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and of the sea that washes their coafts. The first, which comprehends a general view of the natural state ancient and modern of these countries, was published in the first volume of the Academy. The second treats of the soil and climate of the country, the genius and manners of its inhabitants; the third of the methods of improving its population and fertility; the fourth contains an ample difcuffion of every thing relative to the force and motion of the waters in its rivers, canals, and Nuices, from whence our Author deduces the means of preventing inundations, and modifying at pleasure the course of the waters, by which alone the defects of the soil and climate can be remedied. These three intermediate Memoirs are as yet unpublished.

To this fifth Memoir are subjoined an hydrographical Chart of the North-sea.- A Table of Comparison between the tides on the coast of Flanders, and divers fixed Points in the adjacent Country, and a Table of the times of High-water in different places of the Northwest seas of Europe, for all the days of the Moon.

Memoir. Concerning the Effects and Phenomena produced by pouring different forts of Oil both on calm and agitated Water. By the Abbé Mann. The first part of this Memoir contains an historical account of the knowledge that has hitherto been communicated to the Public on this subject, from Pliny down to our times. This account is comprised in a few pages. The fecond and third parts contain an enumeration of the experiments that have been made to ascertain the effects and the phenomena produced by oils in still or stagnant waters, as also on the rivers and in the sea, together with physical explications of these effects. The consequences deduced from these experiments, and the benefit that may be expected from throwing oil on the waves of the sea, are pointed out in the fourth and last part. The result of these experiments is, that the different effects produced upon water at rest or in motion by different oils, whether animal, vegetable or mineral, do not arise from their different fpecific gravities, nor their qualities as sweet, bitter, &c. but almost entirely from their different degrees of uncluosity. Our A. cademician attributes the general efficacy of all oil in calming water, to a very different cause from that adopted by Monfieur ACHARD, of whose Memoir on this subject mention is made in this Appendix, in our account of the Berlin Memoirs. He supposes that the oil, as far as it expands itself upon the waves, intercepts, by its unciuosity, the affinity between the wind and the water, and thus inakes the former lose its hold

upon latter. In this case the wind, instead of raising the water, and swelling the wave, glides over its surface, and thus compresies and flattens it.

OBSERVATIONS on the Natural History of the hnt, in which the mistakes of certain celebrated fiuthors are occasionally pointed out.



By Mr. NeeDHAM, We remember to have heard of a great adept in natural history, who became a deift, by reading fuperficially Solomon's account of the Ant*, and the erroneous manner in which this account is represented by the commentators, who have added, out of their own fancy, that the ant provides her meat for the winter season by her prudent labours in the summer and harvest. Had Solomon said so, and drawn from a commonly received opinion, an occasion to recommend forefight and industry, we cannot see how this should affect the credit of scripture. But Solomon says no such thing: he only mentions (observes Mr. NEEDHAM) the provision which these admirable insects accumulate for their young, for themselves against days of storm and rain, and for the fick and lame of the community: he makes no mention of the winter, in which, it is now well known, that these infects lie benumbed in a state of sleep, and ule no food at all. Mr. NEEDHAM, after having justified Solomon at the expence of the commentators, addresses some words of philosophical admonition to certain pretended fages, who forming hafty observations of the phenomena of Nature, draw rath conclusions with respect to the wifdom of its arrangements, in order to render more than ambiguous the wisdom and goodness of its Author. He draws, with nicety and precision, the line of distinction between the principle of life and vital motion, which produces, by the fiat of the Creator, the operations and econorny of the lower clailes of animals, and the principles of intelligence, perception and sensation, with which this principle is combined in the higher orders. After granting to M. Buffon, that fuperficial observers have been induced by false appearances, to attribute to the ant a provident regard to a future period which is beyond its faculties, he denies that the operations of these animals acumulate a gross habitation, and a multitude of provilions without end. He shews, on the contrary, by a cu. rious detail of facts, that all these operations have the wifest and most benefiient ends, whether the ant is conscious of them or not, and that they tend to the preservation and support of the little republic, by gathering daily provisions for its members, and contributing to the warmth and nourishment of the brood during the fuminer and autumnal seasons. It is thus, that with the fuirit and judgrient of a true philosopher, Mr. NEEDHAM afferts the system of final causes, which are the only pure sources of contolation to man, againit the uncomfortable reveries of those sublime geniuss, who take such a frenetic pleasure in making Nature play at Blindman's Buf

Menoir. Concerning the pernicious Effects of Muscles. Ву Monticur de RONDEAU. This Memoir is liccle more than a supplement to the observations made on this species of thell-finn


* Prov. vi. 6, 7, 8,


by Dr. Beunie, of which we made particular mention in our account of the first volume of this valuable collection. Dr. Rondeau is a ftill more keen monitor against muscle eating than Dr. Beunie : he considers them as dangerous in every season, as well as during the summer months; and contends, that neither roasting, boiling, nor stewing, are sufficient to remove their noxious qualities; of which he gives several examples in this Memoir. However, to relieve epicures from the confternation into which this alarming decision must throw them, he compromises matters by propofing a preservative against the noxious effects of this delicate food, much more efficacious than the onion, which is usually boiled with the muscles for this purpose. This preservative consists in vegetable acids and pepper. When your muscles are well washed, pass them through vinegar, and boil them in an earthen pot, with a glass of vinegar and some whole grains of pepper. If you chuse to boil them in their shells, pour into the shells fome vinegar or verjuice, and a little pepper. We shall do so, Doctor.

NEW RESEARCHES. Concerning the nature and economy of Bees, with practical Instructions adapted to improve this important branch of Husbandry. "By Mr. NEEDHAM. This elaborate Memoir administers an important admonition to those who believe too hastily in pretended experiments. Mr. NEEDHAM pulls down and builds, and he does both with a vigorous and masterly hand. Our Readers will recollect the amazing novelties, founded on experiments, that Mr. SCIRACH* paftor of Little Bautzen in the Upper Lusatia, introduced into the theory of the generation of the Queen-bee, and of the sex of the working bees. According to this theory (which set a gazing the disciples of Swammerdam, Maraldi and Reaumur) all the honey or working bees, instead of being neutral in point of sex, are females in disguise, and would have become Queen bees, had they been, when in their worm-state, lodged, fed and educated for that purpose. This hypothesis, though buttreffed by experiments, is beat to pieces in the Memoir now before us. The first attack is made by nine observations of Mr. Reim member of the economical society of Lauter in the palatinate, which shake the edifice to its very foundations, and our Author's observations and counter-experiments complete its destruction. Mr. NEEDHAM enters ftill farther into the secrets of the hive, and by a variety of new and important experiments and observations, which are here enumerated in ample detail, he unfolds the mysteries of the generation and æconomy of these curious insects. The result of his researches is as follows: The queen-bee is the only female of the hive,-the drones or males are of two kinds, of which there are always great numbers, as it fometimes happens

See Rev. Vol. xlviii, p. 562 ; and Vol. lix. p. 460.


also that there are two sorts of queens.

The males never copulate with the female, but only render her eggs prolific by the emission of a seminal liquor into the cell where the eggs are deposited-their number is in proportion to that of the eggs of the female, amounting to several thousands during the season of laying--there remains a certain number of the smaller kind of drones, faved from the massacre of the larger fort, which the working bees put to death towards the end of autumn-there are three distinct kinds of eggs, which produce three distinct kinds of bees, the female, the males, and the neutrals, without any deviation. These eggs are deposited at random by the female in common cells, and are placed afterwards in their respective ones, generally speaking, by the working bees. There are eggs, however, of all sorts, which remain in cells, that are not peculiar to them, and from these the fmaller kinds of queens

and drones derive their birth, by which arrangement the two kinds of drones are preserved, and a new queen-bee may be obtained, by placing one of these eggs in the royal cell, when the old queen is separated from the swarm by any accident.

In order to derive every possible advantage from the observations and experiments contained in this Memoir (as far as they are adapted to multiply the swarms in our northern climates, where they suffer so often by the inclemency of the seasons) Mr. NEEDHAM lays down several useful directions. These directions regard the construction of hives, the manner of placing them, and a number of circumstances relative to the management of these precious infects.---The important discoveries of M. Debraw are likewise considered in this Memoir.

A CHEMICAL Essay on Lands, or Soils; designed to establish fundamental Principles, relative to the cultivation of Heaths. By M. J. B. DE BEUNIE. This Memoir, which contains 117 pages, was read at three different sittings of the Academy. It consists of fourteen chapters. The two first treat of the necessity of agriculture, and the constituent principles of vegetables ; the third of the four common elements, as instruments of vegetation; and the fourth and fifth contain a chemical examination of the soils in the environs of Antwerp: the sixth chapter is employed in inquiries concerning the cause of fertility,' in which the Author considers clay, rendered active, as the basis of vegetation, and the fertility of a foil as depending upon the quantity of this substance which it contains. In the feventh our Author enumerates all the known methods of improving land, and relates a variety of experiments relative to this object. The three following chapters treat of vegetation, farms, and inclosures. The manner of fertilizing heaths, of improving low and marshy grounds which have a curffy bottom, of forming plantAPP, Rev. Vol. lxiv.


M m

ations, and of employing manure, are the subjects treated in the four last chapters.

Memoir. On the origin of accidental Fossils in the Belgic Provinces, to which is prefixed a Discourse concerning the Theory of the Earth. By M. de LAUNAY. In the preliminary discourse the learned Academician censures those fyftem-makers, who, not considering the various revolutions which this globe has undergone, nor attending to the times and causes relative to particular phenomena, chuse some favourite principle or fact, and explain all the phenomena by it alone. The universál deluge, the Tertiary mountains formed by the sediment of the waters of the ocean-the rivers, rains and running waters the earthquakes and volcanos, all these have their peculiar effects, according to our Author, and furnish distinct lights to explain the particular phenomena of Nature, that come under our observation. As, however, an immense multitude of phenomena may be yet discovered, we must go on inquiring, and neither be hafty in forming a theory, nor presumptuous enough to imagine that we may find a perfect one, by combining the

materials hitherto discovered.

In explaining the origin of several accidental fossils, and accounting for the discovery of elephant's bones, and several animal and vegetable productions of foreign climates in the interior of our part of the globe, our Academician has recourse to the DBLUGE, and we think he may be eafily brought to terms of accommodation with M. de Luc on this subject. He differs, however, from that ingenious naturalist with respect to the variations in the bed and level of the ocean since that awful period : and as M. de Luc's work is pofterior to the compofition of M. DE LAUNAY's Memoir, we make no doubt but our Academician will weigh its contents with attention and candour. Whatever may happen, the Memoir before us is replete with curious details, and materials relative to foffils in general, and those of the Low Countries in particular; and it shews our Author to be a learned, intelligent, and careful observer.

HISTORICAL MEMOIRS. Points of view relative to several branches of Belgic History. By the Abbe Nelis. The effects which were produced upon agriculture and civilization in the Belgic provinces by the Roman settlements in the southern parts of that country, the suspension of the progress of agriculture by the incursions of the barbarians, the advantages it derived from the conquests of the Franks, the division of lands, and the establishment of feudal tenures, abbeys, and monafteries; the damages it received from the incurfions of the Normans in the ninth century, and its restoration two centuries after this period, are the subjects treated in the first part of this Memoir,- The second contains an account

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