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He requires a vol"untary service. I could not treat a dog' ill. Excess" of ceremony shows want of breeding. There is" a world where no storms intrude: sin is not there". A bro'ken and a contrite” heart, O God, thou wilt not despise". Enter not into judg"ment with thy servant, O Lord. Virtue has a celestial origin. They that are whole" need not a physician. God is able of these stones' to raise children unto Abraham.

Those governments, which curb" not evils, cause";

And a rich" knave's a libel on our laws. 141. In a very important clause, the primary accent may be laid on each of the principal words (staccato).

Heaven" and' earth" will" wit"ness,

If" Rome" must" fall", that we" are' in"nocent. 142. Words that are absolute in their signification, should be distinguished by the primary accent and a long pause.

Guilt" is the source of sorrow. He who has not virtue is not truly wise. New"ton was a Christian. . Good"-name”, in man or woman, is the immediate jewel of our souls. Neces"sity is a principal virtue. O, be joyful in the Lord", all yo lands. Let us beseech Him to grant us" true repentance.

143. The higher the pitch of accented words, the greater is the degree of earnestness expressed.

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INFLEXION. 144. Inflexions are tones of speech proceeding by slides from one note to another: they are distinguished from tones of song, which leap from note to note, and dwell on each for some perceptible time. Melody in song arises from sound, and is regulated by it ; in speech, it should be regulated principally by sense.

145. All notes of speech are either Continuative (Monotone), Acute, or Grave, or a combination of these qualities. When the tone is unvaried, it is called Continuative, or Monotone ( when it slides upward, it is called a Rising Inflexion ('); when downward, a Falling Inflexion aj.

146. The Rising Inflexion denotes, primarily, suspension, doubt, uncertainty, or incompletion of sense; the Falling Indexion, conviction, or completion of sense.

147. In the intelligible expression of words, it is found that certain degrees of sense are best expressed by proportionate degrees of inflexion. To attain variety in practice, each class may be considered to consist of three degrees; but many more are observable in a welldisciplined voice.

148. The First Degree of the Rising Inflexion () is a slight upward turn given to the voice on the accented syllable of the oratorical word. It does not exceed a third of the musical scale; but most fre. quently is confined to one, seldom extending to two notes. In the Exercises, this mark () is principally employed, not for Sentential, but for Modulative Inflexions.

149. The Second Degree of the Rising Inflexion (") is a still higher note, varying from a third to a fifth of the musical scale. Its principal use is to mark suspension, or continuance, of meaning. When employed at the termination of a sentence, it conveys doubt, or appeal to the judgment of the auditor. It is also heard in emphatic speech, and in all cases where the first degree must be followed by an increase of the same inflexion. It naturally denotes the tone peculiar to surprise, love, admiration, &c. When raised only to the musical degree of a minor third, it is expressive of pain, grief, melancholy, &c.

150. The Third Degree of the Rising Inflexion ("') varies from the fifth to an octave. Its use is very rare, and it is only employed to mark the extremes of either of the feelings expressed by the inferior degrees.

151. The First Degree of the Falling Inflexion () is a very slight downward turn given to the voice, denoting conclusion or completion in unemphatic speech. (In the Exercises, it is chiefly employed to mark the preparatory Modulative slide.)

152. The Second Degree of the Falling Inflexion () has the same effect as the first degree in emphatic speech. In formation, it is nearly the same; but it is more distinct, the inflected syllable more thrown out, as it were, from the mouth. When used on a sentence which grammatically conveys imperfect sense, it avoids the suspensive meaning by noting conviction. In incomplete sense, it is used to mark emphasis, &c.

153. The Third Degree of the Falling Inflexion ("") is merely an increase of the second, and is in its nature wholly emphatic. In tone it is higher than the second degree.

154. It must be observed that Falling Inflexions do not sink below the level of the voice, but are always struck above it, and then terminate on the level. But, in emphatic suspension of meaning, the Falling Inflexions are kept above the general level.–Section 168.

155. When the Rising and Falling Inflexions are united, a Circumflex is formed. There are primarily two Circumflexes—the Rising and the Falling

156. The Rising Circumflex () begins with the Falling and ends with the Rising Inflexion; it seems to slur these notes, and to turn the voice upwards. On the low tones of the voice, it gives peculiar expression to words, and, when slightly prolonged, is suggestive of irony; on the higher notes it marks extreme surprise, admiration, &c. Sometimes, in intense irony, the Rising Circumflex combines three distinct notes, thus (~).

157. The Falling Circumflex ) begins with the Rising, and ends with the Falling Inflexion, and turns the voice downwards. It gives peculiar emphasis to words; and, when prolonged, is expressive of contemptuous irony, derision, reproach. Its extreme form consists of three distinct notes (“).

158. The Circumflexes increase the pitch and power of ordinary Inflexions, and may be considered as their emphatic forms. Their employment, dependent wholly on energy and expression, must be left to the taste of the reader.

159. Falling Inflexions give power and emphasis to words; Rising Inflexions give beauty and variety. Rising Inflexions may also be


emphatic, but their effect is not so great as that of Falling Inflexions.

160. Emphasis and Emotion overbear all minor inflexions; so that an earnest and impassioned speaker will not give the same accentuation to a passage as one who is correct but lifeless. It is impossible to lay down any system that shall note all the modifications of tone and tune, unless we could consider the emotion or energy that may be expressed ; but, even in the most impassioned delivery, there are general significant inflexions employed on the important oratorical words, which regulate the utterance of the minor groups.

161. The popular direction, to " drop the voice at the end of a sentence,” is not only contrary to sense, but destructive of effect. The last words are always as important as the first, and they should be, at least, as audible. The injudicious reader makes his falling inflexion consist of a sudden dropping of the voice below its general level; but propriety and audibility require that the downward slide should be made from a higher and louder key to the level of the general key.-Section 154.

162. The unskilful reader allows the voice to fall, not on the key, but below it; as in the following sentence:

praise in his business,



Does he deserve Tone.

blame in his business :

But the reader who aims at audibility slightly raises his tone above the key, and then slides downward on it: thus

BLAME in his business?


Does he deserve

PRAISE in his business,

163. The primarily accented syllable should commence the inflexion, which should be continued on all the syllables that compose the oratorical word; for, words or syllables belonging to the same group and following the primary accent, are enclitic in their nature, and should be continued on the same inflexion, but in a feebler degree.See Table of Inflexions, 177.

164. All accented syllables are slightly raised above the level of unaccented syllables.


good man


Love your.

The end of the

165. Emphasis, in general, requires a higher key, e.g.:



I tell you though you, though all the though an angel from should declare the truth of it, I would not believe it.-See also 154.

166. A great degree of earnestness may be given to accented and emphatic words by heightening their pitch.

167. To prevent any vocal angularity, a slight opposite inflexion should be used on the accented syllable preceding the principal inflexion, that the voice may easily rise or fall.–See MODULATIVE INFLEXIONS.

168. There should be a marked distinction between the Falling Inflexion in the middle and at the close of a sentence. The former is made on a higher note (commencing above the general level), with increased force and intensity.-Section 165.

169. The degree of inflexion must be corresp ent to the force of the tone.

170. Although, in animated speech, every oratorical word has its distinctive inflexion, only that one which is principal will be marked; and then only if it is required to illustrate the particular rule or observation. But, as a general principle, it may be stated, that words not inflected are to be read in the Continuative Tone.

171. Inflexions are of two kinds, DETERMINATE and MODULATIVE. The Determinate Inflexions are those which, depending on the construction of the sentence, are regulated by the sense to be conveyed : these should generally be the same among all readers who express the same degree of meaning. The Modulative Inflexions are not determined by sense so much as by taste; they are used to prepare for those which are Determinate, and to introduce melody and variety : these will not necessarily be used in the same manner by all readers, or even by the same reader at different times.

172. All sentences may convey meaning in two ways—either in a Direct, or in an Oblique form.

173. In the DIRECT form, the words have no further signification than what they grammatically express. This form occurs in every sentence which conveys a simple statement without reference to any other statement, either expressed or understood. In this form the ordinary determinate inflexions are sufficient.

174. In the OBLIQUE form, the words have a further signification than the mere grammatical meaning conveys; a signification which may relate either to an opposite meaning, or to a greater degree of the same meaning. All oblique sentences are most effectively read with an emphatic circumflexed inflexion.

CONTINUATIVE TONE.* 175. The Continuative Tone is formed by avoiding any marked inflexion. It is used in the unemphatic pronunciation of the minor words in a sentence; in pronouncing those passages that are of little importance to the meaning, or those with which the auditor may be supposed to be pre-acquainted. As we perceive the shadow to have" moved

along the di"al, būt did not perceive" it mo"ving; and it appears that the

* Although it is impossible to utter any series of words without inflexion, yet it is thought best to mark the groups of Continuative Tone with ne inflexion ; because the natural variety of accent, and its necessary inflexion, will generally be sufficient. Continuative tone may therefore be considered as possessed of inflexion, but subdued and dependent on accentuation : and determinate inflexions may be left for the illustration of sense in its various proportions.—See Monotone for the difference between it and Continuative Tone.

grass has“ grown' though nobody ever saw" it grow': so the advances we make in knowl"edge, as they consist of such minute" steps', are on'ly perceiv"able by the dis'tance gone o'ver.

TABLES OF INFLEXIONS. The acute accents (") denote the rising inflexion; the grave accents (") the falling inflexion. (The accented words in these tables require à marked and distinctive pronunciation.) 176. The rising followed by the falling. The falling followed by the rising. Did he say ho'ly, or wholly? He said holy, not whol'ly. Did he say i'dle, or i'dol ? He said i'dle, not i'dol. Did he say jes'ter, or ges'ture? He said jes''ter, not gesture. Did he say axe", or acts"? He said axe", not acts". Did he say atten''dance, or at He said atten"dance, not attendants ?

ten''dants. Did he say rel'ic, or rel'ict ? He said rel^ic, not rel"ict. Did he

say fa"ther, or far ther? He said father, not far''ther. Did he say pull", or pool"? He said pull", not pool". 177. The inflexions followed by unaccented syllables, continuative of

the preceding inflexion. Did he say pres'ence of his friends, or pres'ents of his friends ? He said pres'ence of his friends, not pres''ents of his friends. Did he say the flour' was destroyed, or the flow''er was destroyed ? He said the flour" was destroyed, not the flow'er was destroyed

Was he rat''ional, or ir''rational in his speech ? He was rat''ional not ir' rational in his speech.

Did he say the prin'ciple had no existence, or the prin'cipal had no existence ?

He said the prin'ciple had no existence, not the prin'cipal had no existence ? Did he


the mare" was bought, or the may'or was bought? He said the mare" was bought, not the may'or was bought.

178. I.—The inflexion is marked on the accented syllable, and continued in any that may follow, in a feebler tone.

II.-Unimportant words preceding the inflexion are read in the Continuative tone.

III.--The principal word before the rising inflexion may have a modulative fall; before the falling inflexion a modulative rise.

IV.-The inflexions should be practised on all the musical inter vals. Those most frequently employed are, the second, in ordinary discourse; the third, in animated speech; the fifth, in emphatic delivery; and (sometimes) the octave, in passion. The minor thisze in either rise or fall is peculiarly expressive of melancholy.

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