« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
solution of tartaric acid. The paper becomes cov- the more vulgar acceptation of readiness to assist ered with the glistening crystals of bitartrate of the poor and needy, and in an uncontrollable sympotash, cream of tartar. These crystals refuse to pathy for worth that had suffered wrong. He mingle with, or to receive, the ink of the printers ; could not even bear to see a blackguard treated and the printed parts alone receiving it, a very worse than was absolutely necessary to keep him excellent impression can be made by reïnking the in order. His favorite books (and though few print before it is applied to the plate. A few imagined he ever opened one, they were daily conspecimens are before you : their genuineness is at sulted) were poems : deep-read he is in Shakspere once apparent from the style of the type, which no and Milton; and Wordsworth's and Hunt's poetry printer of the present day would use.
are familiar to him. This trait in his character explains the volume of downright serious poetry
which he has just given to the world. In part it From the Spectator.
may be believed to have been prompted by the LORD ROBERTSON'S POEMS.
irrepressible desire he felt to utter aloud the feel
ings awakened in him by the novel and striking Any one who has visited Edinburgh from ten to objects with which he found himself encompassed twenty years ago, and been conducted to the Par- during a tour in Italy, in the long vacation last liament House among other lions—or receptacle autumn. Perhaps a desire to let the world know of lions-must remember an advocate of rotund that better and deeper feelings lurked below the proportions, whose pinguetude was to him a bur- outer case of the professed jester may have had its den as the grasshopper to the seer of old. But influence. Viewed in this light, the fragments of
verse in the volume now before us do no discredit “ His eyen twinkeled in his hed aright, As don the sterres in a frosty night."
to their author. Poetry it would be gross flattery
to call them. The “Address to the Queen'' reThe spirit within was not slumberous. A deft minds one—tant soit peu—of a speech on “the and well-trusted counsellor was he, and well-em-general question ;” the attempt to impersonate ployed at the bar. But to see the man in his Galileo and Milton has none of the novelty Lord glory, you must meet him after dinner, or, by our Robertson flatters himself it possesses, and, what lady, nearer hearing of the chimes at midnight.”' is worse, is a dead failure ; while “ The DishonWithin his portly body seem encased the com- est Dealer” and “ The Pirate” are mere versificabined spirit of all high jinkers since the time tions, the one of a speech in opposition to an apof Pleydell. Speeches he could make in which plication for the benefits of the cessio bonorum, there was no meaning—perhaps no wit; and yet and the other of a crown counsel asking a jury to the most saturnine were compelled to join ihe return a verdict against some freebooter of the roar they provoked. Gaelic sermons he would sea. But the Leaves from a Journal are replete say, and Gaelic songs he would sing ; though of with a feeling of poetry, if not with poetical ideas. the knowledge of Gaelic he was innocent; and And thus much at least may be said in favor of bewildered Celts listened and could not tell whether all the verse in the volume-if the ideas are proit was or was not their own language that fell saic, and not unfrequently commonplace, (as will so glibly from his lips. Italian bravuras he could be the case even with men of talent, when, actroll, albeit Italian was to him an unknown tongue customed only to express themselves in prose, and Nature had denied him a musical ear; De they rashly take upon ihem the fetters of rhythm,) Begnis listening the while to his improvisation they are always the ideas of a man of sound with delight, and Tamburini with blank astonish- sense and healthy generous feelings; if the metre
When the acute indefatigable advocate halts at times and is always stiff, it at least shows slipped out of his wig and gown and away from that the writer has perused and reperused Milton his multitudinous briess, he could seem a very until the cadence of the poet's verse has become incarnation of one of Shakspere's clowns. And, familiar to him. Lord Robertson may hold up though he served no nobleman or potentate in that his head among his brother and sister amateur capacity, yet was he liegeman to an order. In versifiers, confident that he is as good as most of those merry days, Edinburgh had its Guelphs and them. Ghibellines-its Dundasites and its believers the Yet will his volume give rise to a world of mysold “Blue-and-yellow”—perhaps still has, for in tification. All the small fry of Scotch toriesprovincial circles such feuds are nursed with an and all who at Ofley's or ihe Cider Cellar have inveterate pertinacity, to metropolitan circles incon- caught a transient glimpse of Peter before he was ceivable,) and “Peter" was a stanch Tory. At a raised to the bench-will read on and on, ever circuit-dinner in Jedburgh, some small Border expecting that next page the joking is to begin. laird grew angry because our hero marched out of His brethren on the seat of judgment will be fulthe room before him, (unthinkingly, it may be, tered as by “an eagle in a dovecot.” The presithough in strict etiquetie the precedence was his dent will bluster, and the justice clerk look grave. right,) and valorously demanded, " Who are you, thinking this publication of poetry by a Lord of sir?! “Who am I, sir ?” responded the imper- Session infra dignitatem ; Lord Jeffrey will pick turbable Peter ; “don't you know me, sir?" I out some felicitous turn of expression, and compliam buffoon-general to the tories of Edinburgh, ment him upon it; Lord Murray will hesitate besir?"
tween reluctance to give pain and incapacity to be To an observant beholder there was something insincere, and remain silent; and Lord Cockburn anomalous in the face of Mr. Patrick Robertson. will say, that " whereas the muse of his country His month was finely formed, and had an expres- found Burns at the plough and cast the mantle of sion of delicate sentiment; and they who knew her inspiration over him, she found Lord Robertthe man were aware that in the innermost recesses son on the bench and dropped on him a “double of bis mind there was really a rich vein of fine gown' after government had ceased to bestow such thought and feeling. Generous he was, both in honors.”
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 58.-21 JUNE, 1845.
PAOR 537 539 543 545 550 550 551 553 554 556 557 558 559 561 563 564 567 583
Times and Bell's Messenger, 2. Dr. Edward Jenner,
Chambers' Journal, 3. Sophia of Wolfenbuttel, 4. History of the Fireplace, 5. Mr. Caudle's Party,
Punch, 6. The Portendick Blockade,
Spectator, 7. National Arbiters, 8. A Bit of Still Life in Connemara,
Ainsworth's Magazine, 9. The Victims of Diplomacy, 10. Steam Communication with France,
Morning Herald, 11. How to deal with Irish Treason,
Eraminer, 12. Electric Telegraph,
Globe, 13. Impunity of Military Misconduct,
Examiner, 14. American Designs regarding Oregon, 15. Maynooth : a Voice from the Past,
Spectator, 16. Sidney's Life of Lord Hill, 17. On the Occult Sciences,
North British Review, 18. Capabilities,
-Care in Heaven, 562—Saturday Night Thoughts, 584.
Lusus Naturæ, 549—Theobald Mathew, 558—Porcelain Painting, 561—British Associa-
From the Times. compromise.” Whereas the opinion of the best OREGON.
authorities in this country is precisely the inverse,
namely, that the British claim from the 55th to It is convenient and desirable that the public in the 49th degree is clear, indisputable, and exeluthis country should be in possession of the views sive, but that south of the 49th degree the territaken of the Oregon question by men of coolness tory is open to joint occupation and ultimate parand judgment on the other side of the Atlantic; tition. This is the view taken by the French and at the present moment the opinions contained writer, M. Duflot de Mofras, as the most favorain the last letter of our correspondent, “A Gene- able to the Americans which he can at all bring vese Traveller," and in the speech delivered by himself to entertain ; and it is the principle upon Mr. Calhoun in the month of January, 1843, will which alone Mr. Huskisson and Mr. Addington have been read with the greatest interest. The negotiated on behalf of the British government in argument of our correspondent scarcely touches 1826. In point of fact, however, this distinction the real merits of the case ; it amounts simply to with reference to the 49th parallel of latitude this,—that the Americans have on all occasions appears to us to be arbitrary and unfounded ; that claimed the whole of the territory in dispute, and line has never been mentioned in any of the earthat the compromise they offered in 1826 is the lier treaties; and it has now crept into the disutmost limit of concession on their part. We an-cussion apparently for no better reason than that ticipated some weeks ago the difficulty which Mr. it is the boundary of the two states east of the Polk might have to encounter, if he were dis- Rocky Mountains established by the convention of posed to conclude a convention on any terms less 1818. favorable to the United States than those which It is, however, to be feared that the unsuccessful constituted the ultimatum of the commissioners of negotiations which were terminated by the tem1826, namely, the prolongation of the 49th degree porary convention of 1827, will materially emparallel of latitude from the Rocky Mountains to barrass both parties in the course of that arrangeihe sea. But, in reality, those former abortive ment which is now pending. The question we negotiations have nothing to do with the matter. are trying to untie has unluckily run into a knot ; If this was a question of absolute, indefeasible and neither country cares to yield one jot more right to the territory, it would admit of no surren- than it would twenty years ago ;-a memorable der and no delay on either side ; but it is, on the example, be it observed, of the danger of abortive contrary, a joint, indefinite, and abstract right, and attempts at negotiations, when the very fact and it is only by some species of concession or parti- cause of a former failure becomes hereafter a serition that it can ever receive any concrete shape or ous aggravation of the real difficulty! In this real character at all. The opinion of Mr. Gallatin instance, as between the two parties to the dispute, is reported to be, “ that the American claim to the point of honor thus raised long ago has more Oregon up to the 49th degree of latitude is clear real weight than the geographical merits of the and indisputable; beyond that point to the 55th case or the actual amount of interest. But it is. degree it is fairly the subject of argument and by the merits of the case and the fair interests of
the parties that the controversy ought to be deci- which we are told, by the best authority, is to be ded; and the only mode in which such a deci- used against us. It is still as desirable and as sion can be obtained, with a perfect safety to the possible as it has ever been, that the question honor of both states, is by the arbitration of a should be settled by an equitable arrangement, third power. This is the expedient which the sanctioned, if necessary, by an arbitration. But British government has more than once urged on if the American cabinet slinks back into that that of the United States.
inactivity of which we now thoroughly understand We have already stated, on a former occasion, the meaning and the motive, it becomes the British what, in our opinion, ought to be the alternative- ministers to put an end to a convention that only namely, a notice on the part of the British govern- affords a cloak for hostile designs against a British ment, that the convention of 1827 shall terminate province, which have been already openly avowed at the expiration of twelve months. But this by the President of the United States, and are opinion, which has not been lightly taken up, only postponed by the superior craft of other receives the strongest corroboration from the lan- | American statesmen. guage used by Mr. Calhoun, in January, 1843.
From Bell's Messenger, 17 May. Assuming the rights of the two nations in Oregon OUR RELATIONS WITH AMERICA.-American to be equal, and the resolution to defend those papers have arrived to a late date, and we are happy rights to be on both sides the same, the late to say that they fully justify our anticipation that American Secretary of State pointed out to the there is no fear of war between Great Britain and Senate, in the most forcible language, the absolute the United States. Indeed, as regards the Amerimpossibility of sustaining a contest with Great ican government, all common sense was opposed Britain at the present time in and for the Oregon to such an apprehension. As the Oregon district territory. That coast is separated from our mighty is the terminus with the Western American bouneastern establishments by only a few weeks' sail dary, there is absolutely nothing but the physical across the Pacific; an American squadron must difficulties of the journey to prevent the immigracircumnavigate Cape Horn by a route of 18,000 tion of American citizens in any numbers or at any miles before it could reach the Columbia. By time, and there is not a power on earth which land the difficulties are still more insurmountable ; could prevent their settlement in this disputed disfor who ever transported an army across 1,200 trict at pleasure. There is nothing to prevent them miles of pathless desert, where the only food to going either singly or in masses, and there is no be obtained is the game still in undisturbed pos- power can reach them to prevent their settlement, session of those midland solitudes? The country or afterwards to dispossess them. They are wholly is, as we have repeatedly observed, inaccessible to beyond the reach of fleets and armies. Under such any people or any forces but our own; and more- circumstances it is obvious that nothing is wanting over, it is already in the possession of our Hudson's but time to put them in as full an occupation of the Bay Company.
country as they could desire. Mr. Calhoun, one of • But," says Mr. Calhoun, after establishing the oldest members of Congress, seems fully aware these certain, though unpalatable facts, “ the way of this circumstance, and in answer to a former by which Oregon can be secured is to bide our proposal for more decided measures upon this point, time. All we want to effect our object in this, is concluded his speech with the following emphatic wise and masterly inactivity.” He repeats Mr. words :-" If the house would take my advice, Greenhow's recommendation, which we quoted they will let the matter rest, until by the course on a former occasion, to let the matter rest until of time the forces of the claimants become more the forces of the claimants are somewhat more equal than they are at present. The way by which equal than they are at present; and this is the Oregon is to be secured is to bide our time. All only argument, be it observed, which has been used we want to effect our object in this case is a wise to restrain the American people. If you snatch at and masterly inactivity. it, they are told, it is lost; if you wait, it is yours. The majority of the American papers now ar
And is this argument to be lost upon us? Can rived, entirely adopt this view of the case. “We we doubt that if this aggressive policy is be- do not believe," says one of them, “ that there is queathed to another generation of Americans it any hazard of war. The question is preëminently will be faithfully carried out against another gen- one for arbitration. Great Britain, as heretofore, eration of Englishmen? Are we to stand un- has offered to submit it to arbitration under the moved, or to wait with stolid complaisance, be- most liberal conditions. Should this offer be recause our aggressor tells us he is not quite strong newed, we have no hesitation in saying that it enough at present to fulfil his intentions and wrest should be at once accepted. We should run no a province from the dominions of the crown? Are risk of losing anything to which we have a right; these fair conditions of joint occupancy, or an and when rights are conflicting, mutual concessions honest interpretation of an amicable convention? which a neutral party would deem just, should then Fortunately for ourselves, Mr. Polk thought fit to reconcile them.” throw off this “ wise and masterly inactivity,”
If it should be objected that the British governand to tell the citizens of the United States that ment is now so committed, that in point of honor he is prepared to use all his constitutional powers and dignity we cannot ourselves come forward with for the immediate prosecution of what he terms this offer, the American papers here also afford a their clear and unquestionable rights. It might very satisfactory answer; so far at least as regards have appeared overbearing if this country had the leading point that, in fact, there is no appreavailed herself of the superior advantages of her hension of any war. It appears by the journals position to demand a settlement of the Oregon now arrived, that the American government itself question, and had used menacing language in case is about to imitate this proposal of referring the of a refusal. But these pretensions have been whole matter to arbitration, and some of them proraised by the other, and, as we believe, the weaker ceed to the length of stating that Mr. Van Buren -side-weaker both as to the merits of the case has been selected as the Minister to England for and as to the power of supporting it. The time this purpose. Our own opinion is that it will come
inactivity is past, for that is the very weapon to this.
From Chambers' Journal.
pose. For twenty years he brooded over the subDR. EDWARD JENNER.
ject, collected facts, and made experiments ; till
at last, being fully convinced in his own mind that This celebrated man, the discoverer of the art he had compassed the whole bearings of the subof vaccination, was born in the vicarage of Berke-ject, he came to the resolution of presenting the ley, in Gloucestershire, on the 17th of May, 1749. great discovery as a gift to mankind. The conHe was the third son of the vicar, and his mother clusions to which he arrived were as follows :was descended from an ancient and respectable The disease called variola, or small-pox, is family in the neighborhood. Losing his father at common to man, and to several of our domestic an early age, he was indebted for his education animals, as the cow, horse, goat, &c.; but while to the care and solicitude of an elder brother. in man it presents a severe and virulent disease, Young Jenner chose the profession of medicine, in passing through the system of brutes it becomes and after acquiring the elements of the art at Soda mild and innocent affection. bury, near Bristol, he went to London, and be- The heels of horses are often affected with this came a pupil and inmate of the celebrated John disease, which, though frequently accompanied by Hunter. From this enthusiastic and successful what is called grease, is not identical with this cultivator of the science of life Jenner caught the latter. If a portion of the matter from the vesicles true art of philosophic investigation. They in- or little blisters on the heel of the horse, be taken stantly became friends, and this friendship con- and applied to the nipples of the cow, the peculiar tinued during life. Having finished his prelimi- disease is communicated to the cow; or, on the nary studies, he now returned to his native village other hand, the horse may be infected from the to practise his profession. Other offers were then cow. Matter taken from the vesicle of the horse and subsequently held out to him, but his love of the or the cow, and inserted below the skin of the country made him proof against them all. He was human subject, produces there a similar vesicle of indeed a true lover of nature. With an inquiring a peculiar nature, which, running its course, and ever active mind, which prompted him to the protects the individual from an attack of the smallinvestigation of nature's works, he had also that pox. deep feeling of the beautiful and fair which ac- In order to insure complete success in this opercompanies a poetic temperament. His profes- ation, certain cautions are necessary.
The lymph sional journeys through the district were lightened must be taken before the expiry of a certain numand diversified by scientific pursuits, and many of ber of days, and the person to be vaccinated must his leisure hours devoted to discoveries in natural be free from any other disease of the skin. Unhistory. His remarks on the singular and anoma- less these conditions are attended to, a true vaclous habits of the cuckoo excited the attention of cine disease will not be produced, and the members of the Royal Society, and found a quently no protection will follow. place in their printed transactions.
In the true small-pox, it is a well-ascertained But one subject took possession of his mind, fact, that occasionally there are cases where perand engrossed his chief attention even from his sons who have gone through the disease regularly earliest youth. In the great dairy county of have again been seized with a second attack. Gloucestershire, where his inclination, and, it The same thing holds true with cow-pox. Almay be said, his destiny had placed him for a though the great majority of those vaccinated are great purpose, it was a prevalent opinion that a forever afterwards protected from the disease, yet disease was communicated from the teats of the cases occur where, after vaccination, an attack of
to the hands of their milkers, by which small-pox has followed. the latter were ever afterwards protected from Vaccination, then, though not an absolute and small-pox. While Jenner was a student at Sod- universal protection, is as much so as small-pox is bury, a young country woman came to seek ad- from a second attack of the same; with tliis imvice. The subject of small-pox was mentioned portant recommendation, that it substitutes a mild in her presence : she immediately observed, “I and harmless affection, or rather, it may be called, cannot take that disease, for I have had cow- a remedy, for a violent and dangerous disease. pox." This incident riveted the attention of Jen- Even in those rare cases where small-pox ner, and the impression then made took full pos- occurs after the most careful vaccination, the dissession of his mind, and was never effaced. He ease is always mitigated, and very rarely proves communicated his views some time afterwards to fatal. John Hunter, who, although he had not turned Such are briefly the conclusions to which Jenhis mind to the subject, was far from stifling any aer had arrived at this early period of his investiinquiry of the kind, and who, in his character- gations; and as a proof of his superior sagacity istic way, replied to the young philosopher, and accuracy of observation, it may be stated that “ Don't think, but try ; be patient, be accurate.' little more has ever been added to his great disFrom his professional friends in the country, how-covery, and that subsequent experience has only ever, his theory met with nothing but discourage- illustrated the truth of his opinions and the efficacy ment: they, too, as well as Jenner, had heard the of his practice. vulgar reports of the country people; but the cir- The first “Inquiry into the Nature of Cowcumstance was so out of the common routine, that Pox,” published by Jenner, was a calm, philothey gave it no credit, and never thought of put- sophical, and extremely modest statement of his ting it to the test of experiment. In vain did Jen- discoveries; and perhaps on this account it was ner urge on the discussion of the subject at their received with the greater favor by the reflecting professional meetings—they refused to listen, and portion of the public. Some writers have hinted even laughed him to scorn. But Jenner, though that he too sanguinely maintained the efficacy of he was thus compelled to fall back upon his own cow-pox, and its future power of totally extirsolitary thoughts, was not the character thus to be pating small-pox. Some degree of enthusiasm persuaded from his pursuit; like every man des- might be pardoned in the original discoverer of tined to achieve great things, he was firm of pur-such a remedy; but on candidly comparing Jen
ner's conclusion with the facts which have subse- | voluntarily to the simple and harmless process. quently occurred, there seems nothing over- That process, which in a few years afterwards strained, and little that can be deducted from his millions of individuals eagerly availed themselves statements.
of, could not be exhibited, even for a bribe, in a In the spring of 1780, while riding in company single being. It was only after his return home with one of his earliest and dearest friends, his that Mr. Cline, the surgeon, almost clandestinely mind being full of the subject, he ventured to un- inserted the matter into a patient, hy way of an bosom himself of his cherished hopes and anticipa- issue for a diseased joint! Yet it is a wise protions; and after a detail of his opinions—“Gard- vision of affairs in this world, that truth will at ner,” said he, “ I have intrusted a most important last and infallibly prevail. The subject of vaccinamatter to you, which I firmly believe will prove tion began to engross public attention; and although of essential benefit to the human race. I know many were incredulous, and scoffed at the matter, you, and should not wish what I have stated to be as is ever the case with what is new and uncombrought into conversation ; for should anything mon, yet many, on the other hand, had faith to untoward turn up in my experiments, I should be make trial of it; and finding success attend their made, particularly by my inedical brethren, the experiments, the practice of vaccination extended subject of ridicule, for I am the mark they all on all hands. But there never was a discoverer shoot at."
yet who has not in a greater or less degree sufIt was not, however, till 1796, on the 14th day fered martyrdom--the ignorant, the envious, the of May, that the first attempt was made to con- narrow-minded, the purely malicious, forever hang vey, by artificial means, the vaccine virus from on the footsteps of the discoverer, irritating and one person to another. On that day Jenner took obstructing his progress, and raising a clamor in some matter from the hand of Sarah Nelones, which they hope the sober and subdued voice of who had been infected by her master's cow, and truth will be drowned. Poor Jenner passed many inserted it by two slight scratches of a lancet into harassing days and sleepless nights, less fearful the arms of James Phipps, a healthy boy of eight about the wreck of his own honest fame, than for years of age. The disease took effect, and went the success of his great and darling project. He through its stages in the most regular and satis- had to answer every blunderer, who, in spite of factory manner. But now the most agitating the plainest directions, was sure always to go part of the experiment remained: it was neces- wrong in the most essential points—every failure sary to ascertain whether this boy was secured of every careless experimenter was laid to his from the infection of small-pox. In the following door-he was caricatured as a magician, who by July, variolous matter was carefully inserted into and by would turn the human race into cows; his skin by various incisions, and to the delight and, baser than all, some of those who at one and satisfaction of Jenner no disease followed time scoffed at his theories, and despised his atthe protection was complete. He now pursued tempts to put them into practice, now endeavored his experiments with redoubled ardor: the goal to avert the discovery from Jenner entirely, if not of all his ardent hopes was seen close at hand. to appropriate it to themselves. Yet time and It was his custom at this time to meditate much circumstances, and his own tact and perseverance, as he rambled in the meadows under the castle of seconded by his unyielding confidence in his opinBerkeley. He has left us a picture of his feel ions, brought him many friends and supporters. ings at this period full of interest :-"While the “ The drop of pearl upon a rose-bud,” as he povaccine discovery was progressive, the joy I felt etically described the vaccine vesicle to the great at the prospect before me of being the instrument statesman Fox, was such a simple, and easy, and destined to take away from the world one of its beautiful substitute for the loathsome and dreaded greatest calamities, blended with the fond hope blotches of small-pox, that the public at large, and of enjoying independence and domestic peace and more particularly the female part of it, became the happiness, was often so excessive, that, in pursu- warm and active propagators of the limpid virus. ing my favorite subject among the meadows, I From Britain the practice extended rapidly to the have sometimes found myself in a kind of reverie. continent. In America, the early cases were It is pleasant to me to recollect that these reflec- most successful; and at last the remotest countions always ended in devout acknowledgments tries in the world began to share its benefits, till to that Being from whom this and all other mer- there was not a corner of the peopled globe where cies flow."*
the name of Jenner did not become familiar, and It was in 1798 that Jenner's discovery was first where his life-preserving process was not eagerly published. His intention was, that it should have adopted. Among the many honors and acknowlappeared in the Transactions of the Royal Soci- edgments which now and afterwards continued to ety; but the subject was so strange, so novel, and, be poured in upon him, not the least interesting withal, so improbable, that some of the learned was a document from a race of the North Amerimembers hinted in a friendly manner that he can Indians, authenticated by the symbolical sigshould be cautious not to diminish, by any other natures of their chiefs. doubtful discovery, the partial fame which his ac- The discovery of vaccination now evidently apcount of the cuckoo had already gained him. peared as a manifest boon to mankind. In several Such facts as these impart some idea of the diffi- countries on the continent of Europe, where the culties his discovery was doomed to encounter. nature of the government allowed of a free conOn the publication of his “ Inquiry,” he pro-trol over the habits of the people, the practice of ceeded to London in person, in order to exhibit to vaccination was so systematically pursued, that the profession there his process of vaccination, small-pox was almost entirely eradicated. In the and the success attending it. But-will it be British navy and army, under a similar surveilbelieved ?-he remained two months there, and at lance, small-pox was also unknown; but though last returned home without getting any medical in the British dominions several vaccinating boards man to make trial of it, or any patient to submit were instituted, yet from the habits of the people, * Barron.
and the absence of a compulsory law, vaccination