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and repelled the younger generation parts of the kind fall. A Yankee, by an asceticism which made absurd the author affirms, never swears: he and uncandid distinctions between has mean and cowardly ways of things lawful and things profane. whipping the devil round the stump. The stage,” says Dr. Nichols, “was He

says,

“I vum, I swon, I held in holy horror. Yet pious people, vow, darn it, gaul darn your picter, who would have thought it sinful to by golly, golly crimus,” and so on. go to the theatre to see a play of These are the eastern Yankees; the Shakspeare, would crowd the circus, Western have more rhetoric in their just as I saw, some years later, Puri- exclamations. The Yankee is contanical people flocking to Niblo's to tent to describe himself, in certain see vaudevilles and the ballet, because conditions, as “a gone sucker;" but the theatre was called a garden. Even the Western, under similar circumclergymen went, with pious ladies, to stances, is "catawampously chawed see the most objectionable perform- up.” A Yankee has a “kinder sneakin' ances of the modern stage, so long as notion arter” a girl; the Western dethe place where they were given was scribes a plain lass to be “ as homely not called a theatre. It was a sin to as a hedge-fence.” The real genuine dance, or even to play a dancing tune, Yankee boasts that he is a hull but right enough to play marches. A team and a hoss to let. You can't quick step would pass muster, but tucker him eout. It beats all natur not a hornpipe or jig.” The Metho- heow he can go it when he gets his dists were the first to soften the harsh- dander up. He has got his eye-teeth ness of the religious system of New out, true as preachin'.” The exagEngland.

gerations of the Western partake Ăn amusing incident is related of more of poetry. He laughs like a the religious demonstrations once hyæna over a dead nigger. He walks common among the factory-girls of through a fence like a falling tree Lowell, who asserted the doctrine of through a cobweb. A fellow he has

woman's rights” in a very practical a contempt for is so poor and thin way. It was usual in the churches that he has to lean up again' a saplin' of that town to see as many as a to cuss. His own powers are so vast, thousand girls, between the ages of that he can drink the Mississippi, and fifteen and twenty-five, neatly dressed, out-holler thunder. For some of his and only some two or three score of oddest terms there is a respectable the male sex, wofully seated apart in derivation; as, for example, absquatsome sombre corner. In these con- ulate is from a or ab, privative, and gregations, the “fair” being in an un- squat, the western for settle. But questioned majority, insisted upon the ne plus ultra of vulgar Southern their claim to vote in the election of extravagances is to escape quickly by the clergyman; and as they paid his "vamoosin quicker'n greased lightsalary, this was but just. Disa- nin' down a peeled hickory.” greeable clerics were ruthlessly de The writer, who finds so few things posed, and married ones not at all in to praise in America, is still enthusirequest; but the doctrine of hand- astic upon the beauty of the women some young fellows, under thirty, of the Northern States. Europeans well bearded, was generally found have not been accustomed to accord orthodox and edifying., . Sometimes to the Western ladies this proud disthese girls “struck” for higher wages, tinction. But in truth their beauty and no confederacy of employers was is singularly evanescent. At the New ever known successfully to resist the York balls, numbers of delicate and battery of their eloquence. They lovely forms may be seen; but these held public meetings, and their ora- graceful dancers are all between tory was overpowering.

fifteen and twenty-five. They seem There is no more amusing chapter also to want strength. After twentyof Dr. Nichols' book than that in five, they rapidly fade. This “gift which the eccentricities of Yankee- of beauty," however, is said to be as dom are pourtrayed. The stage rare west of the Alleghanies as in American does not, we think, come north-western Europe.

“ But along up to the real article. The native the whole coast of the Atlantic and idioms are only imperfectly acquired the Gulf, and in all the country settled by foreign players, to whom mostly for more than a century, it is com

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mon. In the oldest towns, there penmanship. Over this the historian are the greater number of handsome once again plods, inverting and polwomen; in Portland, Salem, Provi- ishing his sentences. Then the MS. dence, or Baltimore, the visitor is im- goes to the printer, but the work is mediately struck by the graceful ap- not finished. The proof is returned pearance and bearing of the well- so hideously blurred, that it would dressed crowds who throng the pro- be “less trouble to set it up anew.” menades.

Whatever ease" the reader may Of the literature of America there discover in the composition, the is little new to be said. Its news- author does not find it easy by any papers, for mischievous extravagance, means. Very few, however, possess as well as for their number, are the faculty of writing off a finished paralleled by the press of no other composition at a first effort. country. In the present crisis, the One of the weakest of those deluLongfellows, Bryants, Holmeses, Ban- sions that have from time to time crofts--authors grave and gay, poet reigned in America is Spiritualism; and historian alike--are condemned and even yet it is not exploded. The to silence. The people have too much war, in fact, has given it a stimulus. on hands to listen to these preachers The mediums” are regularly confor the hours of recreation. It is to sulted by mothers and by wives, who be hoped, however, that the workers have husbands or sons in action. are not idle, for dark as the clouds They profess to receive information are, there is surely a good time which time and events have strangely coming” Dr. Nichols, at least, thinks corroborated—so strong is the force

When this red leaf in the of fanaticism. In “Peculiar” the history of America,” he says, “is Spirits figure largely; and Mr. Wilturned

over, there will begin a new liam Howitt, who edits the tale, paints era in American literature--a better, their performances, of course, in the brighter, nobler one than we can richest colours. He converts Spiritpoint to in the past. It may be ualism, in fact, into an important pothat the earnest, true life of the na- litical instrument. The unseen tabletion, or the natives, of the future is rappers have assured the initiated now to begin." Others may not that the cause of the South is a bad divine the future in so sanguine a cause, which cannot ultimately prosspirit, but every “Britisher” wishes per. The same Spirits, moreover, America well, and would gladly see have endorsed the policy of Mr. Lintwo things that our people think ne- coln, and are busy canvassing for him cessary to the peace, moral progress, in their own way, in prospect of the and wholesome prosperity of the next Presidential election. PecuWestern Continent, happen-namely, liar” is a story written in the interest the admission that the South has of the dominant party at Washington, achieved its independence; and the and characterized by all its extrare-establishment of the Northern vagances. To some it might seem a Constitution on some improved basis. somewhat exaggerated statement of Speaking of Bancroft—who was de- them, but the proof of its general corscribed by an English writer as the rectness is to be found in these “ Forty Hume of America, whose volumes Years of American Life.”. Dr. Niare characterized by singular chols writes the bare truth, but it in composition" -our author dispels is really stranger than fiction." the idea of the_historian's fluency The latter author's mind is in suspenand expertness. Bancroft, it appears, sion as to the truth of the phenomena is a very laborious writer. Here is he has witnessedhis process: First of all, having studied his authorities and arranged

"I have heard several so-called speaking his facts, he writes out his narrative. mediums, who were supposed to speak in a This he goes over repeatedly, inter

circle' or to address public assemblies, either lining, erasing, and correcting, until

tate of trance or under spiritual influ

I heard a cadaverous-looking perthe sheets are a labyrinth of blotted

sonage with long hair spout poetry, or somehieroglyphics. His secretary then thing in rhyme and metre, in Memphis. In makes a clean copy, taking care, how- Springfield, Illinois, the home of President ever, to leave large spaces between Lincoln, I listened an hour to a speech of the lines for further intricate feats of what Americans call “highfalutin' eloquence,

ease

in a
ence.

froth and rainbows. I heard Miss Hardinge, Celts have got tired of arms. The once an English actress, deliver a very im- Irishmen last drafted to the Army posing oration to more than 1,000 persons, of the Potomac are supposed to be in a splendid lecture-room at St. Louis. those “labourers" whom the 600 dolI have heard the pretty, doll-like Mrs. Cora lars bounty continues to allure from Hatch in New York. In none of these cases

Ireland. did I see the least evidence of spiritual or

With respect to the prosupernatural influence. The speakers shut portion of the foreign populations to their eyes, but anyone can do that. They the older American race, Dr. Nichols may have looked inspired, but I did not see makes interesting and suggestive reit. The improvisatore was a clever one, if marks. honest ; but improvisatori are not necessarily supernatural; and if spirits spoke " There is one characteristic of the foreign through Miss Hardinge or Mrs. Cora Hatch, population of the United States which they either came direct from the father of deserves to be considered with reference to lies, or were absurdly ignorant of the com the future. There is a continuous influx of monest facts of history. It is fair to say immigration, larger at some periods than at that I heard a plain-looking middle-aged others, but always a stream of immense Quaker woman in Cincinnati talking meta magnitude. Ireland, Germany, and Belgium physics for two hours, as if she had been pour out their surplus or poverty-stricken possessed by the spirits of Hegel or Herbart; populations. These people, transplanted to and I have also, in one or two instances, a new soil, and surrounded with unwonted heard so-called mediums, in private dis- plenty, are wonderfully prolific. The Irish coursing of matters of which in their usual and Germans in America increase with much state they appeared to have no knowledge. greater rapidity than the Americans of an But where we are to draw the line between older stock. So remarkably is this the what is called the inspiration of the poet, case, that there must, in a few years, be an and a supernatural obsession, or possession, Irish majority even in such old states as or illumination, may be somewhat difficult Massachusetts and Rhode Island. By a to determine.

natural process and without counting on “ The arguments against the existence conversions, there must also be Roman of spiritual phenomena are abundant; but Catholic majorities in several states. The then it must be confessed that one well nativist party, with its secret organization, established fact is worth a great many ar

was a futile effort to meet this danger, by guments. If we say the things alleged to attempting to extend the period during be done are impossible, we are told that they which foreigners must reside in the country are true. After all, it is very difficult to before exercising the right of suffrage. It say what is or is not possible. Life and the failed, because neither of the great parties universe are mysteries."

could afford to lose the foreign vote. It is

now too late for such constitutional changes. The writer humorously adds The foreign element is too strong and too

conscious of its power.The spirits of physicians often prescribe for mediums and those who consult them ; but it is remarkable that doctors continue to he has seen it,” the same author

In a chapter describing slavery “as disagree in the other world, just as they speaks with manifest candour of the always have done in this. gives high dilutions-Abernethy and Rush state of Southern society: The picstick to their gallipots, and Preissnitz

ture is by no means of the “Uncle

wraps in the wet sheet or deluges with the douche.” Tom ” description. The contrast is

very marked between the limning of According to Dr. Nichols, the Irish the “Peculiar Institution "in these who have entered the Northern ser- pages and in the political novel of Epes vice fight for the pay, the glory, or the Sargent. Having read, we inay say, mere excitement of fighting. It is all that has been written on American very rare, he says, to find an Irish affairs since the war began, whether Abolitionist. The Roman Catholic by English or Transatlantic pens, we priests as well as people are all pro- can confidently affirm that Dr. Nichols slavery in sentiment. The best writ- is by far the most intelligent and trustten defence of slavery extant is the worthy, because the most temperate, composition of an Irish bishop. Mr. frank, and impartial of those writers. Seward, indeed, made a political alli- Negró labour may be divided into ance with the late Archbishop Hughes two categories, that of household serwith the object of furthering recruit- vants and the workers on the plantaing among the flock of the latter, and tion. The former, including cooks, the project succeeded well after the waiters, laundresses, coachmen, and war broke out; but the American gardeners, are in all respects better

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treated, generally speaking, than free carnage than the natural organs of servants. They have no fear of losing the Lincolnites. Throughout there their places, and from being under no has been a Peace party, numerically necessity of thinking of the morrow, strong; but, in the whirl and exciteare singularly contented and cheerful. ment of the struggle, its_voice has There is more meaning than the not been heard effectively. Its leaders, negro intended in the answer of the too, have cowered before the despotic black cook when asked, “Do you courses of procedure daringly resorted belong to the Wades ?”

Yes, sar, to by Mr. Seward and his colleagues. he replied, “I belongs to them, and Dr. Nichols, in the performance of they belongs to me.” It is only his duty as a journalist, with solemn

the small plantation of the eloquence protested against the war poorer order of proprietor that the three years ago, ere it had begun, slave is ever overworked. On the warning his countrymen, with a prolarger properties, the system is to phetic instinct, that when oceans of work the negro regularly and to keep blood had been shed, and untold him at it during the allotted hours; miseries passed through, there would but “slave-driving”, is uncommon, remain, ultimately, not one Union because it would be unprofitable. --not harmony, reconstruction, or The presence of the overseer, with a peace, but two“ rival military despotwhip in his hand, which often falls isms, with loads of debt and on female shoulders, is, however, a a wasted country burdened with reproach upon the Southern planter. taxation.” We have lived to wit

Dr. Nichols disproves the assertion ness this dreadful consummation. so often reiterated, that the war had Whether still greater horrors are not origin in Slavery. The fact, now well- to precede the exhaustion of the comknown, is, that after it had broken batants, who can say ? The campaign out, the Lincoln party seized the of 1864 has been opened already Abolition cry as a political instrument. with vaster proportions and more Among many new things to be learned desperate energy on both sides. As from the same source, it is satisfac- Mr. Lincoln must face the nation for tory to know, that a large number of re-election at no distant date, the the American newspapers were on grand effort of his party will this the side of moderation when the con- year be to provide him with the hustflict began. In England, our notions ings' argument of military success. of the American press are mainly Thus the war will be pressed forward derived from the New York journals, hotly. But the Federals have begun and their course has been dictated badly by a great failure in the states from the outset by “party” motives of Florida and Alabama ; and the in the lowest sense. The Democratic Confederates will no doubt contest papers, after a vain struggle against every foot of ground as valiantly as public' opinion, finding that their last year. The contest will probably party would be extinguished if it proceed as before with wavering fortook up an anti-war position, deter- tune. It is in dismay and helplessmined to swim with the stream; and ness that Europe inquires when shall to remove all suspicion of their hon- the end be ? esty became more the ministers of

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE.

No. CCCLXXVII.

MAY, 1864.

VOL. LXIII.

GENERAL GARIBALDI.

THE welcome given to General Gari- moral which it conveys, by hinting a baldi in the metropolis of our country careful organization beforehand, and "ranks with the most remarkable, we some deep political motive. No less had almost written romantic, inci- has the honest enthusiasm of the dents of the times. The universality reception startled that minority and majesty of the demonstration amongst ourselves to whom the have excited the wonder, and name of Garibaldi is offensive, from rather awakened the suspicions, of his impartial resistance to despotism foreigners. In France, especially, in all its forms. But let who might, these scenes have struck politicians at home or abroad, take offence, the with surprise, and filled the people British people could not but follow with jealousy. There is an uneasy the leading of their instincts, and consciousness among the latter that meet Garibaldi with open heart and the working men of Paris would not hand. It is nearly two centuries now be permitted to meet and march, one since our fathers delivered their teshundred thousand strong, under simi- timony for civil and religious liberty las circumstances, the peace of a all the world over, by welcoming to great city, confidently entrusted to England its first largehearted chamtheir good-feeling and loyal respect pion. Since then there has been full for existing institutions. They see in time to put those principles to the this how far behind England they proof. They have grown with the still are, with all their pomp and growth of our nation. They are rooted pride of influence and achievement. like our oaks. To appeal to our symThe Ministers of reactionary Europe pathies in this direction, is to arouse seem, for their part, perplexed by the our strongest, deepest feelings. Anarspontaneousness of an occurrence that chy, indeed, we hate. Insurrection is constitutes for them so emphatic a a word we hardly understand the reproach, and would fain depreciate meaning of. But we acknowledge the the event, and avert the attention of right, the duty, and the blessing of their depressed subjects from the constitutional revolution. We should

• Garibaldi and Italian Unity." By Lieut.-Col. Chambers. London: Smith, Elder, and Co.

“Garibaldi at Caprera.” By Colonel Vecchj. Translated from the Italian. With Preface by Mrs. Gaskell. Cambridge: Macmillan and Co.

Italy under Victor Emmanuel. A Personal Narrative." By Count Charles Arrivabene. Two vols. London: Hurst and Blackett.

" Reminiscences of the Life and Character of Count Cavour.” By William de la Rive. Translated from the French by Edward Romilly. London: Longmans.

VOL, LXIII. -NO. CCCLXXVII,

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