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tinent the benign influence of civilization; principles, solicited him strongly to re-
and no one felt niore strongly than Wad- main some time. The great question of
itrom what a wide meaning of happiness the abolition of the Nave trade, was at
that word contains ! No one deplored that period brought forward in the British
more sincerely than himself, that huma- parliament, and Wadstrom obtained per-
nity has been so long insulted by partial mission from the king of Sweden to re-
civilization, and that even in those parts main in England during the important
of the globe where slavery does not exist, discussion. He was repeatedly examined
particular portions of society have made a at the bar of the House of Commons on
monopoly of knowledge, as if a certain this subject, and produced the journal he
degree of education were not the right of had kept of the transactions of every day,

during his ftay in Africa. His evidence
Wadstrom, in having powerfully con was considered as highly curious, useful,
tributed to the abolition of the slave trade, and interesting, and was often referred to
may be considered not merely as the bene. in the debates which took place on that
factor of the Africans, but has a claim to occasion. The opinions he delivered re-
the honors of more extensive benevolence; specting the abolition of the llave trade,
bnce the fystem of flavery is perhaps no and the etablishment of philanthropic
Tess fatal to the Europeans than to the colonies, gave rise to the foundation of
Africans. Where slavery prevails, all Sierra Leona, and Boulama, which may
the paffions rage with ungovernable justly be considered as monuments erected
violence; every generous sentiment is ob- in favour of humanity and liberty, by gene-
literated; corruption degrades, licentiouf- rous and enlightened friends of mankind.
ness debates, power hardens the mind, Wadstrom published seven years fince
and the dignity of human nature, violated in London, an octavo volume, containing
in the person of the flave, is avenged by much interesting information respecting
the consequent depravity of the master. his African expedition, and many im.
Even women in those regions, they, who portant observations colonization.
should feel pity an irresistible inftindt, they Buonaparte, when departing for Egypt,
who seem born to footh with sympathizing wished to obtain a copy of this work, and
tears every misery, and to plead with enquired of Wadstrom where it could be
mild accents for every fufferer, even they, purchased. On account of the difficulty
where slavery prevails, display the inon of communication between France and
strous contrait of weakness and ferocity; England, Wadstrom had. of late been
of voluptuous indolence, and active cru- unable to supply himself with any copies
elty; of a frame enervated by all the re- of this work, and had but one copy left
finements of luxury, and an heart steeled in his 'poffeffion, which he immediately
by familiarity with crimes. And their presented to the general.
children, on whose ductile minds those But while Wadstrom, the friend of hu-
leffons of mercy should be impressed, to man kind, continued to exert all the
which the uncorrupted heart beats respon- energies of his mind in the great cause of
five; who should be taught to lip the humanity, a mortal malady was under-
glowing tale of the oppreffor punished, and mining his constitution, and leading him
the good made happy, imbibe, from exam by gradual steps to the grave. The fa-
ple, all the caprices of cruelty, and be tigues of body, the anxieties of mind he
fore they can discern the distinctions of had suffered, together with the great tran-
vice and virtue, are cursed with the in- fitions of climate, had brought on a pul-
heritance of guilt:

monary consumption, of which, after a
If then we are grateful to the memory long ftruggle with the natural vigour of
of Wadstrom for his efforts to confer hap- his frame : he died on the fifteenth of
piness on the Africans, we ought also to Germinal, 7th year.
remember with gratitude that he has ref Wadstrom felt what the English poet
cued the colonists frım misery; for surely calls
miserable amidit all that fortune can be " The ruling paflion strong in death;"
trow, is he, who is condemned to look the triumphs of the French Republic were
back on the record of life without finding to him a continual fource of enjoyment,
the sweet memorial of one generous action, because he believed the liberty, and con-
cne wrong redressed, one tear shed with- fequently the happiness of the world de-
out witness, for the unhappy!

pended on its success. A friend, who
On his return from Africa, Wadstrom visited him in his last hours, endeavoured
visited England, wiiere those persons who to cheer his mind with those confolations
were acquainted with his philanthropic which he thought most congenial to his


7th year.

Life of Saussure the Naturalist.

465 religious opinions; Wadstrom heard him further excited to study the vegetable kingin filence ; his head sunk on his breast, dom in consequence of his connection with Č. and his eyes were almost closed; but when Bonnet, who married his aunt, and who roon his friend, changing the theme, related discovered the dawning talents of his nephew. to him the triumphs of the French armies Bonnet was then engaged in examining the on the opening of the campaign, Wad- leaves of plants ; Sauflure also turned his atftrom raised himself on his bed, his coun- lished the result of his izbours under the title

tention to these vegetable organs, and pubtenance became irradiated, and a gleam of Observations sur l'ecorce des feuilles–Observa. of pleasure lighted up his eye

; he desired tions on the skin of leaves. to hear again the tale of Maslena's victo This little book, which appeared about the ries; and when his friend added that news year 1760, contained a number of new obferof further victories was expected in three vations relative to the epidermis of leaves, days, he exclaimed, with a feeling of re and the miliary glands with which it is cogret, “ Alas! that I have not three days vered * to live !"

At this time, the professorship of philosophy Swift, after having written that cele- at Geneva became vacant, and Saussure, who brated fatire on human nature, entitled

was then only twenty-one, obtained the chair. Gulliver's Travels,” exclaimed, while Experience, in this instance, proved that if meditating on the rare virtues of his friend of men who labour only for themselves, they

early rewards generally extinguish the ardour Arbuthnot, “Oh, were there ten Ar- ferve on the contrary to animate the zeal of buthnots in the world, I would burn my those who make truth the object of their purbook!"-It is difficult to contemplate the suit. In Geneva the two professors of philocharacter of Wadstrom without a similar fophy taught alternately physics and logic, sentiment ; without feeling that, were and Saussure acquitted himself in this double there many Wadstroms in the world, we talk with equal success. He even gave to · Thould learn to think better of mankind. the teaching of logic, what may be called a HELEN MARIA WILLIAMS, practical or experimental turn.

His course, Paris, 20th Germinal,

which commenced with the study of the senses, in order to arrive at the general laws of the understanding, at once announced an

able observer of nature. LIFE OF SAUSSURE THE NATURALIST. whicli he was fondeft ; it conducted him to

Experimental philofophy was the branch of HORACE-Benedi&t De Saussure was born at the Audy of chymiftry and mineralogy. It

Geneva in the year 1740. His father, an was then that he recommenced his journies enlightened agriculturist, to whom we are among the mountains, not in quest of herbs, indebted for some essays on rural economy, but to examine the substances of which the resided at Couches, on the banks of the Arve, elevated ridges of our globe are composed. about half a league from Geneva.

Geology, a science which then scarcely exA country life, joined to an active education, ifted, gave a charm to his frequent wanderings tended no doubt to develope in Saussure that among the Alps. There the talents of this physical strength which is so effential to the great naturalist were fully developed. During naturalist, who wishes to extend his know- the fifteen or twenty years of his professorship, ledge by travelling. He walked every day he was alternately employed in fulfilling the to the town in order to go to school ; and as duties which his situation imposed, and in he lived at the foot of the Saleve, that moun- traversing the different mountains in the neightain which he has since rendered so famous, bourhood of Geneva. He even extended his climbing the rugged road was nothing but excursions on one side to the Rliine, and on sport to him. Born, as it were, in the midst the other to Piedmont. About this time, of the phænomena of nature, he had every too, he travelled to Auvergne, for the purpose opportunity for study, and thus avoided all of examining some extinguished volcanos ; and the inconveniences in the situation of those soon after he undertook a tour to Paris, Hol. philosophers who form theories without leav- land, and England. Afterwards he went to ing their closets, or those cultivators who, Italy, and crossed over to Sicily. These jourthough always familiar with nature, are in- nies were not commenced for the purpose of capable of admiring her beauties.

hastening forward to a particular place: his Botany was his first study. A diversified object was conftantly the study of nature. He soil, fertile in a variety of plants, invites the always carried with him the instruments neinhabitant of the banks of the Lemanian lake cessary for his observations, and never set out to cultivate that delightful science. This without having formed for himself a regular taste brought about an acquaintance between plan of experiments. He often remarks in Saussure and Haller. He visited that great his works, that this method was highly usenaturalift in 1764, during his retreat at Bex, ful to him in the progress of his studies. and in his travels he expresses his admiration of that astonishing man, who excelled in all * He had resumed the study of this subject the branches of natural science. Saussure was about eighteen months before his death. MONTHLY MAG. No, XLVI,



In 1779, he published the first volume of But public education did not alone occupy his " Travels in the Alps." It contains a the attention of Saussure. He employed himdetailed description of the environs of Geneva, self in educating his two sons and his daughand an account of an excursion as far as Cha- ter, who soon proved themfelves worthy of mouni, a village at the foot of Mont-Blanc. such an instructor. His daughter joins to all All naturalists have read with pleasure the the accomplishments of her sex, an extenfive description he has given, in this volume; of knowledge in natural science; and his eldest his Magnetometre. The more he examined fon has already distinguished himself by his the mountains, the more he felt the import- chemical and philosophical experiments. ance of Mineralogy : to enable him to study The second volume of the Travels of Saufthis branch of science with still greater advan- sure was published in 1786 : it contains a detage, he learnt the German language. The scription of the Alps which surround Mont new mineralogical knowledge which he ac Blanc. The author examines them alternatequired, may be easily seen by comparing the ly as a mineralogist, a geologist, and a philolatter volume of his travels with the first. sopher. In this volume he has given some

In the midst of hiş numerous excursions in interesting experiments in electricity, and a the Alps, and even during the time of the description of his electrometre, which is the troubled politics of Geneva, in 1782, he most perfect yet known. We are indebted to found opportunities to make his fine Hygro. him for several other metrical instruments, metrical experiments, the result of which he such as his cyanometre, destined for measurpublished in 1783, under the title of " Erlays ing the intensity of the blue colour of the on Hygrometry,” This work, the best that sky, which varies according to the elevation ever came from his pen, seated his reputation of the observer; his diaphanometre for meaas a Naturalist. Wc are indebted to him for furing the transparency of the air ; and his the invention of the Hygrometre.

Deluc had anemometre, with which, by the means of a already invented his whalebone Hygrometre, kind of balance, he weighed the force of the and a contest arose between him and Saulture, wind, which degenerated into a very obstinate Some years after the publication of this vodispute.

lume, Saussure was received as a foreign afIn 1786, Saussure gave up his profeffor-sociate in the academy of sciences at Paris ; Tip, the duties of which he had discharged hut our author not only honoured his country, for about 25 years. He resigned in fivour of he loved to serve it. He was the founder of his disciple, Pietet, who, with great honour the society of arts, to which Geneva is into himself, fulfilled the difficult task of suc debted for that high degree of prosperity Ler ceeding this great naturalist.

manufactures have reached within these 30 From Sauffure's situation as a professor, the years. He presided over this society until his state of public instruction naturally became an death, and one of his last wishes was for the object of his attention. He proposed a plan of preservation of this establishment. reform in the education of Geneva, the chief He also testified his zeal for his country in design of which was to obtain regulations for the council of two hundred, of which he be. teaching the natural scierces and mathema came a member after the diffolution of the tics to the youth of that city at an early age. national Assembly. After having undergone He was even desirous that their physical edu- much fatigue in this assembly, his health becation, if I may use that expression, should gan to be deranged, and in 1794, a paralytic not be neglected; and therefore propnsed the stroke deprived him of the use of almost the establishment of gymnastic exercises. This whole of one side of his body; distressing, plan, as might be expected, occasioned much however, as his situation then was, his mind discussion in a town where every one feels the loft noïhing of its activity, and Gnce that ac. importance of education. It found many sup- cident he prepared for the press the two last poriers and many opposers.

volumes of his travels, which appeared in The mediocrity of pecuniary resources was, 1796. They contain an account of his excur. however, a great obstacle to any innovation fions in the niðụntains of Piedmont, Switzer. of importance. It was besides feired, that in land, and, in particular, his ascension to the changing the forms of instruction the substance summit of Mont Blanc. These two laft voniglit be lost, and that what was known to be lumes, far from exhibiting any symptom of good might be sacrificed in pursuit of some- his understanding having suffered from his thing better. The people of Geneva were disorder, present an enormous mass of new much attached to their system of education ; facts and important philosophical observations. and for this predilection they cannot be He performed a last service to 'science by blamed, since it has not only diffuled know publishing the Agenda, which terminates his ledge very generally among them, but has fourth volume. In that work this great man, produced many diftinguished mathematicians* surviving himself, conducts the young natuand naturalifts.

ralist by the hand through mountains, and * Abauzit, Cramer, Lhuilier, J. Trembly,

teaches him how to observe them with ad. &c.

vantage. Thiş Agenda is a proof of the ge. † Jalabert, A. Trembly, Bonnet, Lesage,

nius of our author, and of the mental vigour Deluc, Senebier, Prevot, Pielet, Saussure him

which he preserved during the decline of his felf, &c.

health. During his fickness, he also published,


1799.] Original Anecdotes of the French Revolution. 467 “ Observations on the Fusibility of Stones by the ceiving that the clouds of proscription Blow Pipe,” and directed some experiments were gathering over the heads of all the for afcertaining the height of the bed of the members of that great body, which was Arve. I

not free from reproach, conceived a proHaving gone to Plombiers to use the baths ject fo extraordinary, that it stands alone of that place for the benefit of his health, he in the whole history of revolutionary promade observations on the mountains which he faw at a distance, and caused specimens of the ceedings. Itrata which he pointed out to be brought to

He determined to go and take refuge in him. He had announced that he would ter- Paris, in a street near the Palais Royal; minate his travels by giving his ideas relative that quarter of the town, though one of to the primitive state of the earth. But the the most fufpicious, appearing to him one more he meditated upon that subject, the more of the least dangerous for suspected perdifficult he found it to form an opinion on those fons; but at the same time in order to turn great revolutions which have happened to the afide fufpicion, he resolved to make it apglobe. In general he was a Neptunian, that pear that he had emigrated, and was resiis to say, he attributed the changes the earth dent at London. For this purpose, he bas undergone to the operation of water. He

contrived to get letters sent from England allo admitted the pollibility, that elastic fluids,

to his relations domiciliated at Paris. in disengaging themselves from subterraneous

They were written entirely in his own cavities, might have raised mountains.

His health gradually declined; but he still hand, and contained an account of his preserved the hope of re-establishing it. The mode of life in London, and of his conFrench government had named him profeflor nexions with other emigrants; and entered of experimental philosophy in the central into such minute and circumstantial de. school of Paris, and he did not despair of being tails, that they carried with them every able to fulfil the duties of that honourable appearance of truth and authority. fituation. His strength, however, was daily These letters were intercepted at Paris, exhausted, and a general torpor succeeded to where they remained in the office of the the vigour which he had always enjoyed general police. His now and embarrassed pronunciation did not

After the fall of Roberfpierre, Reflegcorrespond to the vivacity of his mind, and nier solicited his erasure froin the list of formed a strange contrast with the graceful animation by which he was formerly distin- emigrants; and in support of his request, guilhed. It was a painful fpectacle to see a presented a certificate of uninterrupted great man thus fallen, at the age when me

residence in France, figned by eight witditation bears its richest fruits, and when he' nesses. Those witnesses were taken into would have enjoyed the glory of his labours. custody, as guilty of attesting a falsehood;

All the remedies which medicine, enlight- and the whole affair was submitted to a jury cned by philosophy, could afford, were resorted of accusation. The original letters written to for his recovery, but in vain-every endea- from London by Reffegnier were produced, vour was fruitless. Strength and life forsook particularly one of them dated a few days him by now and painful steps. Towards the prior to the September massacres, and the end of the sixth year, his decay, he became other at the beginning of the month of more sensible, and on the 3d Pluviose, of the December following. The post-inark on 17th year, in the 59th year of his age, he ter

the outside, and the details they contained, minated his brilliant career, mourned by a family who loved him, by a country that ho. bore witness to their authenticity. noured him, and by Europe, whose knowledge

On the other hand, several witnesses aphe had extend:d.

peared, among whom were the tenant of

the house, at which Refregnier had taken REVOLUTIONARY ANECDOTES. refuge, and a notary public of Vincennes, Interesting and Original Anecdotes of the to whom the suppored emigrant had dic

French Revolution ; to be continued in a tated his last will and testament, on the regular series from its commencement to very day on which his first letter was the present period, and including its secret written. This will was signed by the bistory.

testator, and was defective in none of the THE FALSE EMIGRANT.

customary for ns of law. In order to leave IT is sometimes prudent for a man to

no doubt of his residence at Paris, he had refacrifice his fortune in order to pre- paired on the day on which his second letter serve his life. Reslegnier, advocate gene

was dated, to the house of the fame notary ral in the parliament of Thoulouse, per- at Vincennes, and had added a codicil by

which he bequeathed an annuity to an old | These papers were interted in the "s Four- domestic. nal de Pbylique,

Independently of these proofs, which




ascertained his non-emigration in the most ing himself in an unfavourable polition, convincing manner, Resleynier gave an confulted him concerning the steps it would account of the manner in which he had be adviseable for him to take. DUMOUlived at Paris from day to day, of the RIER contentented himself with returning name he had assumed, of the dress he had this verbal antwer : Do whatever you think worn, of the connexions lie had formed, proper. and of the distress he had undergone. The DUMOURIER was

at once, foldier, jury declared that there were no grounds general, commissary, and above all despot of accusation against the witnesses, and in his army. If a general does not do Ressegnier was erased from the list of emi- every thing," he used to say, - he does grants.

nothing." This principle is in general

true ; and has been justified by the suc. CAUSE OF DUMOURIER's cesses of the French armies in Italy; but

then it requires generals less ready than Every one is agreed as to Dumou. stances, with the foreign enemy, and with

DUMOURIER to capitulate with circumRIER's treachery, but not as to the

that enemy which a man sometimes carries date of it: soine carry it as far back as

in his own bofoin. the convention he entered into with the King of Prussia, in the plains of Champaign ; others think that it did not begin D'ESTAING AND PEYROUSE. till the time of his defeat at Nerwinde, a AMONG the victims facrificed to Rodefeat generally disputed, and denied even berfpierre, blind jealousy and insatiable by the German public papers, which fury, was d'Estaing, who fo often comaffirm, that on that day not a foot of manded the French fleets and armies, ground was lost on either side.

and bled more than once in the service There exists a third opinion less widely of his country. Bold, active, and enterdiffused but far more probable. It is prizing, his name was equally famous in that of two general officers who had fre. the two Indies, and in two successive quent opportunities' of teeing Dumou. wars. RIER, and carefully studied his conduct.

D'Estaing was born of poor parents in a When the commander in chief arrived at village of the department of Aveyron, that Brussels, there was not fufficient cash in bears his name. According to fome, he the military chest to pay the troops their was at an early age bound apprentice to a fublistence; nothing remaining but the locklinith, which others with a greater fum allowed him as secret service money. appearance of probability say that he was He communicated his embarrassment to bred to the sea. The father lived entirely Malus, and Efpagnac :

6 Do not be un unknowo to the court, and had no means easy,” said the latter; "only give me of existence but the produce of a few acres half an hour, and you shall have a lup of land, which corresponded ill with the ply.” He went out, and half an hour grandeur of a fortified castle, whose archiafter returned with a hundred thousand tecture bespoke the high fortunes of its

former inhabitants. It appears that this, Shortly after, Malus and Efpagnac man, as careless as the greater part of the were taken into custody. This arbitrary ci-devant country gentlemen, did not know act, upon which he had not been con- whether he was descended or not of the sulted, 'added to his personal resentment great family of the d'Estaings. He was against Pache, the minister of war, who contented to vegetate in poverty, and his counteracted, he said, all his operations, son was the victim of his apathy, till in and to the attacks made upon him by the one of the cellars of the Château, a strong Jacobins after the schism took place be- hox was discovered full of old parchments, tween the mountaineers and girondists, de- which had suffered no injury from time, termined him to act the complete traitor ; and which, by ascertaining the origin of and to give up his army and all France to the young failor, procured him his prothe coalesced powers, rather than to con- motion to a rank worthy of his birth. quer for the Jacobins. From that mo- Coloinb, the physician, was present at ment he gave no more orders signed by his the opening of the box, and it is on this own hand, an adjutant general sent them authority that this anecdore is given. in his name without adding, according to D'Estaing having once broken his customary form, the words a true copy. parole, and once exchanged bimself on his One of the two general officers, by whom own authority, while in India, during shele particulars are conimunicated, find- the war that began in 1756, was particu



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