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What was the issue !
How much money had the Com. How did they notice this bless pany expended upon the colony? ing?
How many persons had been When commenced the settlement sent over ? of N. H.?
How many survived in 1624 ? From what country, were the first Successor of James I. ? settlers ?
In what year? 1625. At the mouth of what river, did Condition of the colony under they commence a settlement ? Charles I.? It suffered greatly: Oldest town in N. H. ?
From what cause From Which way is Dover from Ports severe and arbitrary restraints mouth ? - from York !
How long did the settlement of Dover commence, after that of Plymouth ? - of Jamestown ?
În what year, was the London company dissolved ? By what king?
CHAPTER XXV.- p. 46. Under what pretext ?
Who assumed the government Conspiracy of Lyford and Old. of the Va. colony, when the char ham. Magistrates of Plymouth, ter was taken away?
&c. Who appointed the governor ? In whom, was vested the power What distinguished character of government ?
joined the Plymotheans in 1624 ? | + NOTE L.
and tides and storms. Having reConspiracy of Lyford and Old joiced with them here for a mo
ment, we have found, that this was ham.
not their rest. We have seen them We have seen the little company enduring still greater hardships and of the Plymothean Pilgrims, in the exposures, and many of them sink. first place, determining to forsake ing to their eternal rest. We have all for Christ. We have seen them seen the emaciated survivors, conpersecuted, afflicted, distressed, tinued in the furnace of affliction, though not in despair. We have still trusting in God, patient in tribseen them quitting their dear-loved ulation, rejoicing in hope. We homes and country, and flying to a have seen them increased by small neighboring community, that kind accessions of their friends, exposed ly opened her arms, to receive them. to death from the vengeance of sur. We have seen these devoted Pil-rounding natives, who had plotted grims determining to seek a refuge to shed their blood. From this in the new world, and then com horrid conspiracy, we have seen mitting themselves to the mercy of them delivered by the wonderthe winds and waves, under the working providence of God, through guidance of their Almighty Friend. the instrumentality of the faithful With trembling solicitude, we have Massasoit, and the desperate valor followed them across the mountain of Standish and his little army. waves of the angry deep, while Let us now behold them under a there often seemed but a step be trial much more unexpected, and tween them and death. We have perhaps scarcely less excruciating, had the satisfaction to view them ihan any of the preceding. This safely anchored in their desired was occasioned by a conspiracy, haven, secure from rocks and shoals formed among themselves, for the
In what employment, had Ly. With whom, did Lyford soon beford been engaged ?
come intimately acquainted ? In what manner, did he salute What spirit did they soon manithe Plymotheans ?
fest? How did they receive him? With what, was it suspected,
What special mark of respect that Lyford's letters to England lid Bradford show him ?
were fraught ? What special privilege did he Who ascertained this point ? desire ?
purpose of overturning at once, ance with Mr. John Oldham. They iheir infant church and state. soon became intimate, and mani
Early in the spring of 1624, came fested a spirit of perverseness and over Mr. John Lyford, sent by some malignity. They spared no pains, of the adventurers in England. He to draw as many as possible, into had been a preacher. When he their faction. However vile and came ashore, he saluted the Ply, profane, they were received by motheans with the greatest ap- these conspirators, and encouraged parent reverence and humility. in their wickedness, especially in “And indeed,” says Morton, “ he speaking evil of the church. "Primade them ashamed, he so bowed vate meetings and whisperings and cringed unto them, and would were multiplied, while they were have kissed their hands, if they feasting their imaginations in antiwould have suffered him. Yea, he cipation of the great things, which wept, and shed many tears, blessing they hoped to accomplish. NotGod, that had brought him to see withstanding all their efforts to pretheir faces, and admiring the things serve a fair appearance, their works they had done in their wants, as if of darkness could not wholly elude he had been made all of love, and the vigilance of Bradford and the humblest person in the world." others. They received him with the utmost At length, the ship, which brought kiadness, and gave him the best Lyford, was about io return to Engentertainment, their poverty could land. It had been observed, that afford. Indeed the great Bradford for some time, he had been much himself was so pleased with his ap- engaged in writing letters ; and it parent piety, affection and intelli. was suspected, that they were deepgence, that in difficult cases, hely fraught with evil. The
governwould often consult Lyford, as or and some of his friends fearing, though he had been another Brew that Lyford's letters might have a
pernicious influence in England, At length, he expressed a desire thought their duty to make dilito become a member of their church. gent search, to ascertain their conHe made a copious confession of tents. They accordingly went to his faith or religious opinions; and the ship, that lay at some distance, added an acknowledgment of his and called for all the letters, that former corruptions and vices, with had been sent there by Lyford and which, he professed, that his con Oldham. It happened very fortuscience had been greatly burdened, nately, that Mr. Pierce, the Cape. He was accordingly received; and of the vessel, was friendly to Bradso far from making any objection, ford, and willing to afford him it is probable, that the church re every possible aid in detecting and joiced in the acquisition of such a exposing the strange machinations brother.
of these two men. He accordingly Ere long, he formed an acquaint- | produced all their letters, entrusted
With what, were Lyford's letters ford sent a messenger to quell the filled ?
tumult ? Why did Bradford say nothing What punishment was then inof Lyford's letters, for some weeks? flicted upon Oldham ?
What officer did Oldham abuse Who soon held a separate meetwith most opprobrious language ? ing on the Sabbath ? What duty had Standish required
Who were assembled, when a him to perform?
court was formed, to try the disor: Conduct of Oldham, when Brad- ganizers ? to his care. Twenty were found As it was judged necessary to from the pen of Lyford; many of keep a guard, to prevent being surthem long, and most copiously re- prised by hostile Indians, Oldham plenished with slanders and railing was called upon by Capt. Standish, accusations against the Plymothe to take his turn in the performance ans, tending to the injury and ruin of that duty. But Oldham refused of their colony. Of most of these, to obey the Captain's order, called they took copies, and sent the orig- him rascal, and beggarly rascal, inals to England. Of some of the and drew his knife at him, though worst, they kept the originals, and Standish offered him not the least sent copies to England. These violence, nor gave him one unpleasoriginals they kept, to witness ant word. Gov. Bradford hearing against him, and to prevent the the tumult, sent a messenger to possibility of his denying them to quell it. But Oldham, becoming be his.
still more outrageous, ranted with The conspirators, suspecting great fury, and called them all what was the governor's errand traitors. Upon this, he was appreto the ship, appeared somewhat hended, and committed to prison. abashed, when he returned. But Appearing much moderated by the the discoveries being kept a pro infliction of a small punishment, he found secret, in a few weeks, they was released upon trial. appeared as brisk and cheerful as Shortly after, Lyford and his ever, and proceeded to the comple- accomplices, without the least intition of their nefarious arrange mation to the Gov. the elder or the ments. The design of this silence church, withdrew themselves, and was to discover their accomplices. held a separate meeting on the SabThat they had accomplices, was bath, with many manifestations of loo evident already. For besides an insolent and factious disposition. the letters of Lyford and Oldham, It was thought high time to call they found one from another hand, these disorganizers to account. A stating, that these men intended to court being formed, and the whole have a reformation in church and company assembléd, Lyford and commonwealth, and that as soon Oldham were called to the bar of as the ship was gone, they intended justice. They were accused of 10 join together, and have the sac- plotting against the colony, and rament separately. Oldham's let- disturbing the peace of both church ters showed him to be as deep in and state. These charges, drawn the plot as Lyford.
out in many particulars, they alAi length, the conspirators be- most totally denied, and boldly degan more openly to attempt the manded proof. Lyford pretended execution of their wicked designs. to regard many allegations with They manifested a disposition to astonishment. His letters were find fault and contend with one and then produced; and he was in. another for the merest trifle. stantly struck dumb. Not so with
, at ed, to try the i
him one un
e at him, the show your courage. derated by risy, treachery and ingratitude, as the least i covered a little courage, and atmselves a said, that several persons had made es, draw reprobate; his sins were so great,
Of what, were Lyford and Old To what, did he then call his essenger to a bam accused ?
partizans ? How did they treat these char How did his partizans appear ? chment was
With what, were Lyford's conIdham!
What evidence was then pro- federates filled, when his conduct eld a separate duced against Lyford ?
was more particularly exposed ? How was Lyford affected? How did Lyford attempt to palHow was Oldham affected ? liate his crimes ?
Of what, did he complain? Why did he not succeed in this ? Oldham. He broke out in rage he had written against them, was
and fury, bitterly complaining, false and naught, both for matter - prevent bere that their letters were intercepted and manner; and all this he did Indians. Nor did he stop here. Then, and with as much fulness, as words and by Cap.So there it was, that he erected the tears could express.” n the perform standard of open. mutiny, and Thus convicted and condemned,
Oldham me called his partizans to immediate Lyford and Oldham were ain's order to rebellion. "My masters,” said he, tenced to banishment; Oldham, to "where are your hearts ? Now depart immediately, and Lyford,
You have after six months. They had some im not the often complained to me. Now is hope that Lyford's repentance
was the time, if you will do any thing. sincere, and that his conduct would
will stand by you," &c. &c. But be such, as to render it consistent none of his party dared to speak, or to remit his punishment. Accordto move, in opposition to authority. ingly, the one departed, and the
The Gov. then turned to Lyford, other remained. exhibited his letters, caused them Lyford acknowledged, that his to be openly read, and made such censure was far less, than he dea striking exhibition of his hypoc served, and afterwards confessed
his sin to the church with more fulfilled all his confederates with ness and more weeping than before. shame and confusion.
He confessed, thai if God should After a while, poor Lyford re make him a vagabond in the earth,
like Cain, it would be just. He
cited him to these works of inion these complaints to him, and stated para quity, pride, vain-glory and self
love. to plunge him deeper in the mire. Some were so affected with the The persons being all present, de appearance of his deep sorrow and nied every word.
repentance, that they were willing They then proceeded to deal with to fall on their knees, and beg for him more particularly respecting his restoration. his dissimulation in the church, &c. About two months after, he wrote
“In conclusion, he was fully a letter to the adventurers in Engconvicted, and burst out into tears, land. The person, to whom the and confessed, he feared he was a letter was entrusted, delivered it to
Gov. Bradford. What must have that he doubted, that God would been the grief, as well as amazenot pardon them; he was unsayo ment of that good man, when he ry salt, &c. and that he had so saw its contents. After all Lywronged them, as he could never ford's convictions, confessions and make them amends; confessed all / public acknowledgments in the
alled their , he was of tted to pre
punishmes, jal. ford and
festation s disposa
time to ccount
ihe bar ccused long, oth chess
oldid Tetent ons /
How did he manifest his sorrow, What did Lyford acknowledge when he was fully convicted ? respecting his sentence ? What did he confess
To whom, did he afterwards what he had written against the make more full confession ? people of Plymouth?
How soon after, did he justify What sentence was pronounced almost every slander, that he had against Lyford and Oldham ? confessed ?
Why did they give Lyford a res In what year, did Oldham return pite of six months ?
to Plymouth ? presence of God and his church spared. The vow thus made in the and the whole company, with so deep anguish of his soul, there is many tears and censures of him reason to hope, he was enabled, in self, he had now the hardiness and some measure, to keep. His conpresumption to justify almost all duct toward the good people of ihings contained in his former let- Plymouth, was afterwards very ters, which he had acknowledged to
different. be such egregious lies and slanders. About ten years after, he was
Early the next year, 1625, Old murdered by the Indians, in his ham had the presumption to return own vessel, near Block' island. to Plymouth, contrary to his sen His death was one cause of the tence of expulsion. He now ap- Pequot war the next year. peared more outrageous than ever. When Lyford's six months were He called them all rebels and trai- expired, so far from reformation, he tors. His fury was soon moder- had doubled his crimes, and was ated, however, by imprisonment. only fit to be cast out, as unsavory Being taken out of prison, he was salt. It appeared upon farther in compelled to pass between a num- quiry, that he had been a profligate ber of soldiers, each of whom was character, and had caused many a ordered to give him a blow with the heart to bleed in Ireland and Engbut end of his musket. He was land. then conducted to the water-side, Banished from Plymouth, he and consigned to a boat, with this went to Nantasket, (now Hull near farewell, Go, and mend your man Boston) thence, to Salem; and
thence, to Virginia, where he died. About a year afterwards, he was The conduct of Lyford is suited exposed to imminent danger at sea, to teach us a most solemn and on the shoals of Cape Cod. At that awful lesson. We can hardly help awful extremity, fearing that every supposing, that he was in some hour would be his last, a sense of measure, insane. This is perhaps his guilt rushed upon him, like a always the case with those, who are giant. He trembled; he prayed; guilty of such horrible inconsistenihough perhaps he had never before cy. "But this insanity, no doubt, is so much as attempted to offer up a generally produced by the induldesire to God. To his companions gence of pride, passion, sensuality, in danger, he confessed, that he had | &c. By the excessive abuse of exceedingly injured the church and reason, the faculty is essentially people of Plymouth ; and that, as impaired. Let him, that thinketh he had sought their ruin, so God he'standeth, take heed, lest he fall. had now met with him, and might Let us beware of hypocrisy in our. destroy him. He prayed God to selves and others. forgive him ; and made a vow of But while we detest the hyporeformation, if his life should be crite, as the vilest of the vile, let