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hold in its warm state; when cooled it will | Every thing contains its regulated quantity not hold so much ; the excess, therefore, of latent heat-a body in the form of air must part company, and be condensed again; more than a liquid, and a liquid more than clouds rapidly form, and as the condensation a solid. Latent heat is a sensible beat mysgoes on in this region with immense rapidity, teriously transformed, used in the processes down comes the discarded vapor in the of nature, swallowed up, become insensible. original state of water, out of which it had Water contains more of this, then, in the been raised; down it comes, a hogshead in state of a thin vapor than in the condensed each drop. Sudden precipitation, and the form. When, therefore, clouds form, heat violent rubbing against each other, of two that was used up and made latent is restored air currents unequally warmed, develops and rendered sensible; that is one reason electricity, and then in this zone you can why cloudy weather is warm. After a hear such thunder, and behold such lightning, shower, the whole earth is moist, and evapas we quiet folks at home are never plagued oration takes place on the entire surface. with.

Water, to become vapor, seizes, appropriates, We may stop here to remark that in all and thrusts into the latent form some of the climates this is the whole theory of rain. sensible heat lying in its neighborhood, and, Our present weather is sufficient illustration. therefore, a coolness or a chill succeeds the There was a noisy wind from the southwest rain. But there is chill, also, during the this May morning—a wind from the warm rain-fall, when the condensation is at its regions which has come over the sea loaded greatest; how is that? Doubtless you know with vapor. Though violent, it felt warm that air and water conduct heat but badly. to the face; but in the sky were scattered | You could not heat a tub of water from the clouds, and the wind veered frequently to top, and the sea retains through all seasons wards the north with sudden showers, one a remarkable imperturbability as to its temof which pelted upon Tom. It was a contest perature. So you, or the sun, cannot heat between the southwest current, and a cur any amount of air from the top; but the rent from the north, which now and then sun's rays that reach the earth warm that, forced a way down, and where it did so, and it retains the warmth, and radiates it cooled the atmosphere, and obliged it to part back again; and so it is the heat of the with some of its vapor, either in the form of sun sent from our own earth which fills clouds or rain. The winds are quiet now, the air about us. If we walked on such and if you look out, you will see that the high stilts as to raise our mouths and noses fight is over, and the southwest beaten after far above the sod, we should be very glad all its crowing; north wins. You see by the to have our stilts cut shorter; for the radiant smoke that there is a north wind, which, be- heat lessens as we rise from the earth's suring a cold polar current, cannot hold, in an face, in proportion no less rapidly than light expanded state, one half of the vapor brought lessens as we quit a candle; and at any disinto our atmosphere by the southwest. The tance from the earth the atmosphere is very north wind, therefore, marks its victory by cold. So rain descending from the cold a general precipitation; the whole sky is heights brings a chill with it. So clouds uniformly clouded, and a steady rain falls, that cover over the earth and prevent its and will fall, until the balance is restored heat from radiating into space, but rather When the north wind has turued out of the reflect it back again, act as a blanket does sky all the vapor that it cannot manage, we over a man's warm body when he is in bed, shall bave fine weather, until a warm wind and so we have a second reason why it is interferes. The warm wind, then, must warm-close-in cloudy weather. bleed some drops before it gains possession, Since water retains in a remarkable debut, having conquered, will possess a sky con gree an even temperature, and land heats taining less than its due quantity of vapor; and cools in correspondence with all changes therefore precipitation will not be continued. of the sun, it follows that where land and The southwest wind, however, soon brings water are comming led, inequalities of temmoisture with it; and then, if the noon be perature will be various and frequent; every fine, clouds form at evening, when the tem- inequality being the cause of a wind, and perature falls, and it may rain at night the water supplying copious material for

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clouds and rain. Therefore our island is so tropic of Capricorn ;* then six months bare often clouded. Every one who walks by passed, it is midwinter with us and midthe seaside, knows the sea breeze produced summer with people in the southern bemi. by difference of temperature between the sphere. The sun turns back and the Ford land and water. The water being uniform tropic means the place of turning/retraces in heat, is colder than the carth during a its course over the equator, and at the exsummer's day, and the air, cooled upon its piration of a twelvemonth is at our tropic surface, blows in from the sea to fill the again, bringing us summer. Now, the rainy space left by the lighter current. But at season is produced between the tropics, by night the earth has cooled down, till at the powerful action of the sun, wherever it is length the sea is the warmer of the two, and nearly vertical, in sucking up vast quantithe cold current furnished by the earth ties of vapor, which become condensed in blows to the sea. The moist wind from the the upper colder regions of the atmosphere, ocean, flowing over a continent, precipitates and dash to earth again as rain. The rainy its moisture near the coasts, especially on season, therefore, follows the sun. When steep and rugged hills ; so that, far inland, the sun is at or near the tropic of Canoer, clouded skies are rare. The earth in sum- both before and after turning, all places mer, therefore, lies day after day unshel near that tropic have their rainy seasons: tered from the sun, and stores up heat con. when the sun makes a larger angle with tinually ;-you know the heat of continental their zenith, it has taken the rainy season summers. In the comparatively cloudless with it to another place. It is here obvious, winter nothing impedes radiation-out into that a country between the tropics, and ía space the heat all streams. You know the from each, is passed over by the sun, in its severe cold of a winter on the Continent. apparent course, at two periods in the same At Astrakhan the summer heat is that of year, with a decided interval between them Bordeaux, and fine grapes grow; but the It must have, therefore, and does have the winter cold is below zero.

rainy and two dry seasons. The parts of Rain being elicited by heat from water, Africa and Asia bordering the northera half will, of course, abound most where the sun of the Indian Ocean are an exception to this is hottest. The average yearly fall of rain rule; and, though in the region of the trade between the tropics is ninety-five inches, but winds, they are independent of the tradein the temperate zone only thirty-five. The winds also. A great expanse of water is greatest rain-fall, however, is precipitated there placed between two continents, one of in the shortest time-tropical clouds like to which, Asia, stretching to the northeast, is get it over, and have done with it. Ninety- heated during our own summer, and the ty-five inches fall in eighty days on the other Africa, lies southwest of the water, equator, while at St. Petersburgh the yearly rain-fall is but seventeen inches, spread • The inclination of the earth's axis, to which over one hundred and sixty-nine days. we have before alluded, is twenty-three and a ball Again, a tropical wet day is not continu- degrees. The apparent movement of the sun orer

the tropics, our long days of summer and long ously wet. The morning is clear; clouds nights of winter, and the whole theory of polar form about ten o'clock, the rain begins at nights and days, can be explained practically with twelve, and pours till about half-past four ; | the greatest ease. In the evening let there be only by sunset the clouds are gone, and the night

one lamp or candle, which you call the sun. epit

an orange on a knitting needle; put some pins og is invariably fine. That is a tropical day it for men ; bold the needle, your earth's axis, sos during the rainy season.

upright, but let it slant a little ; hold your earth, What does the “rainy season" mean? At the orange, so that its equator is on the same level a point twenty-three and a half degrees Axed always in the same position relative to the

with your sun. Keep the axis inclined and north of the equator, at the tropic of Can. walls of the room, while you imitate the earth's cer, the vertical sun appears to stop when yearly course, by a revolution of your orange it is midsummer with us. As it moves (always in the same level) round the lamp. Make southward, our summer wanes; it crosses

mimic days and nights, in the mean time, by roll the equator, and appears to travel on until that the sun is to men as the lamp might be to

ing your earth round upon its axis. Remember it has reached twenty-three and a half de- your pins, and the rude experiment will be a little grees on the other side of the line-the volume of astronomy,



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and is heated when the sun is at the other shores, and yielding the thick vapor called
tropic, and when our regions are cold. The tho Garua, which serves instead of rain, we
cool current flows over the water into the have already talked. Upon the table-land
space left by expanded air in Asia, when of Mexico, in parts of Guatemala and Cali-
that continent is warmed, from April to fornia, for the same reason, rain is very rare.
October, making the southwest monsoon. But the grandest rainless districts are those
After October, southern Africa begins her occupied by the great desert of Africa, ex-
turn of summer, and the monsoon changes tending eastward over portions of Arabia
with a little conflict in the way of storm and Persia, to a desert province of the Be-
and cloud, and the air flows during the other loochees; districts presently continued in
six months to the other continent, creating the heart of Asia over the great desert of
the northeast monsoon. The end of March Gobi, the table-land of Tibet and part of
and the beginning of April, the end of Sep. Mongolia. In all these, are five or six mil-
tember and the beginning of October, are lions of square miles of land that never taste
the stormy periods of monsoon changing a shower. Elsewhere the whole bulk of
Water currents are determined by these water that falls annually in the shape of
constant winds, and each monsoon brings a rain, is calculated at seven hundred and
rainy season to the coast on which it blows. sixty millions of millions of tuns,
The monsoon region extends beyond the In equalizing temperature, in wafting
coasts of Borneo and Celebes, and on the clouds over the land, and causing them to
coasts of China, northward to Japan. break and fall in fertilizing showers, in

Monsoon is a name drawn from an Arabic creating and fostering the art of navigation,
word, implying season. Prevalent winds by which man is civilized, the winds per-
on a smaller scale are determined in many form good service. Their pure current
other portions of the globe by local peculi. washes out the stagnant exhalations from
arities of land and sea. Thus the great our homes, our fields, our persons ; breaks
desert, the Sabara, heated intensely by our the ripe fruit from the tree, and sows it at
summer sun, pours up a current of ascendo a distance from its parent plant, where it
ing air, and sucks cool air out of the Medi- may grow in the free air, not overshadowed.
terranean ; on that sea, therefore, in the Without winds, winter would be one monot-
summer, a north wind prevails, and for the ony of sun. The crisp snow, and the woolly
same reason it is easier to sail up than dowa clouds, the delightful rustle of the summer
the Nile.

forest, and the waving of the autumn corn,
Let us apply now some of the principles the glory of the sunset, and the wonder of
we have discussed. The trade.winds blow the rainbow,—the world would have wanted
ing equa bly, do not deposit much of their these had not the winds been taught to do
vapor while still flowing over the Atlantic. their Master's bidding. After all, wind and
Out at sea it seldom rains within the trade- rain prove more than the necessity of carry.
winds ; but when they strike the east coast ing umbrellas. And, after all, Tom was not
of America rain falls; and the rain-fall on stupid, when he rejoiced in telling how
that coast, within the limits of the trade-
winds, is notoriously excessive. The chain

• " the wind began again with a burst
of the West India Islands stands ready to

of rain in my face, and a glad rebound

From the heart beneath, as if, God speeding me,
take in the due season) a full dose; the I entered his church-door, Nature leading me.”
rain-fall at St. Domingo is one hundred and
fifty inches. But the winds baving traversed Of course it is understood that violent
the breadth of the continent, deposit their friction of the lower surface of a wind upon
last clouds on the western flanks of the the upper surface of the sea, will raise the
Andes, and there are portions, accordingly, waves. The sea, in a gale, is a condition
of the western coast on which no season will which all people understand. There are,
expend a drop of rain. Thus in Peru it however, certain winds, obeying their own
rains once, perhaps, in a man's lifetime; and laws, which produce storms at sea of a
an old man may tell how once, when he was peculiar nature. These are typhoons and
quite a boy, it thundered. Of the cold Ant- hurricanes.
arctic current slipping by the Peruvian The hurricane is a remarkable storm wind,

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peculiar to certain portions of the world. It | ward of these islands, trace the outline of rarely takes its rise beyond the tropics, and your egg towards the west, turning its it is the only storm to dread within the corner, and still tracing on towards the region of the trade-winds. In the temperate northeast, as if travelling to Europe: leave zone, hurricanes do now and then occur, off now, and you have sketched the ordinary which crossing the Atlantic from America, / path of a West Indian hurricane. strike our own coasts. We had one in 1836, Thunder and lightning frequently attend and we had one last year. But, on our side a hurricane, and, more especially in the of the equator, the home of the hurricane is southern hemisphere, dense sheets of rain. about the region of the West Indies; in the Clearly, it is most important that a ship's southern hemisphere, they favor Rodriguez captain, overtaken by a hurricane, should and the Mauritius. Furthermore, they have know the nature and exact course of the their seasons. The West Indian occur from storm. A horn-book is now published, by August to October. The Rodriguez, in the the use of which he readily obtains this hot months of the other hemisphere. Fur knowledge, which enables him to put his thermore, it is the nature of a hurricane to ship so as she can ride safely until the hur. travel round and round, as well as forward, ricane is gone. Without such knowledge, very much as a corkscrew travels through a puzzled by the changing wind, he perhaps cork, only the circles are all flat, and de- drives before it, and is whirled round, circle scribed by a rotatory wind upon the surface after circle, dragged through the very road of the water. The rotatory wind blows the of danger ; or, he escapes into the middle of sea with it in a rotatory current; within a circle, has a little breathing time, and the circle of the hurricane the air is calm, presently the crash returns ; or, he gets out and its diminished pressure lifts the water | of the main course, and, through ignorance, up in a great storm wave, which, advancing encounters it again. Shipwrecks innumerwith the hurricane, surrounded by its cur- | able have been caused in this way. In the rent, plays the deluge, if it strike upon a present day, though we have not yet estabshore ; but, otherwise, rolls on and on, while lished a full theory concerning burricanes, the wind dances round and round it; thus, the sailor has been taught to step out of twisting circles while it marches on its main their path; and that is something practical, path-that main path being itself a grander for which a naval country owes its thanks curve. Hurricanes always travel away (perbaps something more) to Colonel Reid from the equator. North of the equator, the and Mr. Piddington. great storm, revolving as it comes, rolls The typhoon, a relation of the hurricane's, from the east towards the west: inclining is of Chinese extraction. It is met with from the equator, that is, northward. It only in the China seas, not so far south as always comes in that way; always describes the Island of Mindanao, nor so far north as in its main course the curve of an ellipse, Corea, except upon the eastern borders of which generally crosses the West India Japan. A typhoon walks abroad not oftener Islands, and presently, pursuing the ellipse, than about once every three or four years ; marches to the northeast from the coast of and that is quite often enough. You may Florida, treading the waves of the Atlantic. believe any thing of a typhoon. Robert In the southern hemisphere, hurricanes come Fortune says, that when he was at sea in a from the northeast, and pursue a course typhoon, a fish weighing thirty or forty away from the equator precisely similar. pounds was blown out of the water, and fell No hurricane ever commenced its main through the skylight into the cabin. That course from the west; but, it is obvious that might be believed of a typhoon from a less a ship, revolving in its circles, will find the trustworthy informant. wind in every quarter in turn; and that all of local storms and currents caused, inhurricane's main course is from the west in land or out at sea, by inequalities of temthe last portion of its travels. Take an egg, perature, as, for example, by the warm and place it on an atlas map, so that its current of the gulf-stream, we need not small end shall be near the coast of Florida, particularly speak. The storms and the rain and its lower edge rest on the Leeward torrents of Cape Horn, wbere one hundred Islands ; take a pencil, and, beginning east. | and fifty-three inches of rain have been

measured in forty-one days, and where the With the free-born, the princely beir may be; whole year is a rainy season, we can only

And there are some to whom the Word hath sworn 4

“ Into my rest ye shall not enter :" there mention. To the simoom we give a nod of

Cometh no soul that is not loftier-born. recognition ; verily, that is a penetrating wind, which clogs with sand the works of a

LUTHER. double-cased gold watch, in the waistcoat

III. pocket of a traveller. We wave our hands likewise to the Italian sirocco, and the

We deify him not. Earth held him bound,

No dove, in passion's burning chains, to show Egyptian khamsin, and the dry harmattan;

That here Heaven's royal blood must ever flow and so our dry talk ends.

Through human veins. Like some great organ's It is raining still. Raining on the just and sound,

Whose mighty depths the shrinking ear astound, on the unjust, on the trees, the corn, and the

With swell o'erwhelming, such was Luther's soul; flowers, on the green fields and the river, on

And long its music's glorious bass shall roll the lighthouse-bluff and out at sea. It is Down the interminable aisles profound raining on the graves of some whom we Of that cathedral where no echo dies,

The one eternal Church. Far in the skies have loved. When it rains upon a mellow

His name is known, and here, on earth, beware summer-evening, it is beneficently natural

How even his silent ashey ye despise, to most of us to think of that, and to give Or take again the tone of Rome! and dare those verdant places their quiet share in the Arouse the flery spell in Luther's name that lies! hope and freshness of the morrow.



Thou noble Rhine-land! hadst thou nothing more SONNETS BY A LADY.

Than that still grave, our eyes would turn to thee,

And to that ark upon the tossing sea,

Quietly anchor'd by the heavenly shore;
And if the tempest's thunders are not o'er

To us that grave & beacon-light shall be,
“My holy mother made reply,

And ours the sacred banner of the free,
Dear child, it is my priest." -Lyra Apostolica. The saint who rests there to the battle bore.
My Mother Church! I loved, I love thee well,

Heaven's armies follow where that banner leads: And reverently as well befits a child

Hark to their tread! the cavalry of God! On whom thy lips, so beautiful, have smiled,

Horses and riders o'er no earthly sod When in their speech the holy law did dwell. Whose awful retinue to earth proceeds! But when the fair and virtuous woman turns Angel, Archangel, gazes on, and reads To guilt's disgraceful folly, then the cheek

One Name ineffable, “The Word of God." or her least daughter, in confusion, burns ;

E. X. H. Nor may she follow in obedience meek, To be the thing that even her pity spurng. Then know thou, “ holy mother!" if thou go, After the barlot steps of Rome, and be

From "Fraser's Magazine,"
The thing she is, we bend no more the knee

For thy polluted blessing: sad and slow,
We turn away, and leave thee to thy woe.



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“For thou dost soothe the heart, thou Church of Rome!
By thy unwearied watch, and varied round,

Of service in thy Saviour's holy home."--Lyra Apostolica,
Thou hast no love for guilty Rome? Oh, no!
Thou only lispest in her ancient tongue,
Meek s misereres," for thou still art young;
And lasts, and feasts, and penance-tears that flow,
And heart-escaping words alone may show
Thy dutiful affection. Spirit-wrung!
(As bond-slaves should be, who have turned and

To their dark chains, and chosen eternal woe,)
No marvel, if ye envy so the free,
That ye denounce them, for the bond-slave ne'er

I saw a string of pearls,

Of size and lustre rare;
The wily merchant held them up

For wonders, as they were.

Those for the vanish'd fancies;

For future conquests, these;
But, oh, this precious centre one

For charms one feels and sees !

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