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49 but the excesses and follies into which he nealogical tree and splendid armorial bearwas precipitated by the petulance of ings. He was at this time less than thirty youth, foon obliged him, to quit his mi- years of age. litary station.
His dispatches and his political conduct At that time, the favourite diversion of foon gave a high opinion of his talents, the young nobility of Lisbon oonfilted in and suggested the idea of assigning thein a sallying forth at night, and attacking the wider sphere of action.
He was accord. guards that patrolled the streets of the ingly recalled from his en:baffy; Don city-guards, who, partaking more of Diego de Mendoza, the prime minister was the wolt than the dog, often itripped in- exiled, and the reins of government were stead of prote&ting the passenger. The put into the hands of Carvalho. young men had at their head a brother of To mend the state and the manners of the king, a perfonage of a cruel and fero- * nation long debafed by tyranny and corcious dilposition; and not a night passed ruption, is at once a difficult and an un. without some bloody broil, nor many grateful task. Abuses and ufupations, without a murder. In these hazardous when fanctioned by the lapse of tiine, are rencounters, young Carvalho was ever held sacred, and he who attempts to reone of the foreinoft. His profiigate course form the one, or retrench the other, is did not, however, preveni him from win- fure of the enmity of all those who conning the heart of a young lady of the an- tider the plunder of the public as property, cient house of Aveirs; nor did the repug- and oppression as a right. Hence it is, nance of her family, who abhorred to that every bungling statesinan can do mismean an alliance, hinder him from bring- chief with greater security, than the wisest ing his amour to a fortunate conclusion. can do good. Even the common people He carried her off, married her in spite of are taught by their crafty oppressors to them; and found means to avoid the dag- clarnour against the man whose hand is. gers and the prisons, with which they kindly extended to raise them from the lought to avenge the deadly affront that. ground. All this was experienced by the had been offered to their honour.
new minister of Portugal. The hatred of Having acquired in the mean time a an infolent nobility, whose ambition he consciousness of the great gifts he had re- repressed, was envenomed by envy and ceived from nature, he thought of turn rage, at the pre-eminence of an upstart; ing his attention to politics, and succeeded while the popular voice was raised against in obtaining the appointment of secretary him by the holy inspiration of the priests, to the Portuguese embassy at the court of whose numbers and influence he fought to Vienna. Here he gave the first indication diminish; and whom he scrupled not to of those superior talents and that valt ge- call the most dangerous vermin that can innius which afterwards made him omni- fejt a fiare. He was, however, rpheld potent in Portugal.
by the esteem and friendship of his master His diplomatic career was scarcely be- Joseph, and gained a large accession of gun, when he received ascounts that his reputation and of authority, by the greatwife was no more; the hatred of her fa- nels of mind and abilities which he difmily, which she had incurred by her mar- played on two signal occæions. The first riage, favouring a suspicion that life and was the ever memoravle earthquake of death had been dispensed to her from the 1755. fame fource. Thus left at liberty, he He had hardly begun to apply remeoffered his hand to a fair relative of that dies to the disorders and penury of the Marshal Daun, whose name, and the hif- state, when that horrible catastraphe oc. tory of the seven vears war, will be of curred. On the ist of Noveinber, the fair equal duration. His fine perlon and en and ferene aspect of the heavens bespoke gaging manners procured him, as belore, no eniniiy, foreboded no misfortune to the content of the lady; but, as before, the devotexi inhabitants of Lisbon, when, he failed in obtaining that of her parents. on a sudden, an obscure fubterraneous The pride of family is in Germany still found was heard, and immediately folmore icrupulous than in Portugal; aud a lowed by a most tremendous convulsion. countryman of Carvalho, then at Vienna, Many were buried beneath the ruins of took a pleasure in repeating that his birth their abodes; the earth fwallowed many; was mean, mail his inaoners dinolute. Form and many were consumed by the flames, tunately, the ambasador Tancos, whose while aitaisins, stabbing with cne hand, friendship he had gained, resigned in his and plundering with the other, increated favoạir ; and his new dignity was ac the dreadful confusion of the scene, in septed in place of a wide spreading ge- which not one of the four elements was MONTHLY MAG. No. XLI.
idle. A furious gale spread the conflagra- incitements to virtue-one of the greatest tion; and the sea, rising above its natural comforts we derive from fociety, is the elevation, dashed the vessels in the port conviction that we are secure, as long as against each other and the shore. The lofs we are innocent. The conduct of Carof life, resulting from this complication valho was nevertheless crowned with geof curles, would, however, have been far neral approbation. From the people it Jess than it was, had the people of Lisbon obtained him the appellation of the saviour conformed to the sentiments of some an- of his country; and from the king the succient fest, or philosopher, who thought the ceffive titles of Count d'Oyrus and of universe the temple most worthy of the Marquis de Pombal. deity, and prayed in the open air. But But as the royal favour incrcased, so fear and devotion drove them to the did his enemies; their number being daily churches, the solid structure of which, for auginented by the unrelenting attacks he a time, refifted the earthquake, and then made upon the abuses in every department fell in and crushed thousands into one un of the state. He was only beginning to distinguishable mass. The survivors, who enjoy the fruits of his reforms, when his fied to the mountains, were not less con- attention was diverted froin them by anfounded. Fugitives, from barracks and other remarkable event. A conspiracy
soldiers, nuns, and friars, was formed against the life of the king. herded together during the first two nights, The Duke d'Aveiro, the Marquis of and though abhorrent in habits, customs, Tavora and his two sons, with the Counts and practices, mixed readily in the com- of Antoguia, Almeidas, and Poriza, miilion of the most scandalous excefits, and were the heads of it. An amorous ineven of crimes.
trigue of the monarch with the MarchioIn the first moment of this dreadfulness of Tavora, was their principal misfortnne, the prime minifter made his grievance, or rather their principal pretext; way undisinayed through flames and fall. for the Tavoras were in fact' l'ather ing houtes, to every quarter of the city, spurred on by ambition, than by indignacarrying with him fi:ccour and consola- tion at this affront offered to their hotion, calining fear, and repressing the nour. Enraged, as well as the rest of fpirit of pillage and disorder. By his the nobility, at the king's blind and uncommand the dead bodies were thrown limited confidence in the Marquis de Pominto the sea in bags of lime; by his care, bal, they thought that as he had abdicated provisions were brought from the nearest his power, he ought to be hurled from provinces; and, by his fortitude and the throne, and determined to feat in it courage, the people were prevented from the eldelt of their own family. zbandoning a city, which offered nothing When Joseph was about to pay his to the eye but heaps of ruins, and images customary evening visit to his mistress, of despair. Their itay, beneficial to them- two hundred and fifty conspirators placed selves, will probably produce the destruc- themselves in finall bands upon his road ; tion of a future race, since the experience and retained their fire till he was in the of many ages justifies a belief that the midst of them. Musket-shots then few site of Lisbon is doomed to the same from all quarters, and wounded him in dreadful disturbance once, and once only, three places. The Duke d’Aveiro hin. in a century.
self aimed at the driver, but his carbine During the two first days after this ca- missed fire. It was the fortune of the king lamity, the minister took ño repose but in to have attendants equally intrepid and inhis carriage; no sustenance but a little telligent. His valet de chambre faved hiin soup; and in the courfe of the first week from further injury by laying him down two hundred and thirty ordinances issued in the bottom of the carriage; while the from his ferile brain. One of them en- poítillion with no less presence of mind joined the hanging withcut trial or delay, luddenly turned the heads of his horses, of every m n found in potsession of gold or and drove back to the palace at full speed, fi:ver bearing the marks of fire. This ex- but by another road. cessive and indiscriminating severity to Cavalho had fewn, at the time that which many guiltless victims were immo- Lisbon lay in ruins, all the courage and Jated, may be applauded by the states- all the resources of a great mind: he new man wiro calculates, but feels not; with exhibited all the dexterity of a statesman, whom hunan life is nothing-state expe- and all the refined cunning of a courtier. diency every thing; but it will be marked Ever firm and composed in the most critiwith the just reprobation of the philofo- cal conjunctures, he began by enjoining pher, who knows that one of the greatest fecrecy to the valet de chambre, and polo
51 tillion; but the conspirators to turn aside Thejesuit Malagrida, generally though fufpicion, haftened themtelves to divulge falsely supposed to have been executed as the attempt upon the king's life; and a conspirator, was in fact tried by the incame with the crowds whom affection or quisition, and burnt as a heretic. One of curiosity brought to the palace. The the charges was his having written that Duke d' Aveiro was among the foremost, the Virgin Mary Spoke Latin in the womb of and offered to go arined in pursuit of the St. Anne-words disgraceful to the au. assassins. That nobleman was of the thor; and still more disgraceful to the house of Braganza. Crooked in body odious tribunal, by which they were con. and mind, restless, inhuman, the declared strued into a crime. But these and other enemy of the government, and capable of theological absurdities were made the any thing, he was an object of strong suf- pretexts of his death, because there was picion to Carvalho. The minister, how no proof, although there was no doubt, ever, bade him be quiet; en rusted him of his being privy to the plot. The exwith falle secrets, which he entreated him pulsion of his whole order, suspected of not to disclose; and sent him away proud iampering in it, followed ; furnished an of the succels of his dissimulation, and example for their destruction throughout confident of impunity:
Europe; and will ever redound to the The king recovered ; six months passed glory of the Marquis de Pombal, who away unproductive of any arrest or dif- thus struck the first blow at that dark, incovers; and the event was almost obli- triguing, and ambitious fraternity: terated from the public mind. But it More deeply rooted than ever in the was not forgotten by Carvalho. He was confidence of his master, the haughty secretly collecting every information that minifter no longer feared to brave the first might lead to a knowledge of the delin- persons of the realm. A brother of the quents; and the more his proofs againit king, who was grand inquisitor, delaying d'Aveiro and Tavora acquired consistency, to license a work, containing some state the more his attentions to them were su- regulations, Carvalho, in the presence of died and particular. He obtained leave for another Infant of Portugal, exhaled his one to pass three months at his country rage in the most insulting threats, till he manfion; for the other an appointment raised their choler to a height ftill greater solicited long before. At length the than liis own. From invective they prowhole treasonable history was revealed to ceeded to personal insults; pulled off his him by a domeitic, who was waiting one peruke; threw it in his face; and driving night with amorous views in Tavora's him out of the apartment, bade him carry garden, when the conspirators ailemiled his complaint to the king. Hisobedience there anew, discussed the causes of their to this Tarcastic command, procured the past failure, and laid a plan that promiled lahing exile of the royal brothers; and better success,
gave him an opportunity he had long deTo prevent its execution, and to bring tired of placing one of his own creatures the criminals to justice without farther at the head of the inquisition. His brodelay, the Marquis de Pombal availed ther Don Juan Carvalho had the appointhimself of a ball given in honour of his ment; but did not keep it long. daughter's nuptials with the Count de When tire court removed occasionally Zampayo. An invitation from the king to the junimer palace of Salvatierra, the decoyed thither the whole of the conspira- minister, detained at Lisbon by public tors, who, instead of the “s mulick, min- affairs, sent thither the grand inquisitor ttrelly, and maíking” they ex;etted, mer to watch over the conduct of the queen, with fetters, dungeons, and the rack. whose artifices he feared. Informed of the A week after, ten of the principal tai- infidionis part the priest was playing, she tors were executed; their bodies burnt; sent for him to her chamber. He went ; and their alhes cast into the fta. The but was never seen to return. According Duke d’Aveiro, and the old Marchionefs to the accounts most credited, she shot him of Tavora died as if they had exchanged through the head with a fowling piece, sexes--he with more than the weakness It is certain, at least, th at Don Juan Car
a woman, and the with a fortitude valho disappeared. It may be asked why, truly heroic. The young Marchioness if capable of such a crime, she did noz of Tavora, the king's mistress, was con- dispatch the principal instead of the agent ; fined in a convent for life; and the greater but the Marquis de Pombal, who distrusted part of the nobllity was imprisoned, till her as well as the grandees, was not ealily the death of the king, which did not assailable. He was always escorted by a bappen till nineteen years afterwards, detachment of cavalry, and a budy-guard
of a hundred men. In a country where gorous penalties. The fidalgos, who wers the king went about unattended, or only rasierbled in a gallery, were much difguarded by a few men of a regiment of concerted at the filence that ensued. They cavalry, a ininister constantly surrounded were observed to be in great agitation,runby the naked swords of a corps devoted to ning backward and forward, lending off his particular service, could not fail to messages, and darting looks of anger and excite odium, and an outcry of tyranny. impatience at the crowd. It was in vain : But his precautions were necessary in the fome dozen of voices, which exclaimed midst of a nobility the more dangerous be- Pombal! Pombal ! were instantly overcause cowardly, a fanatic and aggrieved powered by cries of Long live the Queen! clergy, and a riotous populace. The from Carvalho's partizans. same defence cannot be made for the pride To perfect the great plans, which the and oftentation of power, which induced Marquis de Pombal had sketched out, him to erect a palace for himself, while would have required twenty years prohis sovereign was dwelling in a hovel, longation of his ministry, or fímilar lucafter the royal residence had been shak- ceflors... None such appeared; the naen into ruins by the earthquake of tion fell back into apathy, and into the 1755.
clutches of the priests; and all the old When the most urgent cares resulting evils, and all the old abuses, returned. from that event, and those that grew out The people then began to perceive thas of the conspiracy, were over, the Marquis he had been labouring for their benefit; de Pombal returned with equal ardour and, in spite of the severity of his adand fuccels to his favourite reforms. He ministration, would gladly have been gore-animated commerce and the arts; verned again by that head which they created a navy, and rebuilt the unfor- had so lately devoted to the block*. tunate town of Lisbon. His efforts were It is generally remarked, perhaps genot always unrewarded by the gratitude nerally true, that the folitude of discarded of his countrymen; and when, in 1766, ministers is haunted by the ghost of their a dangerous malady threatened to carry former grandeur; that they cannot conhim off, the alarm was general through- fole themselves for the loss of attendance, out Portugal. But towards the close of adulation, and power; and that their his career he became less popular, per- mind, accustomed to the management of haps not without reason. At a time of great affairs, preys upon itself, when dea life when inof men seek repose, his peace- prived of its usual aliment. Carvalho ful labours were not enough for him. was a stranger to these torments. He He engaged the Portuguese colonies in lived cheerfully, in modest retirement, on hoftilities with those of Spain; and was his estate of Pombal, passing his time in deliberately provoking a war in Europe, reading, in doing acts of beneficence to when, in the beginning of 1777, Joseph I. his indigent neighbours and vassals, and died, and with hin the power of the in adminiftering consolation to his wife, Marquis de Pombal. In a week after whose weaker nature, and German pride, the demise of the crown he was stripped could ill brook disgrace, and who then of all his employments. Though in his began for the first time to regret that ever 77th year, his mental and corporeal fa- the left Vienna. culties were equally unimpaired, and his Though a man of a great, fagacious, and manners so insinuating, that the Queen intrepid mind, the Marquis of Pombal was Dowager charged her daughter not to ad- far from a perfect character. Haughty, mit bim to an audience, well aware that, violent, vindictive, and rapacious, he after two or three conferences, he would mixed his own injuries and interest with kave gained a dominion over her mind, those of the state. Even when in fola as complete as that which he had exercised pursuit of the general welfare, he was over the deceased monarch's.
not irreproachable. Instead of removing At the coronation of the new queet, the obstacles that stood in his way with the nobility, grown inore ferocious by discretion, he rudely overturned them, the length of the time they had been without caring whom they crushed ; and chained down, instigated the people by thus missed the fame of a good minifter, their emillaries to demand the late mi. by being too eager to do good. nitur's head, and the multitude was dila poled to gratity them; when, on a fidan, a vy ot cavalry appeared, headed saying was current in Portugal:" Mal tor
# Soon after his disgrace, the following by 3: cihicer who forbade the Mazquis de mal, melhor Pombal" that is, Evil for evil: Pombal eo be named under the mos rin it were bester tu have Pombal.
( 58 )
* Authentic Communications for this Article will always be thankfully received. A
SECOND volume of Dr. TROT. Mr. Job Orton's work on'tła Old Teftae
TER'S Medicina Nautica is now in ment, according to the plan which the the prels, and will be published early in author himself had formed, in two large February.---The plan of the former part volumes, 8vo. of this work is more or less continued, with For the sake of those who wish to learn, communications from Navy Surgeons, in or to teach Dr. Doddridge's Sbort-hand, molt foreign itations as well as in the feet (which was an improvement upon Riche's 20 home.
lyftem, recommended by Locke,) one who Mi: MACKINTOSH, the celebrated had been a pupil in the Doctor's academy,, author of Vindiciæ Gallicæ," proposes to propoies to publish the rules in a method deliver a Course cf Lectures in Lincoln's entirely new; the characters made with a Inn Hall, on the Law of Nature and pen. In some copies blank spaces will be Nations, comprehending the whole Phi- left to be filled up by any one who preLosophy of Morality, Government, and fers doing it himtélf. Law. They are to be continued three A new edition of the Biographical times a week during the fitting of the Work, entitled - Public Characters of Courts in Westininiter Hall.
1798,' is in the press, with additions, The publication of the s British Medical and corrected and revifed in every ar: Journal is deferred by unavoidable cir- ticle. cumstances till the firit day of March,
A fourth Set of Glees, for three, when it will make its appearance under four, and five voices, by John DANDY, the more cornprehensive title of the Me- together with “ The Ode to Hope,' in eight dical and Physical Journal.' Mr. W. parts, presented to the Glee Club, is inNiudie, of Edinburgh, will act as its tended to be published by fubscription, agent for North Britain, and Mr. Col. for the benefit of the author's family in bert, of Dublin, as its agent for Ireland. the month of March, 1799, price ros, ód. The prospect of patronage and of valuable Mr. BROWN, author of a Treatise on correlpondence is already exceedingly Scrophulous Diseases, has in the press a tattering.
Puein, intitled • Inkle and Yorico,' founded Mr. F. Twiss has for twelve years on Mr. Coleman's celebrated Opera of paft been employed in the compilation of that name, He has also made confidera. an Index to Shakespeare, which he has ble progress in his work on the Anatomy now brought to a conclufion, and pur and Physiology of the Tetth. poses to publish in the course of the en A new edition, with confiderable al. luing winter.--This most elaborate Index teralions and iinprovements, will shortly is on a plan, different from any which make its appearance of the work, entitled has hitherto appeared, as it contains a • Literary Memoirs of Living Autóors.' distinct enumeration of every substantive, An interesting work, for the use of adjective, verb, participle, and adverb, to young perfons, is in the press, and will be met with in Shakspeare's plays, with w ready for delivery in the course of this a particular reference to every passage, month, entitled ' The Difi overy of Amein which they occur, in
rica; comprising the Life and Discoveries adapted to every edition.
of Christopher Columnbus, with frontilAbout the end of March will be pub- piece and map; from the German of lished in a quarto volume, by John and Ar. J. H. CAMPÊ, the Author of Young thur Arch, Grove-Hill,' a descriptive Robinson. Poem and an Ode to Mithra, by the Rev. Profeflor Danzit, of Hamburgh, lias THOMAS MAURICE, author of the Hif. circulated proposals for publishing by tory of Hindustan, &c.
subscriptions of one guinea, - A Defcrip. Miss Plumptre, the translator of tion,' in French, illustrated with eighteen Kotzebue's Lover's Vows, and of his engravings, Count of Bargundy is at this time en imo. Of an Aeroftatic Machine, to direcs gaged in the translation of the two fine Air Balloons, called Danzeline; Dramas of that Author, entitled the
200. Of a second Aerostatic Machine, • Virgin of the Sun,' and the Deatb of Rollo.' pointing out the means of direction; Proposals will thortly be published for
300. Of a third, affording another way to
direct Air-Balloons ; 24 abridgement of · Dr. Doldridge's
460. Of an Hydraulic Machine, to put in Family Expoz.tor,' as a continuation of motion the rudder of a lip: and, conse