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6. THE LANGUAGE OF CONCESSION, politeness, admiration, entreaty, and tender emotions, usually requires the rising inflection; as,

Your remark is true': the manners of this country have not all the desirable ease and freedom'.

I pray' thee remember', I have done thee' worthy service'; told thee no lies', made no mistakes'; served without grudge' or grumbling!

7. THE END OF A SENTENCE that expresses completeness, conclusion, or result, usually requires the falling slide of termination, which commences on the general pitch and falls below it; as, The rose is beautiful

8. AT EACH COMPLETE TERMINATION OF THOUGHT, before the close of a sentence, the falling inflection is usually required; though, when several pauses occur, the last but one generally has the rising inflection; as,

Every human being has the idea of duty'; and to unfold this idea is the end for which life was given him.

The rock crumbles'; the trees fall"; the leaves fade', and the grass withers.

9. THE LANGUAGE OF COMMAND, rebuke, contempt, exclamation, and terror, usually requires the falling inflection; as,

Thou slave', thou wretch', thou coward'! Away' from my sight'!

10. THE LAST MEMBER OF A COMMENCING SERIES, and the last but one of a concluding series, usually require the rising inflection; and all others the falling; as,

A good disposition', virtuous principles', a liberal education, and industrious habits', are passports to happiness and honor.

These reward a good disposition, virtuous principles', a liberal cducation', and industrious habits.

11. THE CIRCUMFLEX is used in language of irony, sarcasm, derision, condition, and contrast; as,

Was the hope drunk',
Wherein you dressed yourself'? hath it slept' since' ?
And wakes it now, to look so green and pale
At what it did so freely'?

EXERCISES. 1. Will you forsake us' ? and will you favor us no more' ? 2. Are you, my dear sir, willing to forgive' ?

3. Where did you find those young birds'? In the meadow. Where did you say' ?

4. Does that beautiful lady deserve praise', or blame' ? 5. Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel', or under a bed'?

6. If you seek to make one rich, study not to increase' his stores', but to diminish' his desires!.

7. Presumptuous man ! the gods' take care of Cato' !
8. When reason' is against' a man, he' will be against reason'.
9. Thanks to the gods' ! my boy has done his duty'.
10. O Rome' ! O my country'! how art thou fallen'!
11. Faith', hope', and charity', are cardinal virtues.
12. Hunting men', not beasts', shall be his game.
13. Can the great statesman', skilled in deep design',

Protract but for a day precarious breath' ?
Can the tuned follower of the sacred Nine

Soothe', with his melody', insatiate Death'? 14. Alas'! what need you be so boisterous rough';

I will not struggle', I will stand stone still'! 15. Fire' and water', oil' and vinegar', heat' and cold', light' and darkness', are not more opposed to each other, than is honesty' to fraud', or vice' to virtue'.

16. For I am persuaded that neither death', nor life —nor angels', nor principalities', nor powers'-nor things present', nor things' to come —nor height', nor depth', nor any other creature'—shall be able to separate us from the love of God.

17. All the circumstances' and ages' of men, poverty', riches', youth', old age -all the dispositions and passions', melancholy', love', grief', contentment'—are capable of being personified in poetry with great propriety.

18. Hath a dog money'? Is it possible a cur can lend three thousand ducats'?

19. You meant no liarm ; oh, no! your thoughts are innocent ; you have nothing to hide; your breast is pure, stainless, all truth.

20. If thou dost slander' her, and torture' me— NEVER' PRAY' MORE'.



ODULATION is the act of varying the voice in reading and speaking. Its general divisions are, Proch,


The four general divisions, or modes of vocal sound, presented in this section, are properly the elements of Expression; as, by the combination of the different forms and varieties of these modes, Emphasis, Slur, Monotone, and other divisions of Expression, are produced.


Prrch' refers to the key-note of the voice-its general degree of elevation or depression, in reading and speaking. We mark three general distinctions of Pitch: High, MonERATE, and Low.

I. High Pitch is that which is heard in calling to a person at a distance. It is used in expressing elevated and joyous feelings and strong emotion; as, 1. Go ring the bells, and fire the guns,

And fling the starry banners out;
Shout “Freedom !” till your lisping ones

Give back their cradle shout.
2. If I may trust the flattering truth of sleep,

My dreams presage some joyful news at hand ;
My bosom's lord sits lightly on his throne,
And all this day an unaccustomed spirit

Lifts me above the ground with cheerful thoughts.

First came renowned Warwick,
Who cried aloud, "What scourge for perjury

* Exercise on Pitch. For a gen- the voice shall have been reached ; eral exercise on Pitch, select a sen when the exercise may be reversed. tence, and deliver it on as low a key So valuable is this exercise, that it as possible; then repeat it, gradually should be repeated as often as poselevating the pitch, until the top of sible.

Can this dark monarchy afford false Clarence ?"
And so he vanished. Then came wandering by
A shadow like an angel, with bright hair
Dabbled in blood ; and he shrieked out, aloud, -
CLARENCE is come-false, fleeting, perjured Clarence;
Seize on him, ye furies, take him to your torments.

II. MODERATE Prrch is that which is heard in common conversation and description, and in moral reflection, or calm reasoning; as, 1. The mountains look on Marathon,

And Marathon looks on the sea ;
And musing there an hour alone,

I thought that Greece might still be free;
For, standing on the Persian's grave,

I could not deem myself a slave.
2. Sometimes we see a cloud that's dragonish;

A vapor, sometime, like a bear, or lion,
A towered citadel, or pendent rock,
A forkèd mountain, or blue promontory,
With trees upon it, that nod unto the world,
And mock our eyes with air ; thou hast seen these signs ;
They are black Vesper's pāgeants.
That which is now a horse, even with a thought,
The rack dislimns; and makes it indistinct

As water is in water.
3. As a young Lobster roamed about,

Itself and mother being out,
Their eyes at the same moment fell
On a boiled lobster's scarlet shell.
“Look," said the younger ; “is it true
That we might wear so bright a hue ?
No coral, if I trust mine eye,
Can with its startling brilliance vie ;


and I must be content A dingy aspect to present."

Proud, heedless fool!” the parent cried ; “Know'st thou the penalty of pride?

The tawdry finery you wish,
Has ruined this unhappy fislı.
The hue so much by you desired,
By his destruction was acquired-
So be contented with your lot,
Nor seek to change by going to pot.”

III. Low Pitch is that which is heard when the voice falls below the common speaking key. It is used in expressing reverence, awe, sublimity, and tender emotions; as,

1. 'Tis midnight's holy hour, and silence now

Is brooding, like a gentle spirit, o'er
The still and pulseless world. Hark! on the winds
The bells' deep tones are swelling ;—'tis the knell
Of the departed year. No funeral train
Is sweeping past, yệt, on the stream and wood,
With melancholy light, the moonbeams rest,
Like a pale, spotless shroud ; the air is stirred
As by a mourner's sigh; and on yon cloud,
That floats so still and placidly through heaven,
The spirits of the seasons seem to stand.


Softly woo away her breath,

Gentle Death !
Let her leave thee with no strife,
Tender, mournful, murmuring Life!
She hath seen her happy day :

She hath had her bud and blossom:
Now she pales and sinks away,

Earth, into thy gentle bosom!


Oh! now forever,
Farewell the tranquil mind | farewell content !
Farewell the plumed troop, and the big wars,
That make ambition virtue! Oh, farewell !
Farewell the neighing steed, and the shrill trump,
The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife,
The royal banner, and all quality,
Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war!

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