of a flock of Moses and of Israel.” Two witnesses were of goats on Mount Gilead, in Cant. iv. 1), and then called, to hear the marriage contract read; omamented it with ribbands and trinkets. They and after they returned, another cup of wine was then decked her in her wedding attire, and veiled consecrated and divided among the guests. her, like Rebecca, amidst the songs and rejoicings 5. Matters were next so ordered as to prepare of her attendants. Thus was sne“ prepared as a for setting out to the house of the bridegroom; bride adorned for her husband,” Isa. Ixi. 10; Rev. when, if there was a canopy, the bride and bridexxi. 2. A virgin was married on the fourth day groom walked under it (hence says the spouse, of the week, that, if any doubts were entertained “ His banner over me was love," Cant. ii. 4); but of her virginity, they could be settled by the coun- if none, the bride and her companions were veiled, cil of three, on the Thursday, which was a syna- she, however, far deeper than they. Sometimes, also, gogue and court day; and a widow was married they used a palanquin, and were carried in state on the fifth day of the week. A woman who was from one house to the other; and it seems to have either divorced, or a widow, neither married nor been to this that David alludes in Ps. xlv. 13, “The was espoused till after ninety days, that it might king's daughter is all glorious within (the palanbe ascertained whether she was enceinte by her quin, viz.), her clothing is of wrought gold.” And former husband ; and if two heathens, who had to this Solomon refers, when he says, of the chariot been married, became proselytes to Judaism, they of the bridegrom, that "its wood was of cedar, its lived separate for the same length of time, that it pillars of silver, its bottom of gold, its covering of might be seen which of their children were hea- purple, and the midst thereof paved with love, or thens, and which were Jews.* When the hour poetical amorous inscriptions or devices, for the of marriage arrived, four persons walked before daughters of Jerusalem," Cant. ii. 9, 10. The the bridegroom, carrying a canopy supported by marriage processions were commonly in the night, four poles, that if the bride intended to walk home by torch-light; and Lightfoot says, they carried to the bridegroom's house after the ceremony, she before them ten wooden staves, having each of might walk under it in company with her hus- them at top a vessel like a dish, in which was a band; and, in the interim, it either stood before piece of cloth or wick, dipped in oil, to give light the door, or was taken into the court around to the company.t So that the parable of the ten which the house was built, if the marriage cere- virgins was evidently a delineation of national mony was to be performed there; all the bride's manners ; since they required, in that case, not party exclaiming, “Blessed be he who cometh !" only to have oil in their lamps, but to have veswelcoming thus the bridegroom and his friends. sels containing a quantity of oil, in order to reDuring the ceremony, if the father gave away his plenish these lamps from time to time. Indeed, daughter, he took her by the hand, as Raguel did we have several allusions to the same custom, in Sarah, when she was married to Tobit, presented various passages of Scripture. Thus, the spouse, her to the bridegroom, and said, “Behold, take when speaking of the bridegroom, says, “ My her after the law of Moses, and lead her away;" beloved is white and ruddy, the chiefest among blessing them, taking paper, writing an instrument ten thousand;" or, as the original expresses it, of covenants, and sealing it, Tobit vii. 13, 14. But “ lighted with ten thousand :” thereby meaning if the father did not act as the celebrator, the bride that he dazzled beholders as much as a bridegroom stood on the right hand of the bridegroom, in allu- attended with ten thousand lamps, Cant. v. 10. sion to Ps. xlv. 9, and the Rabbi or Hezen of the And the bridegroom says of the spouse, that she synagogue, who acted as celebrator, took the ex- is “ terrible as an army with banners,” or, literally, tremity of the thelit, which was about the bride- that she is dazzling as women shone upon with groom's neck, and covered with it the head of the the nuptial lamps, when their rich attire reflected bride, as Boaz did Ruth (ch. iii. 9); after which a dazzling lustre. As they went to the bridehe consecrated a cup of wine, the by-standers groom's house, every person who met them gave joining in the ceremony; and the cup being thus place to the procession ; a cup of wine was carblessed, it was given to the two contracting par- ried before them; and they were accompanied ties. The bridegroom, afterwards taking the ring with music and dancing, Ps. xlv. 15. Hence, in
* Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. ; Matt. i. 18; 1 Cor. vii. 14.
| Hor. Hcb., Matt xxv. I.
one of the parables of our Lord, the children at the reasons for which law were then stated, and
have not 7. We have already glanced at the allusions to danced,” Luke vii. 32. The praises of the bride- some parts of the nuptial ceremonies in the beaugroom were also sung, in strains like those in tiful parable of the ten virgins. But we cannot Ruth iv. 11, 12; whilst the praises of the bride close these remarks without extracting the followwere celebrated in a similar manner. Money was ing illustration of that and another touching passcattered among the crowd, to remind them, if sage of holy writ, from the pen of Dr. Harwood, need required, that they had been present at the whose intimate acquaintance with the classic wedding; and barley also was sown before the writers, to whom these ceremonies were well newly married couple, as denoting their wishes known, has enabled him to place many passages for a numerous progeny.
of Scripture in a very clear and beautiful light:6. Having reached the house of the bridegroom, “ The ten virgins," he observes, “ went in a comthey sat down to the marriage supper, each clothed pany to meet the bridegroom : five of them were with a wedding garment, Matt. xxii. ll; and endued with prudence and discretion ; the other etiquette required that the bride and bridegroom five were thoughtless and inconsiderate. The should remain silent, whilst the honours of the thoughtless took indeed their lamps, but had not table were done by the Architriclinus, or governor the precaution to replenish them with oil (rather, of the feast, Eccles. xxxi. 1, 2; John ii. 8, 9. perhaps, not to carry the vessel of additional oil Besides the Architriclinus, there were two other with them ; thinking the present supply would be official persons, called Paranymphi, or friends of sufficient). But the prudent, mindful of futurity, the bridegroom and the bride (John iii. 39), whose took oil with them in vessels. Having waited office it was to be assisting to them as man and long time for the bridegroom, and he not appeurmaid, especially at their entry into the nuptial ing, they all, fatigued with tedious expectation, chamber. After the feast was ended, mirth and sunk in profound repose. But lo! at midnight, dancing prevailed (Jer. xxxiii. J1), which made the they were suddenly alarmed with a cry- The prophet mention the want of them as a mark of bridegroom ! the bridegroom is coming ! Hasten desolation (chap. vii. 34, xvi. 9, xxv. 10, 11); but to meet and congratulate him. Roused with this whether the bride and bridegroom's parties re- unexpected proclamation, they all got up and mained together, or were in separate apartments, trimmed their lamps. The thoughtless then began is not said: the last is most conformable with the to solicit the others to impart to them some of manners of the East. When the bridegroom re- their oil, telling them that their lamps were entired, he spread his skirt over his bride, to testify tirely extinguished. To these entreaties the pruthe claim which the law had given him, and dent answered, that they had only provided a sought for those signs which the Mosaic code re- sufficient quantity for their own use, and therefore quired in such cases, Deut. xxii. 13—17. In advised them to go and purchase oil of those who the case of young persons the marriage feast lasted sold it. They departed accordingly; but during seven days (Gen. xxix. 27; Judg. xiv. 12, 17; their absence the bridegroom came, and the pruJob xi. 19), and the bride retained the appella- dent virgins, being prepared for his reception, went tion for thirty days after the ceremony; but in the along with him to the nuptial entertainment. The case of a widow or a widower, the feast lasted doors were then immediately shut. After some time only three days. It was the custom for the father the others came to the door, and supplicated earto give his daughter, when leaving his house, a nestly for admission. But the bridegroom repulseul female slave, as a companion, as Laban did to them, telling them he did not know them, and would each of his daughters ; hence Solomon accounts not admit any strangers."S From another parathose extremely poor who had none, Prov. xii. 9.|| In noticing the military affairs of the Jews, we remarked the exemption from military service for
Introd. to the New Test., vol. ii., pp. 120–122. The foltwelve months, which marrying a wife conferred : lowing account of a marriage procession, as seen by Mr. Ward
at Serampore, some few years since, will show the conformity which exists between the customs of the East in the present day,
and those of ancient times :-“ The bridegroom came from a dis* Lightfoot, Hor. Heb., John ü. 1.
tance, and the bride lived at Serampore, to which place the + Idem, Ibid.
bridegroom was to come by water. After waiting two or three See Harmer's Outlines on Sol. Song, p. 11; Russell's Nat. very words of Scripture, Behold! the bridegroom cotneth ! 50
hours, at length, near midnight, it was announced, as if in the Hist. of Aleppo, p. 113, note ; Savary's Letters on Egypt, vol. ye out to meet him! All the persons employed now lighted iii., p. 38, &c.
their lamps, and ran with them in their hands to fill || Brown's Jewish Antiquities, b. ix. sect. 2.
stations in the procession ; some of them had lost their lights,