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shoe-maker, except that it was not hollowed out underneath, to correspond to the sole of the foot. At another settlement near by were found the remains of actual embroidery, and a kind of cloth resembling a coarse pattern of checked muslin. In the dwellings of the first period but few if any ornaments for ladies are found, but in those of the second, ornamental hair-pins, combs, armlets, bracelets, finger and ear-rings occur; and Dr. Keller thinks he finds traces of crochet work, and of needles adapted to it, even in the earliest of the ages. There are also evidences that the use of metals was not unknown, even in the earliest age; crucibles of clay mixed with other materials having been discovered, containing lumps of melted bronze, and in one case a lump of pure, unmelted copper.
Even in the earliest of the periods of which we are speaking, there is evidence in the lake dwellings that their occupants must have had quite an extensive intercourse, either direct or indirect, with other tribes or nations. Many of the celts which have been found are made of nephrite, which occurs only in Egypt, China, and other parts of Asia. A kind of wheat has been found among their relics, which is said to be of Egyptian origin. And some glass beads, found in one of the early settlements, are of the same form and color with those found in the early Egyptian graves, and in the ancient burial places of the West, thus indicating trade either directly, or through intervening people, with the Phoenicians or the Egyptians--most probably the latter; and, as some think, indicating the Egyptian origin of the people themselves. And though many of the flints used in this period are like those of the Swiss Jura, yet all the finer kinds must have been brought from France or Germany. And a piece of amber found at Meilen apparently points in the same direction, though it may have come from the shores of Lake Constance. One great manufactory of flint instruments seems to have been on the west side of the Neberlinger Sea, where pieces of all sizes are so abundant that it was the main source of the supply of flints to all Switzerland, until lucifer matches and percussion caps abolished their daily
use. Another large manufactory was at Wanwyl, where the floor of one of the buildings had sunk a good deal, as Dr. Keller supposes, from the number of people gathered on it for work, and also from the weight of the raw material heaped up there for making stone implements. Another confirmation of the extended trade or acquaintance of these people is found in the weeds of their cornfields; for the Cretan catch-fly (the Silene cretica of Linnæus), which is not indigenous to Switzerland or Germany, and also the common blue-bottle (the Centaurea cyanus of Linnæus), the original home of which is Sicily, are found in the cornfields of the lake dwellings, thus indicating the source from which the corn must have come into their hands.
What has thus far been said of the inhabitants of the lake dwellings of the earlier day applies, to a great extent, to those of the second and third periods, except that there was a gradual though slow advance in their manufactures, and that a growing skill and dexterity in flint working, and in some kinds of pottery, are manifest in the later periods. If the races through all the periods were the same, then from the few remains of skeletons that have been found they seem to have been of about the same average height and size, the height being about five feet and nine inches. From the hilts of the broad-swords, already alluded to, and which are now in the museum at Copenhagen, it is plain that their hands must have been remarkably small, for few men at the present day could use the weapons at all.
As to the language of these people, the relics found give us no information, except that the three capital letters, C. S. and I., found on an old shield at Marin, show that they were acquainted with and probably made use of the Roman characters. As to their amusements, great numbers of singular disk-shaped stones, like what are called sling-stones, seem to indicate that stonehurling was a favorite game with them, as it is among the Indian tribes of this country at the present day. Balls, too, from six to eight-tenths of an inch in diameter, having about a fourth part of the stone ground
away on one side, are supposed to have been used in some kind of game. The only objects found supposed to be connected with their religion, are some figures of the crescent moon, with zig-zag and line ornaments on one side. These, however, are not found in the earlier, but only in the later periods. They are supposed to have been used as a kind of charm to propitiate the invisible powers and to cure diseases and avert evil; and seem to have been placed in some open space or over the doors of their dwellings, so that the ornamented side was exposed to the view. From the fact that three of them were found in a single small excavation, and quite a number of them in some of the lake dwellings, it is probable that no house was without what they deemed so important a protection.
As to the nationality of the lake settlers there have been two theories; one that the races of the earlier periods were conquered and driven out by those of the latter; the other, that they were all of the same race, the only changes being those of the gradual advance which might be expected from the progress of time and the improvement it might bring. Though in some things wide differences are found between the productions of the various periods, yet when carefully examined the points of agreement are found to be so many and striking that they can only be accounted for by the existence of kindred feelings and habits and tastes. The similarity of the dwellings through all the periods; the gradual intermixture of bronze and iron; the shape of the celts and other implements of stone and bronze, so alike in their style and form, and the various articles of pottery, all show only such differences as might naturally mark the gradual develop ment of one and the same race, and not the different civilizations of different peoples. Dr. Keller's opinion is that the builders of the lake dwellings were an early branch of the Celtic population of Switzerland, though he thinks the earliest settlements belonged to the pre-historic period, and had already fallen into decay before the Celts took their place in the history of Europe. But it is difficult to settle this question, from the fact that very few remains of the
inhabitants themselves have been found, and even these, not under conditions that enable us to assign them to any particular period. Until lately no traces of burial grounds had been found, and none even of those confused mixtures of bones which are supposed to be the relics of cannibal feasts in Yorkshire and in Denmark. Many have inclined to the opinion that the bodies of their dead were burned, as was the custom of the Celts in later times. Others thought they were thrown into the lakes, in which case their disappearance would easily be accounted for; for when the great lake of Harlem was drained, though many a fierce engagement had taken place on its waters, the only traces of battle that remained were a few hulks of ships and some coins and arrows; everything like bones having been dissolved in the water. But quite recently a remarkable burial place has been discovered near Neuchâtel, in which the bodies were buried very much as among ourselves, except that they were in the sitting posture, which was much practiced in pre-historic days. The skulls are very similar to those of the Swiss of the present day, which would seem to show that the lake dwellers were ancestors of the present inhabitants. But even these discoveries, which have been made since the date of Dr. Keller's publication, do not make plain the origin or the nationality of the occupants of these singular dwellings.
As to the date of the dwellings themselves, though various theories have been advanced, nothing seems certainly settled. Some would make the earliest of them two or three thousand, and some as much as six or seven thousand years old. But on such points we have no sure grounds of conclusion. Like the inhabitants of early Egypt, or those of Central America, or the people that constructed the mounds of our own Western States, the occupants of the lake dwellings have lived, and died, and passed away, leaving the ruins and relics of their singular abodes as the only history of their origin, or numbers, or destiny. They formed one of the many links of our race that have served to connect the past with the present, and their work being done, they have disappeared, and the places that once knew them
shall know them no more forever. Who were their friends, or who their enemies; what their social or civil or religious state; what their knowledge of art or science or arms? As to all these things they have left no chronicles to teach us. The ruins of their frail dwellings are the only monu
ments that remain to speak. And the few traces that we find upon and about them do but suggest a thousand inquiries to which we can expect no satisfying answer till we pass, like the departed occupants, to the unseen world.
FOR creating, for doing first things, An- twenty years, and at the time of his death dover has a genius. She founded the first temperance society, the first missionary association, the first educational society, and the first tract society formed in America. She aided in establishing the first religious newspaper. She laid on her own "Hill" the corner-stone of the first theological seminary; and she is also the mother of the first academy incorporated in the new world.
Previous to the Revolutionary war but few schools designed to fit students for college had been established in America. The Latin School in Boston, the Dummer Academy in Byfield, the Grammar Schools in Cambridge, New Haven, Hartford, and a few other towns had been of great service in teaching the little Latin and less Greek required for admission to Harvard and Yale, and in training young men for active life. But these schools were to a large extent local schools. A majority of their teachers belonged to the towns in which they were situated, and students from these towns were granted privileges not allowed those dwelling beyond the stone post that marked the township's limits. It was not till the year 1778, at a time apparently most opposed to the establishment of new schemes of education, that a design was conceived of founding a "Public Free School or Academy" whose advantages were intended to be as extensive as they should be lasting. The noble honor of conceiving this design belongs to Judge Samuel Phillips, a graduate and overseer of Harvard University, the President of the Massachusetts Senate for
in 1802 the Lieutenant Governor of the State. From his desire of enlarging the boundaries of human knowledge, and of strengthening the moral and religious sentiment of the community, sprang his purpose of founding a school fitted to instruct youth "not only in English and Latin grammar, writing, arithmetic, and those sciences wherein they are commonly taught, but more especially to learn them the great end and real business of living." Interesting his father and his uncle, John Phillips of Exeter, in his plan, it was after mature deliberation decided that a school of this character be established.
Trustees were selected, bequests of certain pieces of land in Andover and of about $8,000 in currency by the elder Samuel Phillips and his brother John were made, and on the morning of Thursday, the 30th of April, 1778, Phillips Academy was opened. The act of incorporation followed in 1780, and preceded by a brief interval the granting of the similar instrument to the Phillips Exeter and the Dummer Academies.
In considering the work of an academy which has for a century been the most important school for secondary instruction in the country, and whose pupils number ten thousand, the first point for examination is its course of study. The character of its course of study for the years succeeding its organization is involved in much obscurity; but it is evident that instruction was given in the classical and the English languages, with the chief design of admittance to college. If, however, Mather may be regarded
as authority for the middle of the eighteenth century, the conditions of admission to college were not severe. In his "Magnalia," Mather says: "When scholars had so far profited at the Grammar schools that they could read any classical author into English and readily make and speak true Latin, and write it in verse as well as in prose, and perfectly decline the paradigms of nouns and verbs in the Greek tongue, they were judged capable of admission to Harvard College." It is probable, however, that the course of study during the last quarter of the last century was in the Academy somewhat more extended than Mather indicates. For as early as 1810-11 the Latin course included Virgil, the Colloquies of Corderius, Cicero's Select Orations and Sallust; and the Greek course, the New Testament and a sort of first book known as Collectanea Græca Minora. The methods, however, and principles of instruction were most lamentably superficial and disastrous to the attainment of the highest scholarship. "I well remember," writes to me one who was a pupil in the Academy in 1811, "that the general object sought was to grind into us and ground us in a knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages. All other knowledge was of minor consequence, this being attained by a severe course of the most persistent gerund-grinding; an exclusive memorizing, first of all, of the entire Latin or Greek grammar, before entering upon any practical application of its forms or rules. The whole business, and it was about the same all over the land, was a melancholy misunderstanding and sorrowful misconception of the function of education."
But within the last sixty years the methods of teaching in Phillips Academy, as in every preparatory school, have improved as much as the course of study has broadened and widened. The scheme of study for college now covers four years, and embraces the classics, the mathematics, a general knowledge of one or two of the natural sciences, and of at least one modern language. All the critical apparatus of scholarship, too, is so simplified that Master Pearson or Master Adams would have no need of his birch rod for helping his boys to learn Greek.
But throughout the steady extension in the curriculum, the emphasis that has been laid upon mental discipline has been most marked. The acquisition of knowledge has been constantly subordinated to the discipline of the mind. The aim has been rather to fit men to think clearly, deeply, and accurately than to fit them for college. Her graduates, therefore, have not been specially distinguished at Harvard, Yale or Dartmouth for the brilliancy of their entrance examinations. During the Freshman year, also, they have often failed to manifest the best elements of their academic training. But in the last years of their college course, in which the demands upon the thinking powers are most urgent, the thoroughness, the accuracy, the clearness in which they had been trained by Pemberton or by Taylor advanced them far beyond those apparently brighter lads who had surpassed them in the Freshman or Sophomore year. By the emphasis, therefore, that she has laid upon the importance of intellectual discipline, Phillips Academy has not only given able scholars and thinkers to the Yales and the Harvards, but she has also given to the whole country citizens who, whether college men or not, are better fitted to exercise the rights of citizenship by reason of her training.
The large majority, however, of 'her students she has sent to college; and of the six thousand to whom she has furnished the foundation of a classical education, about three thousand are college graduates. Before the opening of the present century she sent about two hundred of her boys to Harvard; and for seventy-five years she has provided Dartmouth, Yale, Amherst, as well as Harvard, with an annual quota of from five to twenty-five men.
The work of Phillips Academy, also, in the early training of college presidents and professors is signally distinguished. Fifteen presidents of colleges and one hundred professors in colleges and professional schools received the first classical knowledge from her teaching. Presidents Stearns of Amherst, Woods of Bowdoin and Durant of the California University, all members of her class of 1822, and Presidents
Kirkland and Quincy of Harvard, were her students. To Professor Short and Professor Putnam the eminent Grecians; to Professor Young, the astronomer; to Dr. Aiken, the Princeton metaphysician; to Professor J. D. Whitney of Harvard, and to Dr. Wells, the organizer of Chicago's school system, she gave instruction and discipline. For the Quincys of Boston, for Worcester, the lexicographer, and for Clark, the Cambridge telescope-maker (who made his first telescope while a member of the school from a dinner bell), she laid the foundation of their subsequent work and renown.
The history of Phillips Academy in regard to the literary work, both of her students and graduates, is most distinguished. The course of study of the school, designed to fit for college, has afforded only narrow opportunities for instruction in composition; but in their literary societies the students have constantly done literary work that compares very favorably with the work of similar college organizations. The "Social Fraternity," a secret organization, still remembered by the older graduates, flourished in the first quarter of the present century; and the Philomathean Society, founded in 1825 by Dr. Ray Palmer, Professor H. B. Hackett and others, has been for more than fifty years, by its weekly debates and orations, an excellent gymnasium for the training of writers and speakers. But the Academy itself, holding that the best discipline for young men between the ages of ten and sixteen is the thorough study of the Latin and Greek authors, has devoted but a small portion of her work to instruction in either rhetoric or composition. Under this wise arrangement, not a few of her graduates have won distinction in the world of letters. Nathaniel P. Willis was her student in 1821. Oliver Wendell Holmes was one of her members for a year in 182425; and is described by a school-mate as a "beautiful boy. . bright, cheerful and unsophisticated, and brilliant in every depart ment of his study." The Honorable George P. Marsh also laid in the Academy the foundation of that varied learning which has made him distinguished in the world of letters and science; and here young Fred
Loring, a decade since, manifested those talents which make his early death so lamentable.
The financial history of the school is, also, one of the most interesting and suggestive features of her first century. Though she is not as richly endowed as several institutions of a similar character in New England, her work has seldom been impeded by a lack of funds. Four members of the Phillips family are her largest, as they were her earliest, benefactors, and their bequests aggregate $60,000. George Peabody included the school among the objects of his munificent generosity, and endowed a professorship of the national sciences with a foundation of $25,000. The gifts of 'Squire Farrar, the treasurer, and whose benefactions extend through sixty years, amount to somewhat over $15,000; and about $5,000 have been given as a fund for aiding needy students of merit. The Academy, however, has never possessed productive property of a sufficient amount to be free from depending to a certain degree upon her tuition charges for support. Though these charges are remitted to indigent students, only a small proportion of the whole number in the school avail themselves of the privilege. At the present time, the Academy annually derives about $9,000 from the tuition fees, and somewhat over $6,000 from her productive funds. These funds amount to $95,000, and with the real estate, valued at $125,000, constitute her principal assets.
During her first twenty-five years, and in the interval between 1845 and 1860, the school attracted a wealthy class of students, but in the other periods of her history, the few wealthy boys from New York and Boston have usually been outnumbered by the penniless ones from the country towns of Maine and Vermont. The thought of the founders that while wealthy students would come to her, poor ones could, has in general been realized. The large majority, however, of her members, have belonged to the vast middle class-the third estate of the nation; and have satisfied the wise man's desire in possessing neither poverty nor riches. The school has, therefore, never been supported by a constituency of graduates, as is Har