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Correspondence of the St. Louis Republican.
retreats and fastnesses, and it is impossible to
wage war against them with any degree of sucNEW MEXICO.
cess ; but during the winter they are driven into Los Vegas, (N. M.) Dec. 1, 1849. the plains by the severe snows, and can readily The Indian difficulties still continue in all be overhauled. Large parties of them go into quarters. The Eutaws, Navajos, Apaches and the buffalo country every fall, when the buffalo Jicorilles, are all at open hostilities, and unless are fat, and kill and dry their meat, which furthe general government takes prompt and ener- nishes most of their winter's subsistence. They getic measures to check them at once, will give have been comparatively quiet for the last two infinite trouble. Most of these troubles have months, and as soon as they are forced by the been brought about since the occupation of the snow to abandon the mountains, they will again country by American troops. The Mexicans, be suing for peace, and this amicable disposition with their inherent cowardice, were accustomed will last just as long as the snow lies on the to submit quietly to these depredators, and allow mountains. themselves to be plundered by these marauding The Apaches inhabit the country east of the bands, until the Indians have been taught to look Rio Grande and north of El Paso del Norte, but upon it as their natural and legitimate right, and make frequent incursions west of the Rio Grande. are loath to yield this lucrative and easy mode of They are always on the look-out for small parties obtaining a subsistence.
on the famous “jornada del Muerto," or journey The Navajos, who inhabit the country west of of the dead man. They are not very brave, but the Rio Grande, number about seven thousand. have a just appreciation of Mexican valor, and They have been hostile for the last fifteen years, will attack a Mexican party with a much less disbut their hostility has occasionally been inter- proportion of numbers than they will a party of rupted by a short and treacherous peace. The Americans. Major Steen, 1st dragoons, cominhabitants of New Mexico have annually been manding at Dona Anna, has had several skirlaid under heavy contributions to replenish their mishes with them, in one of which he was dangerflocks and herds. They are more industrious and ously wounded, but he has measurably recovered. further advanced in civilization than any other They raise no grain whatever.
The maguey Indians bordering on the country. They have no root, which has a sweetish and rather pleasant permanent habitations, but cultivate corn largely taste when roasted, forms an important item of and wheat to a small extent; make blankets from their diet. Wild game is very abundant in the the wool of their herds of sheep, some of which mountains they inhabit. are valuable and of rare beauty. Some of the The Apaches bordering on New Mexico do not fruits common to this climate are also cultivated number over five thousand. by them. But the great source of their wealth The Jicorilles, a tribe of Apaches, inhabit the consists in their horses, goats and sheep, of which north-western frontier. Though numbering not they have immense numbers, and which, to a con- over five hundred, they have very much annoyed siderable extent, have been stolen from the New the inhabitants of that frontier, as well as small Mexicans and Pueblo Indians. A single Navajo parties on the route from Fort Leavenworth to will frequently have fifteen or twenty thousand Santa Fé. They are effeminate and cowardly head of sheep and goats and five or six hundred men, never attacking or fighting unless they have horses. These horses are small, but of a supe- the advantage. They make a rough earthenware rior quality, and will run for many hours without and dress skins very neatly, and these are bartered tiring. Col. Washington made a movement for blankets and ammunition, with which they against them last summer, and, in a skirmish are supplied by the Mexican traders who go killed the principal chief, but afterwards made a among them. These Indians have had several treaty of peace with them, with which they have severe blows during the past summer and fall. failed to comply in every particular, and have Lieut. Burnside, with a detachment of “ Bragg's since committed more depredations than all the Battery,” fell upon a party of them last August, rest of the Indians combined. Their chiefs have and cut down some thirty with the sabre, and but liule influence and authority over them, and it took seven prisoners. But nine or ten of the will be a difficult matter ever to make a lasting entire party escaped. They were afterwards treaty with them until they have been soundly overhauled by Capt. Papin's company of volunwhipped.
teers. Major Grier has just returned from an The Eutaws inhabit the north and north- expedition against them. In October, Mr. White, western frontier, and number between four and a merchant of El Paso, who was bringing out five thousand. They are brave, athletic, and his family, left his train, as the weather was warlike, subsisting entirely upon plunder and the becoming cold and disagreeable for Mrs. White game of the country. Their only articles for and child, and came on in advance, with a party traffic are their horses and dressed skins of buffa- of eight persons. loes, bear and deer. Their hostility is of but The Indians prepared an ambuscade some sixty recent date. They have been pretty roughly miles from Los Vegas, the first settlement, and dealt with, once or twice, by our troops. Dur. killed Mr. White and all the men of the party, ing the summer they stay in their mountain taking Mrs. White, child and negro servant, prisoners. As soon as this was reported to the would have ensued, and how long can we expect commanding officer of the department, Major a peace thus obtained to last ? Grier was ordered, with his own company and From the best data that can be had of the Capt. Valdez's company of volunteers, to proceed tribes above mentioned, there are thirty-six thouto rescue Mrs. White, if possible. Taking Kit sand, many of whom are now, and all of whom Carson and Watkin Lerieux as guides, he pro- there is a probability of becoming, hostile at any ceeded at once to the scene of the outrage, thence moment. It behooves the government then to to follow the trail. The Indians had taken every provide against this contingency at once. Nothprecaution to avoid pursuit. They travelled in ing can be done with any of them until they are every direction, one day going east and the next thoroughly subdued. going west, encamping near where they had been the previous night. On leaving camp, they had
From the New York Evening Post. moved off in small parties, diverging in many di
THE WEST POINT ACADEMY. rections, and came together after getting some miles distant. Though seventeen days had In looking over the late report of Gen. Totten, elapsed, the indefatigable Kit Carson and Lerieux chief engineer, we find an earnest recommendafollowed the trail with the precision and certainty tion that the professor of drawing at West Point of a bloodhound, coming on the camps night after should be placed upon the same footing, in renight, notwithstanding their precaution. Major spect to the compensation for his services, as the Grier finally came upon one of the camps, the fires professors of engineering, mathematics, ethics, and of which were still burning, and, imagining that chemistry. The report includes the professor they had got news of his approach and were flying, of French in the same recommendation, and urges he gave chase, and after running about sixteen miles the laborious and responsible duties of these genhe came upon them. They had again encamped, tlemen, their great ability, long experience, and and were only apprized of his presence by some the zeal and industry with which they have exof their hunters a few minutes before he was on erted themselves in their stations, as sufficient them. They had time, however, to mount their reasons for the change. Aeetest horses, and Major Grier's were so much If men are to be paid in proportion to the capacfatigued that the Indians could readily outrun ity which they bring to the tasks assigned them, them. Five or six were killed and three taken and to the diligence with which they exert their prisoners. In their flight they abandoned every- powers, the recommendation does credit to Genthing, and even threw their children away as they eral Totten's sense of equity. Mr. Wier, a paintran, so much were they pressed. Their lodges, er of great genius and distinction, accomplished horses, saddles, bridles, blankets, fire-arms, am- by a long course of study and sedulons practice, munition, provisions, dressed skins, in a word, at home and abroad, fills the place of professor of everything except their own denuded persons and drawing. Should not such a man be as well paid the horses on which they rode, was captured. as one who teaches the young man algebra and
Fifty animals were packed with the most valu- geometry? Should his wages be less than those able things, the rest were burnt. When Major of one who lectures to the pupils, from the class Grier got on the ground which had been occupied books, upon acids and alkalies, and instructs thera by the Indians, he found the body of Mrs. White to sort rocks and distinguish the strata of the transfixed with an arrow-lifeless, but still warm. earth? She had evidently been put to death, and thus Some years before Mr. Wier received his apfreed from her sufferings, at the time the alarm pointment, the artist Leslie was sent for, from was given. She still had her Bible and prayer London, and made teacher of drawing at West book, which had been her companions during her Point, with an understanding that he should recaptivity. They were marked at various places ceive the compensation and rank of professor. where she had been reading. The child and He did not wait for Congress to do anything in negro girl were not seen or heard of, and they the matter, but, after a short residence, returned to are doubtless with the Indians.
England in disgust. There is no doubt that if he Major Grier had Mrs. White buried as decently had remained, he would have been made a profesas circumstances would admit, and that the In- sor, with a professor's rank and pay. dians might not discover her resting place, and friends of so renowned an artist would not have that her bones might lie undisturbed, he burnt rested a moment, till he had been placed upon as grass over her grave and set fire to the prairie high a footing in regard to consideration and comaround it.
pensation as the teacher of mathematics. Besides the Indians above enumerated, there Mr. Wier, one of the most promising of our are the Camanches, Arapahoes and Cheyennes, young artists, took the place of Leslie, but Wier all bordering on New Mexico, and who may at was only an American ; Wier had not, like Lesany time become hostile, for our peace with them lie, an European reputation, and nothing, therefore, has been purchased by a few thousand dollars' was done for him. After seven or eight years' worth of presents. Had Fitzpatrick-Indian toil in the institution, during which, he found time agent-not arrived last fall with these presents, to produce his great picture at Washington, and there is not the shadow of a doubt but hostilities various smaller works of exceeding beauty, he
at" It is suggested that these additional appoint
was, about three years since, made, by act of | It is true that a certain number of assistant teach-
ought not certainly to be conferred upon the repreThe law was a frivolous one, and we hope will sentatives, who have already their share of this be amended by giving Mr. Wier a station and a advantage, and who, as a matter of equity, ought compensation, among the other instructors, pro- to be willing to admit the senators to the same portioned to his talents and his labors.
right they themselves possess. There is another consideration in regard to the If the nation is satisfied with the Military Institution at West Point, which we wish to lay Academy at West Point, with the education its before our readers.
pupils receive, and with the services they have The growth of our population and the enlarge- rendered, we suppose no scruple will be felt in ment of our borders bring with it, as a matter of enlarging somewhat the number of those who are course, the occasion of giving a military education educated there. The existence in our country of to a greater number of our young men. The a class of men trained in a military school, inteleducation received at West Point differs consider- ligent in all that relates to the art of war, and ably from that obtained in our colleges; but in competent to organize and train a large body of various respects it is a very thorough one, and fits soldiers in the shortest space of time, is a circumthose who receive it for usefulness in various em- stance which, perhaps, more than any other, enaployments in which science is applied to the prac- bles us to dispense with a regular army. The tical purposes of life. West Point furnishes Board of West Point Visitors, it is said, were excellent engineers, able practical chemists, and much inclined to make, in their late report, the for some reason, we do not know exactly what it very suggestion which we have been discussiag. may be, a considerable proportion of clergymen. Even with this addition to the number of its It certainly, however, turns out annually a class pupils, the annual expense of maintaining the of gallant, well trained young officers, for the West Point Military Academy would not be American army.
equivalent to the yearly cost of a ship of war. The history of the war of Mexico, a war which
From the Tribune. drew them forth from the pursuits of civil life, is full of proofs of their bravery, their military skill
SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. their fitness in every respect for taking a prompt
Washington, Monday, Jan. 29. and efficient part in the hostilities in which their One of the most interesting visits in Washington country may be engaged. It is one of the advan-is to the Supreme Court of the United States. The tages of an education received at West Point, court room is in the northern wing of the capitol, that it combines physical with mental training, on the ground floor. It is broken by pillars and and imparts to the character a certain manly har-arched walls, and is badly lighted. It is handdihood.
somely furnished with rich Wilton carpets, silken The qumber of cadets at this Academy is now drapery, &c. The light is admitted from the rear limited by the number of congressional districts windows alone, and the judges sit with their backs within the confederacy. The cadets are appoint-to the light; the counsel who address them can ed on the nomination of the representatives in scarcely see their faces. At 11 o'clock they enter Congress, with the exception of ten, who are deliberately, all dressed in black and with gowns. nominated by the President of the United States. After they are seated, the crier proclaims, “ Oyez, These ten appointments are intended for the sons oyez, oyez! the Supreme Court of the United States of the officers in the land and naval service, who is now in session; all persons having business would otherwise, in respect to the Military Acad- therein are admonished to draw near and give their emy, be utterly disfranchised.
attendance. God save the United States and these It is the opinion of many of our ablest military honorable judges !" men, that the corps of cadets, for the purpose of I will now attempt to describe the court; in the instruction, might, with advantage, be largely in- centre sits the chief-justice, Roger B. Taney, of creased. We are informed that an increase, equal Maryland. He is tall, sallow, thin, hard-featured, to the number of senators in Congress, might be and careless in dress. His history is well known. made without any further provision by law, either As General Jackson's attorney-general, he had no for professors or for quarters at West Point, and hesitation in advising that the removal of the dewould give a much better sized battalion for in- posits from the Bank of the United States, by the struction in tactics, and that this addition to the president's order, was valid ; and when Mr. Duane number of pupils would not furnish more than a refused to remove the treasure, Mr. Taney took his sufficient oumber of yearly graduates for the army. I place as secretary of the treasury, and gave the
order required by the president. He stood very, labor. He is nearly six feet in height, of round high at the bar of Maryland, and is unquestionably and compact form, well moulded features, a proma man of great power of intellect. His opinions are inent and bright eye, that, at a distance, appears terse, pointed, and luminous, not incumbered with dark, but on nearer view is seen to be a bluish unnecessary learning, but exceedingly logical and gray. He is strictly temperate in his habits, drinks convincing. He has great tenacity of purpose and nothing but cold water, and a great deal of that, strength of will, and, I may add, stubborn preju- and works with surpassing rapidity and earnestdices. The sincerity of his convictions no one ness. He has great talent for research, and his doubts. There is about him an unmistakable air opinions are crowded with its results. As a reaof intellect and authority, and he is a not unworthy soner he is cogent and accurate, but not concise, successor of John Marshall. He is a devout Roman and is apt to spend too much labor in proving what Catholic, and rigid in his observance of religious ought to be assumed as settled. His decisions forms and duties.
would be the better for pruning and thinning, but On the right hand of the chief-justice sits Mr. the growth is deep-rooted and vigorous. He is a Justice McLean, of Ohio. This gentleman was very able judge. As a politician, he has always postmaster-general under Mr. Adains, and continued been a “democrat'' and a supporter of southern 80 for a very short time under General Jackson, rights-and no northern man could be more acceptwhen he was transferred to the bench of the Su- able to the “democracy” of the south as a presi
He is a well-dressed, dignified per- dential candidate. son, about six feet in height, exceedingly well We will now look to the left of the chief-justice. formed, with fine teeth, a clear gray eye, lofty brow The first is Justice Wayne, from Georgia, formerly and forehead, thin hair but not gray, and in the a member of Congress from that state, and a very general outline of his features, the breadth of the warm personal and political friend of Secretary lower part of his face, and the general carriage Forsyth. He is an exceedingly handsome manhis head, exceedingly like the statue of Washington about five feet ten inches high, of stout but graceful by Houghton in the capitol at Richmond. He is figure, ruddy complexion, fine teeth, and clustering, an upright and sensible man, with unquestionable wavy hair, now mingled with gray; very courAdministrative talents, but not an accurate or pro- teous in manner, and with a tone of refinement in found lawyer. It is believed by some that he is his elocution and address that is very pleasing. not satisfied with his present position, but is de- He has cultivated the graces, and has aimed (it is sirous of obtaining a higher station. He is a mein- said not without success) to be in favor with the ber of the Methodist church, and is in high favor ladies. He has an ingenious, copious mind—is with that denomination.
fluent and rapid in expression, but lacks conciseJustice Catron, of Tennessee, is next to McLean. ness, lucid arrangement, and vigor. He is, howHe is a stout, healthy man, respectable and solid ever, by no means deficient in learning even of a in appearance, with a face and head more indicative technical character. of urbanity and benevolence than of intellect. With Next to him is Judge Nelson, a man of handgood sense, moderate learning, great benevolence some features, bland and gentleman-like in expresof feeling and kindness of demeanor, he is univer- sion, very courteous in manner, and dignified yet sally regarded as a useful, unpretending, respectable easy in deportment. He possesses much good sense, judge.
and is an excellent lawyer. His apprehension is Next to him we find Judge Daniel, of Virginia. not rapid, but he thinks clearly and reasons strongHe was nominated by Mr. Van Buren, shortly ly. He is probably the best commercial lawyer before the termination of that gentleman's presi- on the bench, thanks to his New York education. dency, principally on account of his political services Since his elevation to his present place he has and devotedness. He is tall, bony, angular, with shown an unusual degree of energy and industry, high cheek-bones and dark complexion, and looks and is evidently working for a reputation. He is as if he had some Indian blood in his veins. His not suspected of ulterior political views, and his mind is narrow in its conceptions and limited in its integrity and independence are not doubted. investigations, and his style is crude and confused. Judge McKinley, of Alabama, is not here.
He But his learning is accurate, and his deductions is in New Orleans, holding his circuit there, and are sound and clear. He often dissents from the principally with a view to attend to the trial of majority of the court, and not unfrequently in favor Mrs. Gaines' cases. of state rights. His attachment to these renders Judge Grier, of Pennsylvania, has a large, broad him a valuable member of the court. His amia- form, an expansive angular brow, blue eye, and looks bility and honesty are universally conceded ; law- like a strong-minded, sagacious German—such, I yers say that his opinions, even when in the mi- believe, is his descent. [More probably Scotch.nority, are sound and correct.
Ed. Tribune.] His voice is very curious ; he reads Next to him, and on the extreme right, is the in a low, rapid, monotonous tone for some seconds, place of Senator Woodbury, of New Hampshire. and then he will catch on a word, to spin round He has long been a man of note. As governor and it as on a pivot, and start off to renew the same judge in his own state, and as senator and secretary course. His opinions are unpretending and sensiof the treasury here, he has been distinguished for ble, well expressed and concise. His position as fidelity to his party, and for unwearied study and I a judge is hardly yet defined.
On the right of the judges, separated by a rail- | Book authorized by the General Assembly, is, that ing, is the desk of the clerk, Mr. Carroll. He is the committee are composed, not of professed mua brother of Hon. Chas. H. Carroll
, of Livingston sicians, but of men who represent the opinion of County, New York. He is a model of what a of the value of correct music of the true standard
the people. A great deal may be very truly said clerk should beneat, prompt, assiduous, and cour of taste, &c.—but, after all, what we need looks teous, and is in every respect an honorable and to a higher standard than the laws of a science. accomplished gentleman.
We need tunes which our congregations will sing ; On the left-hand side we find the desk of Mr. tunes, which, whether from association, or simWallach, the youthful marshal of the district. He plicity, or adaptation to the voice, or from whatever is very attentive to visitors of the court; takes other cause, do actually induce them to sing. care of the ladies who drop in, and provides them the people the other. The question is, who are to
Music-book-makers and choirs take one ground; with seats, and is ever ready to extend kind atten- sing? If the choir alone, then let them determine tions to all strangers.
the standard, choose the tunes, and perform them, The attorney-general has a separate desk in the But if our common-sense and our directory of worcourt-room, and an adjoining office. Mr. Reverdy ship sustain the people in their claim to be first Johnson was foremnost at the Baltimore bar, and considered, then let them be gratified, though muranks very high as a learned lawyer and able ita
sicians stop their ears in horror. There is a great deal of energy and inde
Look at this specimen of what we have to con
tend with. In one of the latest music-books (“ Napendence in his look and bearing and mode of tional Psalmist') the tune China is graciously respeaking. He is of good stature, erect and strong, stored to a place which has long been denied to it but powerful figure, strongly marked features, and in “popular” collections. If any of your readers with no softness of speech or manner. His style over forty years of age, know it not by name, they of reasoning is clear and strong, but diffuse. will at once remember it as the tune that belongs to
I will allude to but one other officer of the court Why should we mourn departing friends ?-its oldest counsellor in attendance, and a most
a tune that always calls out an enthusiastic accomable and distinguished lawyer-General Walter
paniment from the mass of any congregation that Jones, the rival of Pinckney, and Wirt, and Web- are accustomed, or are permitted, to sing at all. ster, and other leading counsel in past days. As This China reäppears in the Psalmist with this a common-law counsellor, he excelled them all in note, “A queer medley of a melodya great favordepth and variety of learning. He has received ite with many old persons.” Now, granting that enormous fees in former times, and has had several it is ever so queer, and that nobody likes it but large legacies, but is now without fortune, and still tain is that the majority will sing such tunes with
those who wear spectacles, what the people mainengaged in practice, although he must be more than fervor, whilst the more perfect melodies which are seventy years old. He speaks slowly and in a low substituted for them, and are the favorites of many tone, but with great purity of diction and clearness young persons, are left to the choir-monopoly'; of thought. There is, however, a great want of even the young people will not help them. force in his manner, and few listen to him. Some
This discussion does not involve a matter of mere years ago a citizen of Ohio, after being in court form or custom ; it is not a difference “ 'twixt during an argument of General Jones, said to one and more evident that our denominational and relig
tweedledum and tweedledee." It is becoming more of his acquaintance that he had witnessed that day ious interests are connected with the question, the greatest curiosity which had ever met his ob- whether this part of the public worship shall be servation ; he had heard a man talk for two hours conducted by an orchestra, quartette, choir, or any in his sleep! The appearance and dress of this other deputation, or by “ the whole congregation. distinguished and worthy gentleman are most pe- Let any minister look upon the countenances of an culiar, but it would be hardly fair to describe them. assembly where all have psalm-books in their hands, He is universally respected, and, by those who only one here and there, venture to open their lips,
and use them, and then upon one where none, or know him, warmly beloved.
and judge whether religion is not connected with Such are the men who compose this elevated this matter. The listless, heartless appearance of tribunal. As men and jurists they are respectable, a congregation who do not sing; or the attentive but not of the lofty and commanding character that appearance of one, when it is plain that they are will be expected in such a station. Every one of only captivated with the sound, and are giving no them has been selected for political reasons—and heed to the words, is equally ominous of the absome of them certainly would never have been sence of devotion. The disuse of the familiar,
easy tunes is the great cause of the evil, and thouchosen by a popular vote. What absurdity char- sands will rejoice to find the report realized that our acterizes the assertions about the dangers of a pop- committee intend to restore all the good tunes of ular choice of judges? When did a governor of our fathers.
MEAR. a state, or a president, except Washington, nominate a judge on account of his professional ability ?
From the Presbyterian. I know of no instance.
Some of the alterations in good old psalms are From the Presbyterian.
shocking; and the evil is growing worse and worse. OLD AND NEW TUNES.
It is not true, as some contend, that it is always One of the reasons which lead our congregations wrong to make amendments to hymns that have bem to anticipate, with much satisfaction, the Tune come familiar to the church. Some have been