« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
by this great man that refracting telescopes would called spherical aberration, may in a great measure never be rendered achromatic, or capable of repre- be obviated by cutting off those edges, or, what senting white objects without color—their im- amounts to the same thing, by covering them with provement he pronounced hopeless. Opticians, an opaque diaphragm, as is done in the microas was natural enough, regarding the opinion of scope and telescope. This proceeding, however, this great man as infallible, gave up the attempt, does not totally overcome the evil. Newton, and made reflecting telescopes exclusively. Re- who discovered that the different colors of light fractors, however, have since been rendered achro- were possessed of different amounts of refrangibilmatic—and how ?—why, by copying the mechan- ity for the same medium, was not aware that difism of the eye. Nature suggested the means, ferent media possessed different refractive power but Newton did not take the hint.
for the same color. Had he been aware of this We think the beauty of the eye will be more fact he would not have pronounced the improvefully appreciated if we previously take a review ment of refractive telescopes hopeless. We will of the construction and optical properties of tele- set out with the assumption that one kind of glass scopes. True, this will be a digression, but what disperses one kind of primitive light-viz., for then? we claimed a sort of poetical license in the example, blue light-beyond the true focus ; thetreatment of our subject, and we will proceed to ory indicates that another lens of different glass, take it.
having a property (if such can be found) of disThe merest tyro in optics knows that light persing the other two primitive colors, namely when it passes through transparent bodies is re- yellow and red, beyond the focus, would counfracted ; if the refracting body be plane and of teract the imperfection. Well, this, in modern equal thickness, then will various rays of light be telescopes, is actually accomplished by using comequally refracted ; if, however, the body be not of pound lenses made of various kinds of glass. We equal thickness, whether plane or curvilinear, will, in our next paper, show how beautifully all then other phenomena result, all explicable, how this knowledge had been anticipated in the conever,
by a consideration of two facts: firstly, that struction of the human eye. of the three primitive colors of which white light is composed, each possesses a different refractive
A Nomenclature of Colors, Hues, Tints, and power; secondly, that a ray of light impinging on a refracting body of greater density from one of
Shades, applicable to the Arts and Natural Scilesser density, is refracted towards the perpendic
ences, to Manufactures, and other purposes of ular, and vice versů.
general utility. B. R. HAY, Edinburgh. Now, we take it for granted, that everybody [In this catalogue raisonné of colors, Mr. Hay knows the property of a triangular prism in de- has reduced to a system of mathematical exactcomposing white light, and the reason of this ness the constituent parts and value of every modproperty. This understood, what we are about to ification of separate and combined colors. He rernark will be intelligible enough.
shows the proportions, calculated in numerical As soon as it was discovered that an arrange- ratios, that each of the primary colors bears to ment of different lenses in a proper manner would light and darkness, and the quantity of white and make an instrument capable of rendering remote black used to dilute or degrade them in order to objects more distinct-in other words, as soon as produce various tints and shades; also, the ariththe discovery of the telescope was accomplished-metical proportions and degrees of intensity in the observers viewed with regret that the outline which the primary colors enter into the composiof such objects was fringed with an unpleasant tion of the secondary colors, and tertiary and other misty burr, more or less indistinct, and tinted with compounds. numerous colors. The removal of this imperfec The volume is illustrated by forty plates, each tion was a great desideratum ; and amongst othersone containing six different hues; forming tothe celebrated Des Cartes imposed on himself the gether a scale of colors sufficiently extensive for task of accomplishing this great end. He investi- all general purposes of the artist or manufacturer : gated the subject mathematically, and arrived at uniformity of the tints in each copy of the work the conclusion that all lenses which were mere being secured by the adoption of colored papers, segments of spheres must necessarily possess this in preference to hand-coloring. The simplicity defect, inasmuch as their curve is such that they and scientific exactness of this nomenclature recannot possibly concentrate every ray of light, commmend it to adoption as a handbook for use in even of one color, on the same point or focus. all business where colors are employed, and a He therefore succeeded in determining the form standard of positive distinctness is required for of a particular set of ovals, (termed, after him, reference. the Cartesian ovals,) out of which lenses might be The examples arranged in a tabular form, with cut which should be free from this injurious qual- the requisite explanations printed on a sheet, would ity; and he succeeded to this extent that with one be a serviceable chart to hang up in work-rooms : particular kind of primitive light his lenses over-the chromatic scale might be carried out to its full came the previous indistinctness of vision : with extent for this purpose. compound light, however-white light for exam In an appendix, Mr. Hay hazards a conjecture ple—the imperfection still remained. Hence op- as to the constitution of the atmosphere in relation ticians no longer troubled themselves to make to light and sound, that is deserving of scientific these Cartesian lenses ; and even Newton subse-consideration.] quently pronounced the improvement of refracting telescopes hopeless.
Now the indistinct vision of which we have Railway Economy.—The saving between drivspoken is chiefly produced by the edges of a lens, ing a sheep to the London market from Lincolnwhich, in point of fact, may be regarded as prisms; shire and conveying it by railway is proved to be consequently, the imperfection alluded to, and no less than 10 per cent.
From the New Quarterly Review. in Lord Brougham's behalf with many of them, Men of Letters of the Time of George III. By than possibly any other biographer could hope to LORD BROUGHAM. 1845.
possess. It is an invidious task to depict talent, The proof sheets are before us of a series of when that talent is employed to defame and debase highly valuable biographies, ten in number, begin- purity and religion. ning with Voltaire, and followed by Rousseau, Rousseau, and Hume, should, we think, exempt
His lordship’s remarks rela
iive to three of the biographies before us, Voltaire, Hume, Robertson, Black, Priestley, Watt, Cavendish, Simpson.
him from severe treatment in including them in The preface to them contains a just estimate of
the series. the peculiar characteristics of the epoch, in the
“ Although,” he adds, “I have no political following words :
animosities to encounter, I fear my historical state• The reign of George III. may in some impor- those of Voltaire, Rousseau, and Hume, may
ments and my commentaries on some lives, as tant respects be justly regarded as the Augustan find enemies among the two great parties whose age of modern history. The greatest statesmen, the most consummate captains, the most finished principles come in question. The free-thinkers orators, the first historians, all flourished during their favorite authors; the friends of the church
will object to the blame which I have imputed to this period. For excellence in these departments it was unsurpassed in former times, nor had it may take exception to the praises which I have even any rivals, if we except the warriors of occasionally bestowed. It may, however, be ex. Louis XIV.'s day, one or two statesmen, and pected from the justice of both these conflicting Bolingbroke as an orator. But its glories were
bodies, that they will read with attention and not confined to those great departments of human with calmness before they condemn. From the genius. Though it could show no poet like former class I can expect no favor beyond what Dante, Milton, Tasso, or Dryden ; no dramatist every one has a right to claim from avowed adverlike Shakspeare or Corneille; no philosopher to saries; a fair hearing is all I desire. To the latequal Bacon, Newton, or Locke-it nevertheless
ter I would address a few words in the spirit of in some branches, and these not the least important respectful kindness, as to those with whom I genof natural science, very far surpassed the achieve-erally agree. ments of former days, whilst of political science,
• Whoever feels disposed to treat as impious the most important of all, it first laid the foun- any writer that has the misfortune not to be dations, and then reared the superstructure. The among the great body of believers, like the celescience of chemistry almost entirely, of political brated men above named, should bear in mind that economy entirely, were the growth of this remark- the author of these pages, while he does justice to able era ; while even in the pure mathematics a
their great literary merits, has himself published, progress was made which almost changed its whether anonymously or under his own name, aspect since the days of Leibnitz and Newton. nearly as much in defence of religion as they did The names of Black, Watt, Cavendish, Priestley, against it; and if, with powers so infinitely below Lavoisier, Davy, may justly be placed far above theirs, he may hope to have obtained some little the Boyles, the Stahls, ihe Hales of former times; success, and done some small service to the good while Euler, Clairault, Lagrange, La Place, must cause, he can only ascribe this fortune to the intrinbe ranked as analysts close after Newton himself, sic merits of that cause which he has ever supportand above Descartes, Leibnitz, or the Bernouillis ;
ed. He ventures thus to hope that no one will and in economical science, Hume, Smith, and suspect him of being the less a friend to religion, Quesnai really had no parallel, hardly any fore- merely because he has not permitted his own runner. It would also be vain to deny great belief to make him blind upon the literary merit poetical and dramatic genius to Goldsmith, Vol- of men whose opinions are diametrically opposed taire, Alfieri, and the German school, how infe
to his own. His censures of all indecorous, all rior soever to the older masters of song."
unfair, all ribald or declamatory attacks, however There are those that might object io the canon graced by wit or eloquence, he has never, on any on poetry with the names of Byron, Scott, and occasion, been slow to pronounce.”—Pref. Moore in the period, or think Leibnitz scarcely
We shall now open the list, in the order prehas his due, and possibly that the German school served by his lordship, with Voltaire. Lord is treated somewhat unceremoniously—but it is a Brougham conceives that there are three furins difficult matter to adjust the relative merits in so under which Voltaire is to be viewed: first, as an vast a field of view, and probably Lord Brougham atheist and blasphemer; secondly, as one who has formed a better estimate of ihe exact branches vents his ribaldry upon the mere ground of his than of the imaginative. His lordship next tells skepticism ; and thirdly that of a careless person, us, and quotes a splendid passage from Sallust for yielding to a prevailing unbelief. The circumthat end, that he has amused bimself, in his retire- stances of the church of his day are viewed by ment from office, with these biographies of the Lord Brougham as fully constituting the extraordistinguished men of a portion of his lordship’s dinary problem of Voltaire's mind, and his deterown era. We presume the moderns will succeed mined opponence to Christianity. His atheism he in their turn, and if we have no historiographers considers not proved. We think this matter of we shall have at least biographies of the great and much doubt; we allow that he often seemed 10 illustrious, written with powerful vigor, and from speak nobly of God. The celebrated extempore one who knows much of many of them. The composition on the firmament, composed on : statesmen of George III. have already passed summer's eve, is but a plagiarism on the Peniaunder his lordship's hand, and now the literati teuch, and renders unwilling homage to iis truth. of the same period succeed each other in the pres "Tous ces vastus pays d'azur et de lumière, ent work. With some Lord Brougham has had Tirés du sein du vide, formés sans matière, a personal acquaintance; Robertson was his rela Guidés sans compas, tournans sans pivot, tion ; and there are more favorable circunstances N'ont à peine coûté la dépense d'un moi."
The intent of the “Candide” is also estimated friend, obtained permission for him to reside in far too gently by Lord Brougham ; the obvious his house at Saint Ange. The Bishop Caumarinference from that work is, that all things are tin, a prelate well acquainted with literary pereither accidental when they must be for the worst, sons, probably excited him to the “Henriade” or the work of an evil agent. The following pas- and his History. On the death of Louis, which sage, however, amply redeems the piety of his occurred on his return to Paris, a libel being aslordship from any injury :
cribed to Voltaire, he was placed in the Bastile ; " Let no
man severely condemn the untiring thence he was liberated, and recompensed for his zeal of Voltaire, and the various forms of attack captivity, by the Regent, with a sum of money. which he employed without measure, against the After this event he produced his
dipe," religious institutions of his country, who is not which was written at eighteen years of age. prepared to say that he could have kept entire His first published work was however a devopossession of his own temper, and never cast an tional poem. The “Edipe” gave him an introeye of suspicion upon the substance of a religion duction to Me. la Maréchale de Villars—Voltaire's thos abused, nor ever have employed against its first, possibly his only true, passion. He was unperversions the weapons of declamation and of successful. His skepticism developed itself both in mockery; had he lived under the system which the composition and performance of the“ Edipe.” regarded Alexander Borgia as one of its spiritual The lines below were not likely to be soon forgotguides, which bred up and maintained in all the ten in the early part of the 18th century :riot of criminal excess an aristocracy having for one branch of its resources the spoils of the altar,
“Nos prêtres ne sont point ce qu'un vain peuple which practised persecution as a favorite means of
Notre crédulité fait toute leur science." conviction, and cast into the flames a lad of eigh
Act IV., Scene 4. teen, charged with laughing as its priests passed by. Such dreadful abuses were present to Vol We perfectly subscribe to the following crititaire's mind when he attacked the Romish super- cism on his tragedies generally, and think it stitions, and exposed the profligacy, as well as felicitously expressed :the intolerance, of clerical usurpation. He un “ It is certain that the tragedies of Voltaire are happily suffered them to poison his mind upon the the works of an extraordinary genius, and that whole to that religion of which these were the only a great poet could have produced them; but abuse ; and, when his zeal waxed hot against the it is equally certain that they are deficient for the whole system, it blinded him to the unfairness of most part in that which makes the drama powerthe weapons with which he attacked both its evi- ful over the feelings-real pathos, real passion, dences and its teachers."
whether of tenderness, of terror, or of horror. The powerful authorities of Wilberforce, Lard- The plots of some are admirably contrived ; the ner, Jeremy Taylor, and Warburton, are all diction of all is pure and animated; in most passaadduced against that prosecution for irreligious ges it is pointed, and in many it is striking, grand, opinions, of which we clearly see the evil effects impressive; the characters are frequently well in the Romish hierarchy; and which led, accord- imagined and portrayed, though without sufficient ing to Lord Brougham, to the reaction against it discrimination; and thus often running one into on the part of Voltaire; and to this tendency we another, from the uniformity of the language, may, although possibly almost unconsciously, pre- terse, epigrammatic, powerful, which all aliké cipitate matters. We proceed to the details of speak. Nor are there wanting situations of great the biography. Voltaire was the son of the Sieur effect, and single passages of thrilling force ; but, Arouet, treasurer to the chamber of accounts, a after all, the heart is not there ; the deep feeling, valuable office. His mother was noble, and of which is the parent of all true eloquence as well as the family d'Aumart: he was born on the 20th all true poetry, didactic and satirical excepted, is February, 1694. Voltaire took his name from a rarely perceived ; it is rather rhetoric than elosmall family estate, pursuant to the custom of quence, or, at least, rather eloquence than poetry. those days, for the younger children of wealthy It is declamation of a high order in rhyme ; no commoners to take the name of their estate, leav- blank verse, indeed, can be borne on the French ing to the eldest the family honors. Fontenelle stage, or even in the French tongue ; it is not fine lived to nearly his hundredth year; Voltaire reach- dramatic composition : the periods roll from the ed his eighty-fifth year-splendid quotations for mouth, they do not spring from the breast ; there the longevity of the learned. At twelve years is more light than heat; the head rather than the old, some verses to the Dauphin, for an invalid, heart is at work.' procured him a legacy of 2,000 francs from Ninon The Zaire alone is excepted from the above. de L'Enclos, to buy books with. Ninon was then The “Edipe” was performed in 1718, and in ninety, and Voltaire was presented to her by his a few years was followed by the “Henriade." godfather, the Abbé de Châteauneuf. The court This poem, not without fine passages, is at such of Me. de Maintenon, which was then in the as an immeasurable distance from the great epic cendant, united the saintly and the sinful in a writers that it was intended to rival, that we enterremarkable degree, and this Châteauneuf, with tain little doubt that the disappointment prowhom Voltaire was much thrown, was unfortu- duced the “ Pucelle.” The following remarks nately a person of dissolute morals and of skepti- are both just, and do Lord Brougham's heart great cal opinions. Voltaire was destined for the law, honor :and his anxious parent sent him as page or attaché “ The · Pucelle' is one continued sneer at all to the French ambassador at the Hague, probably that men do hold, and all that they ought to hold, with the intention of getting him clear of infidels sacred, from the highest to the least important and skeptics. A love affair caused him to be sent subjects, in a moral view, from the greatest to the home. His father, incensed with his conduct, most indifferent, even in a critical view. Religion refused to receive him, unless he entered a no- and its ministers and its professors—virtue, estary's office; and M. de Caumartin, a family | pecially the virtues of a prudential cast—the feel
ings of humanity—the sense of beauty—the rules contributed largely to overthrow the Cartesiana of poetical composition—the very walks of litera- philosophy. Can one wonder much, when D’Aguture in which Voltaire had most striven to excel-esseau refused the license to publish his statement are all made the constant subject of sneering con- of Newton's discoveries, at his indignation ? This tempt, or of ribald laughter; sometimes by wit, enthusiasm for Newton led to the liaison of his life sometimes by humor, not rarely by the broad grins with the Marquise de Chatelet. This lady analyst of mere gross buffoonery. It is a sad thing to re was often surrounded with philosophers of kindred flect that the three masterpieces of three such men pursuits; the imprudence of the Marquis, her husas Voltaire, Rousseau, Byron, should all be the band, rendered even the pecuniary assistance of most immoral of their compositions. It seems as if Voltaire by no means superfluous; and at Cirey, their prurient nature had been affected by a bad her seat, many of his most celebrated works first but criminal excitement to make them exceed saw the light. From her and Clairault, he was themselves. Assuredly if such was not Voltaire's doubtless greatly assisted in the compilation of his case, he well merits the blame ; for he scrupled Newtonian Philosophy. We differ from Lord not to read his · Pucelle’ to his niece, then a young Brougham in the opinion, that had Voltaire fol
lowed out the analytic sciences, he would have Would any one credit that this production could succeeded. The minds of men like Voltaire and issue from the same person who wrote the “ Dis- Lord Brougham are ill calculated for success in cours sur l'Homme ?" Who can avoid being such pursuits. There is too much discursiveness struck with lines like the following, from such a -too deep a desire to know much of many things, man, and not in them see much reason for a belief, to permit of this abstraction upon one. The orator however we must qualisy it, that the corruption and the wit are conscious that they possess far mingled with truth led him to mistake the truth for more generally-fascinating points, and cannot the corruption :
forego either the rostram or the club. Their very “Malgré la sainteté de son auguste emploi,
excellence in words prevents their acqnisition of C'est n'être bon à rien de n'être bon qu'à toi." rarely go deeply inward, except in their own favor
abstract ideas. They dwell on the outward, and Lord Brougham has simply alluded to the re-ite pursuits ; they are certainly not constant 10 cognition of the Christ in this poem ; but the pas: learn Newton by the medium of Voltaire, will be
abstract science long. Any one who attempts to sage is so fine and so uncommon for Voltaire, ihat we give it at length :
plunged into the most inextricable difficulties that
a person could well desire to be involved in ; of “Quand l'ennemi divin des scribes et des prêtres this, Lord Brougham has furnished a rather amuChez Pilate autrefois fut traîné par des traîtres ; sing condensation. In the “ Courte Réponse aux De cet air insolent qu'on nomme dignité,
longs Discours d'an Docteur Allemand,” he says, Le Romain demanda, qu'est ce que vérité?
“ La racine carré du cube des révolutions des L'Homme Dieu qui pouvait l'instruire ou le con- planètes et les carrés de leurs distances faisaient fondre,
encore des ennemis.” In this passage there are A ce juge orgueilleux dédaigna de répondre. three blunders. The square root of the cube is Son silence éloquent disait assez à tous
taken for the cube ; the revolutions, for the disQue ce vrai tant cherché ne fut point fait pour tances; and the squares for the cubes. Voltaire
was, however, not deficient in philosophic perMais lorsque pénétré d'une ardeur ingénue, ception ; and experimented largely. Our author Un simple citoyen l'aborda dans la rue,
says of him, as an experimental philosopher :Et que, disciple sage, il prétendit savoir,
“The experiments which he inade on the heat Quel est l'état de l'homme, et quel est son devoir ; of fluids mixed together, of different temperatures Sur ce grand intérêt, sur ce point qui nous touche, before their mixture, led him to remark the differCelui qui savait tout, ouvrit alors la bouche ; ence of the temperature when mixed from what Et dictant d'un seul mot ses décrets solennels ; might have been expected by combining the sepa
Aimez Dieu,' lui dit-il,“ mais aimez les mortels.' rate temperatures before mixture. Need I add Voilà l'homme et sa loi, c'est assez ; le ciel that this is precisely the course of experiment and même
observation which led Black to his celebrated disA daigné tout nous dire en ordonnant qu'on aime." covery of latent heat a quarter of a century later?"
But we must resume the somewhat broken nar While at Cirey, he made the acquaintance of rative :-After the appearance of the “ Edipe,” Frederick, then Prince Royal of Prussia ; and, in Voltaire became the friend of the Duc de Riche- 1749, experienced the loss of the Marchioness, lieu, shared in his disgrace, and was forced to quit 'who was suddenly taken ill at Luneville, while Paris. His well-known quarrel with the Cheva- engaged on the “ Principia," and died in labor of lier de Rohan, we shall not enter on farther than a girl, born before she could be put to bed. His to remark, that it was the occasion of his visiting eccentric raillery scarce forsook him, even at the England, of his acquaintance with Pope, and of a period of her dissolution. He requests, in a letter large sum realized for the “Henriade;" a sub- addressed to Me. du Deffand, permission to weep scription in favor of which, was promoted by Queen for one “qui avec ses foiblesses avait une ûme reCaroline, then Princess of Wales. A successful spectable.” Her death probably led him to emJottery speculation combined with this, enabled him brace Frederick's offer of an establishment at to live at ease the remainder of his life. If he also Berlin. Voltaire was certainly nobly treated at
did not succeed in comprehending our illustrious the commencement by the king : but nothing could -Newton-for no one can understand Newton, who attach Voltaire long to anything ; and the king, as iis unequal to his powerful analysis, with which a moral character, was beneath contempt. The Voltaire had never even a rudimental acquaintance monarch that could write to M. Darget a letter of -his sincerity in advocating what he believed to apparently Christian condolence with him on the be the true system, is undoubted. He certainly loss of his wife, and that very day sit down de
liberately to libelling the dead like him, could not its method, deserved imitation. The " Charles long have loved anything. We have this story, the XII." and the “Peter the Great, are interhowever, on the authority of Voltaire, at a time esting, but the latter was written too close to when it was probably getting pretty clear to him, Russia to be true or faithful. The credulity of that Frederick only valued him for such points as Voltaire in both these works appears unbounded. must prove anything but satisfactory to ihe wit ; The “Sidcle de Louis Quatorze" is well known, and that the king claimed full privilege to avail and needs little mention. Of the romances, “ Zahimself of sarcasm for sarcasm, coup for coup. How dig” is an old favorite with us, and we think by fearfully does the letter, addressed by him to his far the best of them. Forced to quit the " déliniece, (Correspon. Gén., Nov., 1750,) indicate ces” at Geneva, Voltaire proceeded to Ferney, that guilty unions contain in them their doom and within the French frontier, and during this portion dissolution !-"J'ai bien peur de dire au Roi de of his life some incidents redound greatly to his Prusse comme Jasmine, Vous n'êtes pas trop honor. The cases of Calas and La Barre prove corrigé, mon maître.' J'avais vue une lettre him to have possessed genuine sentiments of phitouchante, pathétique, et même fort Chrétienne, lanthropy, and how deeply must boih these inque le roi avait daigné écrire à Darget, sur la mort stances have confirmed his ancient antipathy against de sa femme. J'ai appris que le même jour sa the Roman Catholic religion! Would it were majesté avait fait une épigramme contre la defunte; possible to applaud all in Voltaire at this period; cela ne laisse pas de donner a penser.”—This was but while attentive to the vindication of individuals indeed the disciple beating his master at his own from tyranny, the flattery of Frederick and Cathweapons ; Pheidippides turning on Strepsiades, arine led him to sanction the foul usurpation by and beating him with his own teaching. Nothing which the partition of Poland was effected in 1772. can appear more mean, than the miserable reluc- Lord Brougham has deeply felt the wrong then tance of Voltaire, to quit the court of Prussia, enacted, and the biographer of Voltaire nobly exwhen every degree of obloquy had been heaped poses the wrongs perpetrated by the autocrat and upon him. They were apparently afterwards on her coadjutor. His servility here is as odious as something like a friendly footing; but Voltaire in the former instance. No insults could compel never forgot nor forgave the treatment he had ex- him to quit the court of Berlin, even when it exeperienced from the philosopher king. On the crated and derided him. In the three quarrels of 6th August, 1757, he wrote “L'ennemi public his life, with Frederick, Maupertius, and Roussera pris de tous côtés. Vive Marie Thérèsé !” seau, whatever he thought of the two first, in
At Berlin he had finished his “ Siècle de Louis the latter he was mean, selfish and ungenerous. XIV.”. There also he began his correspondence And yet Rousseau behaved generously, even nowith Diderot and D'Alembert, who were engaged | bly to him; and when the remark that the in editing their famous Encyclopedia. We extract Irène," his last finished tragedy, exhibited the the passage from Lord Brougham descriptive of decline of genius, he said frankly, were it true, his conduct in this publication :
that the remark were brutal.” The “ Irène" is a "On this remarkable occasion he put forth all wonderful effort for a man of 84. We extract the those qualities which form a party-chief, and gain reception of Voltaire, after an absence from over the warm support of his followers—ardor, Paris of 27 years, in Lord Brougham's own good humor, patience, courage, tolerance activ- words :ity, knowledge, skill. The 'Encyclopédie,' as is 6. After an absence of above seven-and-twenty well known, was, after a few years, no longer years he revisited Paris with his niece, who, at suffered to appear openly in France. In 1751 and the beginning of 1778, wished to accompany the following years, the first seven volumes ap- thither a young lady, recently married to M. peared at Paris under Diderot and D'Alembert; Vilette. Voltaire had just finished • Irène,' and had in 1758 it was stopped, at a time when its sale a desire to see its representation. The reception had reached no less than 3,000, (* Cor. Gén.' v. he met with in every quarter was enthusiastic. 127,) and the remaining ten volumes were pub- He had outlived all his enemies, all his detractors, lished in 1775 at Neufchâtel under Diderot alone. all his quarrels. The academy, which had, under The four volumes of supplement were published the influence of court intrigues, now long forgotin 1776 and 1777 at Amsterdam. All the eleven ten, delayed his admission till his fifty-second volumes of plates were published at Paris between year, seemed now anxious to repair its fault, and 1762 and 1772, and the supplemental volume of received him with honors due rather to the great plates in 1777. The whole of this great work thus chief than to a fellow-citizen in the commonwealth consisted of thirty-three folio volumes. Some of of letters. All that was most eminent in station Voltaire's articles are clever, and abound with or most distinguished in talents—all that most good relections. The greater number of them shone in society or most ruled at court, seemed to are too light, having the fault which he certainly bend before him—the homage of every class and imputes to many of the other contributors in his of every rank was tendered to him—and it seemed Letters,' when he observes that they are fitter as if one universal feeling prevailed, the desire of for a magazine than an encyclopædia.'
having it hereafter to say—I saw Voltaire.' The “ Voyage de Scarmentado,” and “ 'Zadig,” But, in a peculiar manner, his triumphant return had been written at Cirey. On the return from was celebrated at the theatre. Present at the Potsdam we have the “ Micromegas.” Voltaire third night of Irène,' all eyes were turned from had as strongly approximated to Swift in a large the stage to the poet, whose looks, not those of portion of his career, as Rousseau had to Sterne. the actors, were watched from the rising to the Soon after his establishment at Geneva we have falling of the curtain. Then his bust was seen his most finished work, the “ Essai des Mæurs." on the stage, and crowned with chaplets, among “Candide” is of the same epoch. The “Essai" the shouts and the tears of the audience. He left was rapidly followed by a series of works from the house, and hundreds pressed forward to aid various pens on the same principle; and certainly his feeble steps as he retired to his carriage. No by the extent of ils plan, and t'ie judịciousness of lone was suffered to sustain him above an instant