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entertaining anecdotes of the valour, exploits, and bons mots of the Knights of the Order in question.
VI. L'Esprit des Croisades, &c. i. e. The Spirit of the Croi. sades, or a Political and Military History of the Wars undertaken by the Christians for the Recovery of the Holy Land out of the Hands of Mahometanș, during the Eleventh, Twelfth, and Thirteenth Centuries. 8vo. Paris. 1780.a great deal of historical information in this work with respect to the details of a war, dictated by superstitious ferocity, absurd in its principles and yet, in the wisdom of Providence, the source of many advantages, which the bigotted combatants neither proposed by it, nor expected from it. The History of the Croisades, by F. Maimbourg, has got deep into the cell of oblivion; and the work before us will sink it still deeper, though the latter (whose Author seems to be both a philosopher and a critic) is rather defective in point of tyle. *VII. Introduction et Plan d'un Traité General de Navigation Interieure, &c. i. e. The Introduction and Plan of a General Treatise of Inland Navigation, more especially in France ; together with Confiderations on Forests, Woods, and other Objects susceptible of Improvement by the Means of new Communications. To thefe is fubjoined, a Treatise of Tolls and Turnpikes, in which, after a Demonstration of the Advantages that would result from their. Suppreffion, a Plan of Indemnification is proposed.: By M.:ALLEMAŅD, Ancient Keeper of the Foreits in the Isand of Corfica. 8vo. Paris. 1780. This useful and inftructive Work, notwithstanding its modest title, contains all the ideas and materials that might be expected in a complete and finished treatise. It is divided into three Sections. In the first we find an ample description of inland navigation; also an account of the works and projects relative to this object, which have been executed in ancient times, or are at present carried on in Europe, Aha, and other parts of the world. In the second fection, M. Allemand follows the inland navigation in France from province to province,.de scribes each river, canal, and aqueduct, and thews what has þeen done, and what is still to do, relative to this important object. This leads him to an ample field of discutljon and enquiry, in which the difficulties that may attend a circuitous navigation,' by canals of communication between the great rivers, are particularly considered, the methods of removing them proposed, 'the advantages that multe felult--from this navigation to the internal state and commerce of the different provinces, and to the commerce of the nation in general, clearly unfolded, the abufes practised on the rivers and canals, and the methods of remedying them accurately pointed out, and
a multitude of other questions examined, which are connected with this interesting subject. He observes, among other things, that the forests in France are capable of furnishing the Royal marine with a quantity of thip-timber and masts, that render the importation of this commodity unnecessary, and are equal in quality to that which is procured from the north at a great expence. He tells us also, that the Lariçcio pine, or larch of Corsica is of the same nature and utility with that which sis used in the Royal docks, and that the pretended difficultyoof transporting this timber is one of those pretexts by which private interest fo often defeats the plans that are formed for public good *. In the third section M. ALLEMAND lays down a plan of administration and conduct in this branch of political ceconomy, which he thinks-adapted to promote and secure the establishment of an inland and circulating navigation with all its advantages. To render more intelligible the operations proposed and recommended in this excellent and useful work, the Author has composed a general chart of the rivers and the internal circulating navigation of France, particular charts of each province, a great number of plates, representing Auices, flood-gates, aqueducts; dykes, and other instruments and works of an hydraulic nature, of which there are feveral that have been lately invented, and have met with the approbation of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris. The whole of this work is not yet published, but the remainder will soon appear; and as inland navigation is one of the moft important objects of political economy, as it promotes population, gives a vivifying spirit to agriculture, animates commerce, and is a natural and perpetual support to maritime navigation and foreign trade,
work of this kind must be well received in all countries. VIII. 'Avis aux citoyens sur les Causes, les divers Caractéres, et les vrais Remedes de l'Aveuglement, de la Şurdité, et des Principaux Accidens Veneriens, &c. i. c. Advice to the Public relative to the Caules, 'the various Characters and Symptoms, and the true Remedies of Blindness, Deafness, and the principal: Venereal Syniptoms. To which are added, important Observations concerning the Property, as yet little known, of cestain Meaos, equally speedy, simple, and effectual, of administering Sucedur in the following Cafés :" ift, In restoring to Life ftill-born Children, Persons drowned, and those who have been suffocated Þy the Vapours of Coal, Mephitic Exhalations, &c.—-2dly, In
Our Author, after comparing together the qualities of the Corfican Lariccio with the Northern, observes, that a larch of the largest lize, imporied from the North, costs the French 4000 livres (about 200 pounds), whereas the price of a Corsican larch of the fame di. mencions amounts only to 1500 livres (about 75 pounds).
curing the Dropsy, even in Cases the most seemingly desperate. --3dly, In assuaging the too violent Pains of Child-birth, rendering supportable Fits of the Gout, Cholic, and Rheumatism, calming the dreadful Pains of the Cancer, &c. By M. ANDREW, M. D. Professor of Physic and Surgery in the Univerfity of Montpellier. Paris. 1780.------The title of this small Work Thews sufficiently its contents, and the reputation of its Author is a presumptive argument in favour of its merit. There are some new discoveries in this publication which deserve the attention of practitioners; and remedies already known are applied by our Author to cases in which they have not been hitherto employed.
IX. Principes d'Hydraulique, &c. i. e. The Principles of Hydraulics : or a Treatise concerning the Motion of Water in Rivers, Canals, and Conduit-pipes--the Origin of Rivers, and the Formation of their Beds--the Effects of Sluices, Bridges, and Reservoirs-the Collifion of Water--and finally, concerning Navigation, both in Rivers and in narrow Canals. By the Chevalier BUAT, Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of the Royal and Military Order of St. Lewis, &c. 8vo. with Seven Plates. Paris. 1780. Price 6 livres (i. e. about 5 shillings).This is undoubtedly a masterly performance.
The Author indeed does not offer it to the public as a complete treatise of Hydraulics, but rather as an illuftration of such branches and parts of that science as are of general utility. The theory here laid down, and illustrated in the most interesting manner, is new in several respects, and the modesty of the Author is equal to his profound knowledge of the subject he treats.
x. Oeuvres de M. Bose d’Antic, &c. i. e. The Works of M. Bose D'ANTIC, M. D. King's Physician, Correspondent of the Royal Academy of Sciences, &c. 2 vols.
12mo. with Cuts. Paris. 1780.—This learned and ingenious physician (in the twofold sense of that word) is well known in the philofophical world, and the work before us will not diminith the reputation he has obtained by the perspicuity and precision of his reasoning, the analytical fpirit that accompanies his refearches, and the useful discoveries in which they have frequently terminated. The first volume of this work contains a Preliminary Dissertation on the useful Arts, followed by fix Memoirs. The first treats of the cause of the bubbles that are often found in glass :- these are produced, according to our Author, by falt of glass, vitriolated tartar, Glauber's falt, and marine falt. The second treats of the causes of the bubbles or cavities in metals cait, or in fufion; which proceed, as our Author has proved by a series of interesting experiments, from a vapour that is emitted (by the matter of which the mould and
the baron are composed) at the very inftant of the combustion occasioned by the metal in fusion. The subject of the third Memoir (which obtained the prize proposed by the Academy of Sciences at Paris in the year 1760) is the improvement of the Art of making Glass; in which we find an exact account of the state of that manufacture in Europe, of the furnaces and inftruments employed in it, of the true composition of earths, and of the materials that are the most vitrifiable; nor does our Author forget to pass in review the different arts that depend upon this one. The fourth piece contains notes on the
preceding Memoir, which are distributed into twenty chapters, and comprehend a multitude of objects relative to this curious and interesting art; such are, among others, its antiquity, its progress in England and France,--the nature of earths used in the construction of melting furnaces and crucibles,-the fusibility of the different kinds of sand, -the nature and origin of quartz, - the properties and sophistication of pot-ath, its decompofition by calcination and diffolution, the nature, properties, and dying quality of manganese,-a new theory of Prussian blue,—the nature of glass, and the vitrifying principle, &c. The fifth Memoir contains Observations on the Manufacture of Earthen-ware: In the fixth the Author exhibits an analysis of the Electrical Fluid, in order to discover its true nature and proves, by a great number of experiments, that the elettrical matter is nothing more than the colouring principle, or the phlogiston n.odified by the phosphoric acid.
The Second VOLUME contains Ten Differtations or Lete ters. The ist treats of the falfe emerald of Auvergne, in whick, our Author has discerned all the characters of a fusible spar; and proves, that these chryftallizations derive their phosphoric quality from the colouring principle (highly attenuated and volatile) with which they are tinged. This discovery shews the advantages that may be derived from substituting the fusible spar to calx in the composition of glass. The ad contains an Analysis of the hor Baths of Chaudes Aigues; the 3d, Observations on the Crucibles of Auvergne ; and the 4th, considerations on the art of affaying Mines by fire. The sth is a Letter concerning afphyxies, which our ingenious naturalist attributes to the stagnation of mephitic air in the lungs. He is one of the first who recommended the use of the spirit of sal volatile in these cases, without reprobating the application of other known remedies. He provés, in a curious note, that the volatile alcali neither acts as a neutralizer nor as a stimulant. The 6th and 7th are letteis of a medical nature, addressed to the authors of the Gazetie de la Santé. The 8th contains a critical examination of the experiments that have been made on selenitic and vitrecus spars; the gth, Obfervations on the manufacture and commerce of poralh; and the roth treats of the working of table glass in the manner practised in Bohemia. The rith Differtation contains Researches concerning the material cause of the plague and epidemical disorders, The 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th are thus intitled : Memoir concerning the Fire-Manufa£lures * in France, -à plain and easy Method of improving the Commerce of Bourdeaux, -Observations on the. Evaporation of Water thrown upon Glass in fusion, an Extract of the excellent Memoir of Mr. Bergman concerning Fixed Air,-the Art of curing Hernias. The 17th Memoir is a masterly piece on a subject almost new, and of the greatest consequence to the improvement both of the theory and practice of medicine : it treats of the different states of the acid in the animal economy. It appears from the disquiSitions of our Author on this curious subject, that one and the same acid in the folids and fluids of animals is found in the following different modifications, in the concrete state of the greatest fixation-in a glutinous state, and of the greatest fixa. tion--in a state of fusion or liquidity, and of a greater fixation than the water in which it is diffolved -in a state entirely fixed, though virtually elastic-in an actual Itate of elasticity, and an inflammable state. It is fingular, that all these different states should be modifications of the same acid, and that this acid fhould be none of the three mineral ones. The 18th Memoir. treats of the nature and cause of the different kinds of Glassgall, which is a sort of saline scụm of .mals found in glasshouse-pots upon the surface of the melted glass, and which the French call graisses de verre. Theigth and last piece in this second volume contains a plain method of classing the various kinds of iron, hitherto known, and also of judging of the purity and goodness of iron and steel by the touch alone.
XI. Metrologie, ou Traité des Mesures, Paids, et Monnoiesą des Anciens Peuples et des Modernes ; i. e. Metrology, or a
Treatise of the Measuręs, Weights, and Coins, of Ancient and Modern Nations, By M. PAUCTON. Paris. 1780. 962 pages in 4t9.This great Work, in which the most profound and extenfive erudition is employed upon a very important object of legiflation, is the result of the long and laborious researches of Meffrs de la Lande, Tillet, and PAUCTON; and, notwithstanding the merit and reputation of the treatises of Arbuthnot and Christiani, will undoubtedly be esteemed the most complete and accurate work of its kind. Measures are the rule of justice, which ought never to vary, and the safeguard of property, which must be always sacred. In ancient times, according to our Author, they were not the effects of caprice or hazard, as they are am ng us, but were formed, on the con
1. . Thole that are worked by fire.