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summits in North Wales are Snowdon by the British Ordovices and Silures, and (3579 feet), Plinlimmon, and Cader Idris. was anciently called Cambria. In the Numerous small lakes are scattered among ninth century, it was divided into three the mountains; and there are several nav- sovereignties, called North Wales, South igable rivers, such as the Severn, the Wales, and Powis Land. In the thirteenth Coye, the Conway, the Towy, and the century, it was subdued by Edward I, its Dee.' The climate is colder than in Eng- last prince Llewellyn ap Gryffyth having land, and humid; but the air is, in gen- fallen in battle in 1285.' Since that time, eral, salubrious, and the country healthy. it has been annexed to the English crown, The Cambrian goat is found here in a and gives his title to the eldest son of the wild state; and goat-hunting is a favorite king of England. It was not completely diversion of the people. The mineral united with England until the reign of kingdom is rich in silver, copper, lead, Henry VIII, when the government and iron and coal. The agriculture of Wales Jaws were formed agreeably to those of is, in general, much behind that of Eng. England. (For the judicial administraland, though, of late years, the imple- tion, see Assizes.) ments of farming, and the management Wales, New; a name given to a part of the land, have been much improved. of North America, situated south-east and The roads have also been, until recently, south-west of Hudson's bay, and divided in a bad state. The Ellesmere, Mont- into North and South : the former name gomery, Brecknock, Cardiff, and other is lost in the more general term of Labracanals, facilitate the internal intercourse. dor. New South Wales is situated nonh(See Canals.) The woollen manufac- west of Canada, and extends along the tures are extensive; the commerce incon- south borders of Hudson's bay, 450 siderable. The common Welsh still re- miles, from lon. 85° to 90° W., lat. 54° to tain many peculiar superstitions and cus- 58° N. toms, and, in many parts, their peculiar Wales, New South. (See New South language. The gentry, however, are, at Wales.) present, educated in England; and the WALES, PRINCE OF ; the title of the influence of their example is gradually heir apparent of the British throne, first exterminating the old Welsh peculiarities. conferred by Edward I on his son (afterMany remains of the ancient literature wards Edward II), at the time of his conare yet extant, and societies have been quest of that principality. (See Eduard I. torined for preserving such relicts. (See The heir apparent is made prince of Bard.) The Welsh are descendants Wales and earl of Chester by special creof the ancient Britons, who, being driven ation and investiture, but, as the king's out of England by the Anglo-Saxons, eldest son, is, by inheritance, duke of Corntook refuge in these fastnesses, or fled to wall, without any new creation. To comthe continent of Europe, where they gave pass or conspire the death of the prince their name to Brittany. (See Gael.) The of Wales is as much high treason as to Welsh language is Celtic. (See Roberts's conspire the death of the king. The eldCambrian popular Antiquities (London, est daughter of the king is styled the prin1815), and Collectanea Cambrica. Wales cess royal, unless there are no sons, when formerly sent twenty-four members to par- she is created princess of Wales. The liament, one for each county, and one for arms of the prince of Wales are the royal each of twelve boroughs. By the reform arms, with the addition of the motto Ich act of 18:32, the number is increased to dien (1 serve), said to have been adopteri twenty-nine, two from each of the coun- by the Black Prince, from a prince of ties of Caermarthen, Denbigh and Gla- Bohemia, wbom he slew at Cressy. Anmorgan, one from each of the other nine, other account says Edward I presented his and fourteen from as many boroughs, of infant son to the Welsh, who had agreed which Merthyr Tydvil and Swansea are to accept a native prince from him, with the two created by the act. It belongs to the words Eich dyn (This is your man). the province of York in ecclesiastical WALKER, John, a philological writer, matters, and has four bishoprics, St. Da- born in 17:32, joined with a Mr. l'sher. vid's, Bangor, Llandaff, and Si. Asaph. about the year 1767, in setting up a school Wales was long an independent and sep- at Kensington; but the speculation not arate sovereignty from England. Its di- succeeding to his wishes, he settled in mensions have been contracted by taking London, where he gave lectures on ela from it the whole county of Monmouth, cution, having, it is said, in the earlier and a part of several of the adjacent Eng- part of his life, studied the art with a lish counties. It was originally peopled view to making the stage his profession, although his ill success on the boards had neth, on the banks of the Forth, where induced him to adopt another calling. the English were defeated with great Mr. Walker died in 1807. He is known slaughter; and their commander fled, with as the author of several useful elementary the remains of his army, into England works, such as a Rhetorical Grammar Wallace was now declared regent of Scot(evo.); a Pronouncing Dictionary (8vo.); land, under the captive king, John Baliol. Elements of Elocution ; Key to the cor- The English monarch, alarmed at the rerect Pronunciation of Greek, Latin and verses which his partisans had experiScriptural Names (8vo.); and a Rhyming enced, hastened from Flanders to oppose Dictionary

Wallace, against whom he led an army WALKYRIAS, or VALKYRIAS. (See of 90,000 men. Jealousy at his elevation Northern Mythology.)

had already thinned the ranks of the WALL. (See Architecture, vol. i, p. Scottish hero, who, having resigned the 334.)

regency, retained his command only over WALL-FLOWER (cheiranthus cheiri); a his particular followers. The Scottish cruciferous plant, which grows in the army, under the steward of the kingdom, clefts of rocks and old walls, in most parts and Comyn, of Badenoch, waited the apof Europe. The stem is naked, hard, and proach of Edward at Falkirk (9. v), where almost woody at the base, dividing above an engagement took place in the summer into leafy branches. The flowers are of 1298, in which the English were comlarge, of a fine golden-yellow in the wild pletely victorious. Wallace retired to the plant, and agreeably scented. In the cul- mountains, resumed bissystemof predatory tivated plant, the flowers are of various warfare, and maintained his independence and brilliant colors, and attain a much at the head of those who still continued larger size. Double and semi-double va- attached to him. King Edward at length rieties are common in gardens. It is a obtained possession of the person of his beautiful and favorite ornamental plant. formidable adversary, through the treachBeing an acrid and hardy evergreen, it is ery of sir John Monteith ; and the delivsometimes sown in pastures, together with erer of his country, being conveyed to parsley, thyme, &c., as a preventive of London, suffered the death of a traitor, the rot in sheep. About thirty species of Aug. 23, 1305. His memory is still highcheiranthus are known, almost exclusively ly revered in Scotland, and his deeds hav confined to the eastern continent, several been the frequent theme of the poet and of which have been long cultivated in the historian. gardens.

Wallachia. (See Walachia.) WALLACE, sir William; a celebrated WALLENSTEIN, Albert, count of (propScottish patriot and warrior, who was the erly Waldstein); duke of Friedland, genson of a small landholder of an ancient eralissimo of the Austrian army in the family in the west of Scotland. Possess- thirty years' war, a man whose name exmg great strength of body and undaunted cites mingled emotions of admiration and courage, as well as a warm attachment to abhorrence; for, though his achievements his native country, he beheld its subjuga- were great, he knew no motive but ambition by the English king, Edward I (9.v.), tion, and scrupled at no means of gratifywith the utmost impatience, and resolved ing it. He was the terror of his contemto undertake the task of liberating Scot- poraries, and, in the short period of land from a foreign yoke. Having col- 1625—34, exercised a powerful influence lected a small band of followers, he com- on events, and has therefore met with mamenced an irregular warfare with the ny historians. But the veil which bangs English troops left to secure the conquests over the last scene of his life has not of Edward; and his enterprising spirit been wholly removed by any of them.and local knowledge soon rendered him a Albert of Waldstein, born at Prague, in formidable foe. In 1297, he planned an 1583, was descended from a distinguished attack on the English justiciary at Scone; Bohemian family, which was attached to but that officer and his colleagues eluded the Protestant religion. For the instructhe danger by flight. Many of the barons, tions which he received under the paterencouraged by this success, joined the nal roof, and in the celebrated Protestant standard of Wallace, or secretly favored school at Goldberg, in Silesia, he had no his designs. Earl Warenne, the govern- taste. His restless, impetuous disposition or of Scotland, under king Edward, as- was hostile to discipline, and, in all missembled an army of 40,000 men, with chievous exploits, he was the leader of which he marched against the Scottish his fellow scholars, over whom he exerchampion, who retreated to Cambusken- cised a certain supremacy. He behaved VOL. XIII.


in like manner at the university of Altorf, army, under Boucquoi, to Moravia, the winch he entered in 1594, and where the fortified places of which soon opened commission of an offence brought him in- their gates to the conquerors. Wallenstein to the academic prison. Albert afterwards was now appointed military governor of entered, as a page, into the service of the Moravia, recovered his estates, which had margrave Charles of Burgau, a prince of been confiscated by the Protestant Bohethe Austrian-Tyrolese collateral line, who mians, and, having been created majorresided at Inspruck. He became a con- general, after the fall of Boucquoi, comvert to the Catholic religion, and received manded with success against Bethlem from the margrave the means of travelling Gabor, prince of Transylvania. In 1622, in Germany, England, France and Italy. the emperor invested him with the lordDuring his travels, military and financial ship of Friedland, in Bohemia, and, in systems, statesmen and generals, were the 1623, created him prince of Friedland. only objects of his attention. He then When the war commenced in the north studied, for a time, mathematics and poli- of Germany, where the king of Denmark tics, but especially astrology, at the cele- came forward, in 1625, at the head of the brated university of Padua. Argoli, his Lower Saxon circle, against the league, teacher in the latter science, seems to have the emperor found himself in great emgiven rise to his later projects, by predict- barrassinent, from want of money and ing a splendid fortune to him. In 1606, troops. Wallenstein offered to raise an Wallenstein performed a campaign against army of 50,000 men at his own expense, the Turks, in Hungary, with the imperial and without the least contribution on the army, in which he manifested much bra- part of the emperor, on condition that he very, and became captain. The peace should be its commander-in-chief, and (Nov. 11, 1606) terminated this campaign, should be allowed to retain the contribuand he returned to Bohemia without an tions obtained from the conquered counappointment. Here he married a very tries. It was not uncommon, in those rich but aged widow, who, after a short, times, for a general to levy a body of childless marriage, left him a great prop- troops at his own expense, and then inerty, which enabled him to play a splen- demnify himself from friend and foe; but did part at the court of the emperor Mat- the scheme of raising so numerous an thias, at Vienna. In an insignificant war, army appeared rash. The emperor had which broke out in Friuli in 1617, be- no alternative: he therefore accepted his tween the archduke Ferdinand of Stiria proposition on those terms, and, soon afand the republic of Venice, he raised, at ier, gave him the title of duke. The rephis own expense, a body of 200 cavalry, utation of Wallenstein, and the active coand led them to the assistance of the arch- operation of many devoted officers, soon duke (afterwards the emperor Ferdinand enabled him to collect an army of 25,000 II), by which means he acquired a bigh men under his banners, at Eger. He implace in his favor. His courage and con- mediately marched with it (in 1625) to duet were distinguished at the relief of Franconia, where the country was comGradisca; and he gained the attachment pelled to support them for some time, of officers and soldiers by his extraordi- then through Suabia and the circle of mary generosity, and his attention to the the Upper Rhine, to Lower Saxony, wants. After the end of the war, Ferdi- where he passed the winter in Halbernand appointed him colonel of the militia stadt, and even occupied a part of Upper at Olmütz, in Moravia. He there took Saxony. Every where the inhabitants for his second wife Isabella, daughter of were compelled to afford subsistence to count Harrach, a favorite of Ferdinand, bis troops, the number of which continued and was raised by Ferdinand to the rank to increase. The celebrated count Mans of count. On the breaking out of the feld opposed him with a far inferior army, troubles in Bohemia, Wallenstein joined, but was totally defeated by Wallenstein, in 1619, the Austrian party against the April 18, 1620. He, nevertheless, assemProtestant Bohemians. He was compelled bled new troops, with which he proceedto leave Olmütz, but succeeded in con- ed through Silesia, towards Hungary, in veying the public treasure to Vienna. He order to join Bethlem Gabor. Wallenhad retained of it 9000 dollars. With this stein followed him rapidly. Gabor conand his own money he raised 1000 cuiras- cluded a truce, and Mansfeld withdrew siers, whom he led to Bohemia, to suc- to Dalmatia, where he died. Wallenstein cor the Austrian general. Here he dis- now relieved Novigrad, which was betinguished bimself in several engagements, sieged by the Turks, and conquered and afterwards went, with the Austrian Waitzen. After Gabor had made peace with the emperor, Wallenstein returned ing conduct of Wallenstein, and the im(in 1627) from Hungary, through Silesia, mense extortions which he and his troops Lusatia and Brandenburg (Aug., 1627), to practised, even in neutral countries (havLower Saxony, where he obliged the king ing, within seven years, raised 600,000,000 of Denmark (who could not withstand, at thalers—more than 400,000,000 dollarsthe same time, him, and the army of the by contributions in the north of Germany), league, under Tilly) to make a speedy re- induced the German princes, at the diet treat; conquered, in a short time, the of Ratisbon, in 1630, to wrest from the duchy of Mecklenburg, and Holstein as emperor a promise to diminish his army far as Glückstadt, as well as the greater to 30,000 men, and deprive Wallenstein of part of Silesia and Jütland, no one being its chief command. In order to promote prepared for so unexpected an attack. All the election of his son as king of the these countries were very severely treat- Romans, Ferdinand II was induced to ed, and heavy contributions were exacted disgrace, in a mortifying manner, a genof them. As Wallenstein, from want of eral who had saved Austria, and raised it vessels, could not invade the Danish islands, to the summit of power. With the comhe went into winter-quarters on the coasts mand of the army, Wallenstein was at the of the Baltic, occupied Pomerania, and same time obliged to resign the duchy extended his line of troops to Berlin. The of Mecklenburg. He seemed, however, fortress of Stralsund alone withstood bim. to bear with indifference this degradation, By the edict of June 9, 1629, the empe- and lived, from that time, in Prague, as a ror threatened the two dukes of Mecklen- private man, but with the pomp of royalty. burg with the ban, for having espoused He was surrounded with guards : sixty the Danish party, and, on June 16, 1629, pages and twenty chamberlains waited invested Wallenstein with their territo- on him. He travelled to his estates with ries, and with the principality of Sagan, a train of 200 carriages ; and Battista in Silesia: he also appointed bim admiral Seni, his astrologer, announced to him a of the Baltic. The object seemed to be, new career, yet more splendid. This cato make the emperor master of the coasts reer was opened to him after Tilly's (q. v.) of the Baltic, and to destroy, in this sea, death. The military successes of Gustathe trade of the Dutch, who were at va- vus Adolphus in Germany forced the riance with Spain. But the Hanseatic emperor to the humiliating step of contowns refused Wallenstein's demand for ferring again on Wallenstein the comvessels, and he had not enough to execute mand of the army. After some hesitation, his bold plan. He was also unsuccessful he accepted the offer, but on terms very in his attempt on Stralsund, which was derogatory to the emperor. He received aided by Denmark and Sweden, and absolute power, almost independent of the which he besieged from May till July, emperor, not only over the army, but also 1628. During this siege, he lost, in vari- to treat, confiscate, punish, and reward, ous assaults, more than 12,000 men. He at will, in the countries of the empire. He was also obliged to withdraw his troops stipulated for an indemnification for Meckfrom before Glückstadt and Magdeburg. lenburg, and also for the grant of an imHe again undertook, in September, the perial hereditary province. In an incredisiege of Stralsund. “ The city should be bly short time, he assembled an army of his," he said, “ were it fastened by chains 40,000 men, at Zraym. After having exto heaven.” But in vain. He was obliged pelled the Saxons from Bohemia, who a second time to raise the siege. Ile next had taken Prague and other cities, he took Rostock, and defeated the Danes at formed a junction with the troops of the Wolgast. His further progress was ob- elector of Bavaria, and marched to Franstructed by the peace between the empe- conia, against Nuremberg. But Gustaror and Denmark, at Lübeck, in 1629, vus had already hastened to the aid of the which he had himself promoted, because Protestants; and Wallenstein, though his he expected to obtain by it the quiet pos- troops were superior in number to those session of Mecklenburg. But having ig- of the king by one half, avoided a battle. nominiously dismissed the Swedish am- Both parties intrenched themselves. Gusbassadors from the congress of Lübeck, tavus waited for his approaching reinand having likewise sent his confidential forcements ; Wallenstein undertook no friend Arnheim, with 12,000 men, to aid attack; and nothing but insignificant skirking Sigismund of Poland, against Gus- mishes occurred. As Wallenstein could tavus Adolphus, he gave occasion to a not be made to risk a battle, Gustavus new war with Sweden. The fear of the Adolphus attempted to storm the Austriemperor's designs, as well as the overbear- an camp (Aug. 24, 1632); but his assaults

were repeatedly repelled. The Swedish which he made, at the request of the emarmy now turned towards the north of pror, through Bohemia, into the l'pper Suabia, and made new conquests, while Palatinate, to prevent the further progress Wallenstein suddenly invaded the unoc- of Bernard of Weimar in Bavaria. Withcupied Saxony, to compel the elector to out risking a battle, Wallenstein, on the secede from his alliance with Sweden. approach of the duke, retired to BoheGustavus Adolphus followed him thither, mia, where he took up his winter-quarand, November 6, the battle of Lüt- ters. This measure, which was entirely zen (9. v.) took place. Wallenstein was against the will of the emperor, who wished compelled to retire with great loss. He to spare, as much as possible, his hereditahimself was wounded, Pappenheim was ry provinces, increased the suspicions of killed, and all his artillery was taken. The Wallenstein'stidelity. Hisenemies at court, Swedes, although their great king had especially the Spanish party, accused him fallen, maintained the field under Bernard, of treason. The plan of a conspiracy, duke of Weimar. Wallenstein now with- ascribed to him, was laid before the empedrew to Bohemia, and caused a strict ror, the object of which was said to be, to court-martial to be held, at Prague, over make himself independent sovereigu of the officers and soldiers, who were accus- Bohemia, by means of his devoted troops, ed of not having done their duty in the and to maintain possession of this counbattle ; and many of them were executed. try by the aid of the Swedes and some In May, 1633, he again took the field, and Protestant German princes. Wallenstein proceeded to Silesia, where there was a having at last submitted to a council of Swedish army, combined with Saxon and war assembled at Pilsen, on Jan. 11, 1634, Brandenburg troops. Notwithstanding all his complaints against the emperor, his numerical superiority, he undertook, and having gained over part of the generat first, nothing important. This inactivi- als to his purposes, the court of Vienna, ty gave rise to the suspicion, that he was which had received information of the engaged in secret negotiations with the whole affair from Octavio Piccolomini, enemy, to the disadvantage of Austria. began to realize the urgency of the lle was even charged with the design of danger. Ferdinand II therefore issued making himself king of Bohemia, by the an order (Feb. 18, 1634), depriving Walaid of the Protestants. That negotiations lenstein of the command of the army, were carried on between the parties, was and pronouncing sentence of outlawry no secret ; but that these related to the against him and iwo of his generals, Illo conclusion of a peace, and not to Wallen- and Trezka (pronounced Tertschka), as stein's private advantage, is the conclusion traitors and rebels. The generals, whose to be drawn, at least from the documents fidelity could be relied on, were comthat have been made public (e. g. from manded to seize Wallenstein, dead or the Von Arnim archives*). What has alive. He therefore proceeded to Eger, been published in justification of the sub- in order, it was supposed, to be nearer the sequent steps of the emperor against Wal- frontiers and the Swedish troops. Votblenstein should not be unconditionally re- ing, indeed, seemed to remain for him but ceived. After a truce of seven weeks, to seize on some fortified place, like Eger, without result, Wallenstein, during the and unite himself with the enemy. His rest of this campaign, did nothing but sur- assassination, however, put a sudden end prise and capture a body of Swedes (Oct. to his projects; and, in all probability, Ger18, 1633), occupy several Silesian towns, many was thereby preserved from a great and make an incursion into Lusatia and catastrophe. Some officers of the garriBrandenburg, as far as Berlin. Count son at Eger (colonel Leslie, an Irish

Thurn, the instigator of the first insurrection Catholic, to whom Wallenstein had conof the Bohemnians, he set at liberty, loai fided every thing; Butler, the commander ed with gifts, and charged with secret com- of the fortress, and lieutenant-colonel mnissions to the Swedish chancellor, which Gordon, both Scotch Protestants)

, as every proceeding excited great indignation in moment of delay seemed to increase the Vienna. But the duke cared not for the danger, conspired for Wallenstein's defavor of a court whose ingratitude he had struction. On Feb. 25, 1634, at an enterexperienced, and which he contemned. tainment given by the conspirators for this Meanwhile he performed nothing decisive. purpose, the most confidential friends of Still less success followed the expedition Wallenstein (Illo, Will, Kinsky, Trezka,

* There have been lately printed 200 unpub. and bis aid, Neumann, captain of horse lished letters of Wallenstein and others, of various were surprised and murdered by Butler's dates, from 1627 to 1634.

dragoons, led by major Geraldin. Deve

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