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DAHLIA, a well-known plant, which receives ning “Te Deum laudamus,” w prars.

its naine from Dahl. a Swedish botanist. thee, o God. DASTE (Dan-të), the sublinest of the Italia i DEWEY, REV. ORVILLE, on Death, 318.

poets, was born at Florence, 1205 ; dicd DIALOGUE (from the Gr. dia, and legein, to 1321.

discourse together), a conversation be DARLING, GRACE, an heroic girl, daughter tween two or more persous. The follow

of the keeper of the North Sunderland ing are dialogues : lighthouse, on the coast of England. A Adam and Orlando, 319. steam-vessel having been wrecked in 1838 A Sister Pleads for a Brother, 320. on the rocks known as the Great llark- Gil Blas and the Archbishop, 340. ars, Grace, who was then twenty-two The Trade of War, 343. years old, persuaded her father to go with Brutus and Cassius, 350. her to the rescue of the crew in an open Franklin and the Gout, 355. boat. There was a raging sea ; but they From Hamlet, 371. went, and saved nine persons, who other- Wolsey and Cromwell, 421. wise would have perished. Grace died a DIAMETER, from the Gr. dia, through, and few years after this event. See Words- metros, measure ; a straight line passing worth's poem on her, p. 201.

through the centre of a circle, and dividDAUPHIN ; formerly the title of the eldest son ing it into two equal parts.

of the King of France. The editions of the DIAMOND, the most valuable of gems. The classics which were made for the use of word is pronounced either in three sylthe dauphin are entitled in usum del- lables (ci-a-mond) or in two (di'mond). phini.

DIAPASON (Gr. dia, through, and pásin, Davy, Sue IIUMPHREY, an eminent chemist, all), in music, the octave or interval which

b. in England 1778, d. 1829. He was an includes all the tones. By a bold metaagreeable writer and poet. 317.

phor, Dryden has beautifully availed DEATH, Thoughts on, 309, 318.

bimself of this expression in his Ode, p. DECEMBER, the twelfth month of our year, 416.

from the Latin decem, ten, because in the DICKENS, CHARLES, & popular English Roman year it constituted the tenth author, born in Portsmouth, 1812. month, the year beginning with March.

The World of Waters, 206. Deflect, to turn aside, deviate.

The Wind and Rain, 203. DEGERANDO, a French writer, author of an Alfred the Great, 241.

excellent work on self-education. He died DILEMMA (Gr.), a puzzling situation, where in 1812. He was a distinguished member each alternative is bad. of the French Institute.

WIOGENES (Di-oj'e-nès). Surnamed the Cynic, The Mind its own Educator, 322.

was a philosopher of ancient Greece; Deist, one who believes in the existence of born 414 B, C. He is said to have had God, but not in revealed religion.

an interview with Alexandler the Great at DEMOSTHENES, Character of, 213.

Corinth, at which, on the king's asking Democracy of Athens, 266.

him if he could oblige him in any way, the DEMURE (from the French des mæurs, of Cynic replied, "Yes, you can stand out of good manners), sober, downcast.

the sunshine." The Cynics were so called DE QUINCEY, Tuomas, a powerful but ec- from the Greek word kunikos, dog-like,

centric writer, born in England about because of their morose, snarling mode of 1790. The account of Joan of Arc (P. speech. 259) is chiefly taken from his masterly DIPLOMA (from the Gr. diploő, I fold up), a review of Michelet's (Meesh-là's) narra document, signed and sealed, conferring tive in his History of France.

some privilege, right or honor. Thus a DERIV'ATIVE (from the Lat. de, from, and letter or writing of an university, confer

rivus, a small stream), flowing or proceed- ring a degree, is called a diploma.
ing from. A derivative word is one which LIPH'TIONGS, See p. 16.
takes its origin in another word.

Disc, or Disk (from the Gr. diskos, a round Der'vis, a Persian word, meaning poor ; in plate, a quoit ; diskos being derived from

Mahoin'etan countries, a religious person dikein, to throw, whence its application leading an austere life.

to the form of the thing thrown. The DERZHA'YIN, G A BIEL, a Russian poet and word dish has a similar derivation). Disk,

statesman, born 1743, died 1819. Ilis in astronomy, means the face of the sun Ode to the Deity (see p. 153), as we learn and moon, as they appear to observers on from the translator, Dr. Bowring, has the earth. been translated into Japanese, by oriler DISCHARGE. A debtor is said to have his of the emperor, and is hung up, einbroi- discharge when he has a release or acdered with gold, in the Temple of Jeddo, quittance in full from his debt. It has also been translated into the Disciple (from the Lat. disco, I learn), a Chinese and Tartar languages, written on learner; a follower. a piece of rich silk, and suspended in the Discover, literally, to uncover. Mark the disimperial palace at Pekin'.

tinction between this word and to inuent. DE'UM, the accusative case of the Latin word We discover what already existed ; we

Deus, God. "Te Deum” are the first invent when we make something to be words of a celebrated Latin hymu, begin- which hitherto was not. Harvey “dis

p. 54.

covered” the circulation of the blood; but confound this contraction with Ere, which Watt "invented" the stean-engine.

see. Dock, the place where a criminal stands in ELECTRICITY (Gr. elektron, ember), the

court ; alsı), a ship-builder's yard. A substance in which the property of atdiy dock has flood-gates to admit the traction after friction was first noticed. tide, or prevent its indux, as occasion Electric Telegraph, The, 378. may require.

EL'EGY, commonly a plaintive poem, as is Dogwa, an opinion ; that which seems true implied by the Greek Dame, which signi

to ope (from the Gr. dokein, to seem). fies to cry alas ! alas ! (E! E! legein) Dogmatism, positive assertion, without Elegy in a Country Church-yard, 272. proof.

ELEMENTARY SOUNDS, Table of, 17. DOUBLOON, a Spanish coin of the value of ELEUSINIAN, from Eleusis, an ancient city of two pistoles.

Attica, north-west of Athens, and famous Dragoon', to force to submit.

for the celebration of certain heathen DRAMA (ura'ma, or drăm-a). This word is religious rites, the chief design of which is

from the Gr. drao, I act or do ; and said to have been to inculcate a belief in means a composition in which the action the immortality of the soul, and in the or narrative is not related, but represent- unity of the Deity. ed. Adj., dra-måt'ic. See extracts, p. ELIZABETH, Queen of England, was the 383 ; also Dialogues.

daughter of Henry VIII. by his queen DRAWING-ROOM, a room to which the com- Anne Boleyn. She was born 1533, died

pany withdraw from the dining-room. 1602. See pp. 145, 247. DRYDEN, Jonn, a celebrated English poet. ELLIOTT, EBENEZER, sometimes called the Born 1563; died 1631.

* Corn-law rhymer” and “the poet of Futurity, by, 113.

the poor," was born in England in 1781, Ode on Cecilia's Day, 416.

died 1849. Duvas, ALEXANDER, a French miscellaneous Woman's Mission, by, 359. writer, very voluminous.

ELLIPSE, an oval figure ; the curve in Inconvenient Ignorance, 181.

which the planets perform their revolu. Fall of a Mountain, &c., 106.

tions about the sun. It presents to the Imprisonment of Bonnivard, 142.

eye, at once, variety and regularity, and Duyps, a gloomy, depressed state of mind. is, therefore, preferred by painters to the It is not an elegant word.

circle for the outline of their pictures. DYMOND, JONATHAN, on Duelling, 330. For the grammatical use of the word, see EAGLE. The figure of an eagle was the ELLIPTICAL, having the form of an ellipse.

standard of the Romans ; and has been ELOQUENCE, the art of clothing thoughts in adopted as the emblem of the United the most suitable expressione, in order to States.

produce conviction or persuasion. EARLY Rising, Thoughts on, 225.

Eloquence of Statesmen, 266. Echo (Gr.), the return or reverberation of a Moral and Religious Eloquence, 313. sound. Plural, echoes.

Eloquence of Science, 404. ECLAT (èk-kla', the a as in father), a burst- EMERALD, a niineral of a beautiful green

ing forth ; hence, applause, pomp, show. color, obtained in greatest perfection from ECLIPSE (Gr. ekleipo, I cease, faint away, Peru. In value it is rated next to the

or disappear), the obscuration of the light ruby. of a heavenly body, 174.

EMERSON, R. W., The Snow-storm, 433. ECLIPTIC, the sun's path in the heavens. It Euphasis, see i'p. 39, 40.

has been called the ecliptic because eclips- EMPORIUM, a Greek word, meaning a trad. es only happen when the moon is on the ing-place. It is now adopted into Eng same plane, or very near it.

lish, and signifies a city or place where Economy (Gr. oikos, a house, and nome, a great commercial transactions are made.

law), originally, the thrifty management EMPYREUXA, a Greek word, meaning the of a family ; hence applied to individual offensive small produced by fire applied and public concerns.

to organic matters, chiefly vegetable, in EDCCATION. This important word is traced close vessels. Empyreumatic oil is ob

to the Latin e, from, and duco, I lead. tained from various substances in this Thug education must educe ; and that way. (says Trench) is to draw out, and not to ENCYCLOPÆDIA (from the Gr. en, in, kyclos, put in. To draw out what is in the a circle, and paideia, instruction), a circle child, – the immortal spirit which is of instruction ; a dictionary of science, the there, - this is the end of education ; and

arts, Inc. so much the word declares.

ENDICOTT, Jonx, governor of the colony of Thoughts on, 184, 3:22.

Massachusetts, 1614. EDWARD, the Prince of Wales, surnamed | Enguiky, Duc ^ (Duke D'ang-ghe-eng';

the Black Prince, son of Edward III. of the first a as in father), son of the Duke England, was born in 1330, died 1378. of Bourbon, was born in France in 1772. While in France, in 1356, he won the great Being accused of conspiracies against battle of Puictiers (pronounced in French Bonaparte as First Consul, although Pwa-le-a', the first a as in water).

nothing was proved against him, ho E'ER (ar), a contraction for ever. Do not underwent sentence of death, 180k.

ENTREPOT (ang-tre-po', the a as in father, Avoid the blunder of pronouncing this

the e as in her), a warelivuse for the word (-Atempore) in three syllables. deposit of goods.

EXTRAORDINARY (eks-tror-de-na-ry). EPHEMERAL (e-lein'eral). This is from the Extrix'DIC, external, outward.

Gr. ephi, for, and imēra, a day ; perishing with the day ; short-lived.

FABLE (Lat. fari, to speak). In English Epic (Gr. čpos, a word), a poem of the nar- it is applied to any feigned thing ; gene

rative kind, describing generally the ex- rally a story inculcating a moral precept. ploits of heroes.

See pp. 67, 71, 72, 92, 130, 286, 412. EPICURE, on, given to luxury ; so called Fall OF A MOCrtaix, 105.7.

from Epicu'rus, a Greek philosopher, Fame. The root of this word meaning whose doctrines did not, however, autbor- simply to speak or talk (good or ill), fame ize the sensual construction which was may be either favorable or the contrary. wrested from them.

We often find that both praise and deEPITOME (e-pit'-o-me), an abridgment, an traction are much exaggerata in men's

abbreviation, or compendious abstract. mouths ; hasice the proverb, “common Epoch (ip-ok or e-pok). This is from the faine is a common liar," 64, 309.

Gr. epecho, I stop, and means a certain Farst. The au pronounce like ou in how. fixed point of time, made famous by scane FEBRUARY is from the Lat. februo, I cleanse; remarkable event, from whence ensuing because on the fifteenth of this month the years are numbered.

great feast of purification, called feorul, Era differs from epoch in this : era is a was held among the Romans.

point of time fixed by some nation or de- FENELON, Archbishop of Cambray, in France, nomination of men ; epoch is a point a great writer, and most amiable man,

fixed by historians and chronologists. was b. 1651, d. 1715. ERE (år), before ; sooner than ; supposed Fidelity in Little Things, 85.

to be from the Saxon er, signifying the Cicero and Demosthenes, 243. morning. Being pronounced like E'et, FERDINAND AND ISABELLA, 281.

this word is sometimes mistaken for it. FERRA'RA, an ancient and famous city of Es'say, in literature, a short treatise, or Italy ; once the capital of a sovereign

tract. Lord Bacon first used it in this duchy. sense.

FEUDALISM. The feudal system was that Eureka (eu-re'-ka) a Greek word, meaning, form of government anciently subsisting I have found. See p. 275.

in Europe, under which a victorious leader EURIP'IDES (U-rip'i-des), a Grecian tragic allotted considerable portions of land,

poet, b. 480 B. C. He was torn in pieces called fiefs, or feuds, to his principal offiby the dogs of King Archela'us, whose cers, who, in their turo, divided their guest he was. Soph’ocles, who survived possessions among their inferiors ; the him, publicly mourned his logs.

condition being that the latter should EVAN'DER is said to have built on the Tiber, render military service both at home and

at the foot of the Palatine Hill, a town abroad. which was incorporated with Rome. He Field. This word (says Trench) properly taught the arts of peace.

means a clearing where the trees have Evan'GEL (from two Gr. words, meaning to been felled, or cut down, as in all our

tell well, to announce good tidings), early English writers it is spelled without the Gospel ; the history of Christ's life the i, “ feld,” and not “field.” and resurrection.

Fiji (fe-jee), one of the 8. Pacific islands. EVERETT, EDWARD, b. in Massachusetts, FIRE-WATER, the appropriate name given by 1794. Quoter pp. 185, 187, 213.

the Indians to intoxicating liquors. EXAMINE ; saill to be from the Latin, er- FLEECE TROOPS. By a figure known as

amen, the tongue or beam of a balance. periph'rasis (circumlocution), the poet EXCELSIOR, the comparative degree of the thus designates sheep, 136.

Latin adjective, excelsus, high ; so that Flint, TIMOTHY, an American writer, and a it means higher. 285.

missionary to the Mississippi valley. He ExcOMMUNICATz, to expel from the com- died in 1839. See pp. 299, 302. munion of the church.

FLORENCE, capital of the Grand Duchy of EXILE, The Poor, 82.

Tuscany, and one of the finest cities in Exit, the third person of the Latin verb the world. The present population is

ereo, I go out ; literally, he or it goes 106,899. out; hence the departure of a player FLUKES, the broad triangular plates at the from the stage ; a way of departure, pas- extremity of the arnis of an anchor. The sage out of a place.

fins of a whale, from their resenblance, Ex'opus, a way, or passage out; ēgress, de- are sometimes thus called.

parture; the title of the second book of FLYING Fish, The. 217. Moses, which describes the journey from Folio (Lat. folium, a leaf), a book of the Egypt.

largest size, formed by ouce doubling a Ex'PLETIVE, a word not necessary to the sheet of paper. sense ; one used to fill a space.

FoolsCAP, a kind of paper, usually about EXTEMPORE (ex-tem'-po-rë), on the spur of seventeen inches by fourteen. The deriva

the moment, at the time; from the Lat. tion of the word is uncertain. words ex, from, and tempore, the time.

TO'RAY, a sudden or Irregular incursion in GERÄTILE (Lat. gens, a nation). The Jews a border war.

designated all not professing their religion FORD, JOAN, an English dramatic writer, b. as “the nations ;" hence the word Gen1556, d. 1670. See p. 295.

tile came to mean any person not a Jew PORECASTLE (fore-kas-s), that part of the or a Christian, a heathen.

upper deck of a ship forward of the fore- GIBBON, EDWARD, the celebrated English . mast; also, in merchant vessels, the for- historian, was b. 1737, d. 1794. Iu his ward part, under the deck, where the great work, “The Decline and Fall of the sailors live.

Roman Empire,” he does not always do Forest, from the root of the Lat. word foras, justice to his Christian characters. The meaning out of doors.

sarne energy and virtue w ch, appearing FORMULA, a prescribed form or order ; a in a heathen or a Mahometan, fills his mudel.

heart with fervor, and his lofty periods YOʻRUM, a Latin word, meaning literally, with a swelling grandeur, leaves him cold

what is out of doors, an outside space or and impassible, or cavilling and contemptplace in Rome a public place where uous, when it is exhibited in the cause

causes were tried, and orations made. of Christianity. 144. Foster, Joun, a much-esteemed English Gibraltar, a strongly fortified seaport

writer, b. 1770, d. 1843. See pp. 104, town and colony, belonging to G. Britain, 331.

near the southern extremity of Spain, FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN, distinguished as an where it occupies a mountainous prom

essayist, a philosopher, and a statesman, ontory. The Strait of Gibraltar, between vas born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 17th, Spain and Morocco, is about fifty miles 1706, and died in Philadelphia, the city of long, and from nineteen to twenty-three his adoption, April 17th, 1790. He dig- broad. covered the identity of lightning with Gil Blas (Zhil Blas). It is difficult to exelectricity, and obtained a lasting scien- press in English the exact pronunciation tific reputation thereby.

of the French g. The nearest approach Remarks on his Character, 331.

to it is zh, the z being sounded as in Turning the Grindstone, by, 103.

azure. The a of Blas has the first eleDialogue with the Gout, 355.

mentary sound (see p. 17), and the s is FRATZKL, The Silent Teacher, by, 286.

sounded. See Le Sage, Santillanë, SigFREDERICK, generally called the Great, King nor.

of Prussia, was born in 1712, and died GIRONDE (Zhe-rund'. See above). In 1786 ; a strict military disciplinarian, and French history, the Gironde were, durfriendly to literature.

ing the revolution, a celebrated politi. Friar, from the French frère, a brother; in cal party, termed Girondins, from La

a restricted sense, a monk who is not a Gironde (the department in which Borpriest.

deaux is situated), which sent to the legisFRIDAY, the sixth day of the week. The lative assembly of 1791 three of the chief

name is derived from Freya, a Saxon leaders of the party, 291. goldess.

GITTERX. See Arion. FROWARD (frð-ward), peevish, perverse ; its GLADIATOR (Lat. gladius, a sword), a

radical meaning being, turned or look- sword-player, a prize-fighter, 94. ing from.

Glass. “Looks in a glass," &c., p. 321. PULTON, ROBERT, an American engineer The allusion here is to the imposition

and projector, born in Pennsylvania, in practised by fortune-tellers, who pre1767, died 1815. His first steamboat was tended to see future events in a bēryl, or put upon the Hudson (as described by crystal glass. Judge Story, p. 321) in 1807. The merit GLOAMING, the twilight ; probably the word of a prior invention was claimed by John is a corruption of glooming. Pitch, also an American.

Gnomon (nð-mon), a Greek word, meaning

one who knows ; in a dial, the pin which GAL'AXY (Gr. galaktos, of milk), the Milky by its shadow tells the hour.

Way; the long, white, luminous track GOLDAC (Gol-do'), a village of Switzerland, visible across the heavens at night, from which was overwhelined by the fall of part borizon to horizon. It consists entirely of the mountain of Rossberg, Sept. 3d. of stars, scattered by millions, like glit- 1806. The account (p. 106) is substantering dust, on the black ground of the tially true. general heavens.

GOLDSMITH, OLIVER, a celebrated poet, hisGA'LEN, one of the greatest physicians of torian, and essayist, was born in Ireland ancient times, b. in Asia, 258.

in 1731 ; died 1774. He was one of the GASTRIC Juice, the peculiar fluid gecreted most genial and elegant writers of his

by the stomach, and essential to diges. day ; but, notwithstanding his great repution.

tation, activity, and success, his life was GE-NE'va, the most populous and industrious embittered by perpetua: debts and difftown of Switzerland, on the Rhone.

culties. GENIUS. The Latin root of this word means The Village Preacher, 218. to produce, to bring forth, 147, 214.

The Discontented Miller, 222. Genoa (Jēn'oä), a famous seaport city of Retirement, 256. northern Italy, on the Mediterranean. Goose-QUILL. The proverb, p 64, indicates

the superiority of rental force over phys- | HAMLET (elieved to be from the ramus ical ; that “the pen is mightier than the Saxon root as home, anciently written sword."

hame), a small village ; al ttle cluster of GORGON, a fabled mouster, the sight of which houses in the country. turned the beholder to stone.

HAMPDEX, Jorn, one of England's best Go-pel (Saxon, zodspell; god, good, and patriots, was born in London in 1594.

spell, history), the Christian revelation. He strenuously resisted the impositions GRATTAX, IINXY, one of the most eloquent of the royal government. Being mortally of Irelanu's orators, b. 1746, d. 1820. wounded in the civil war against the On Lord Chatham, 216.

king, he died, after six days of great sufGRAHAME, JAMS, a Scottish poet, b. 1765, fering, in 1613. He was a devout Chris. d. 1811. Winter Sabbath, hy, 433.

tian ; and his last words were, “0, Lord, GRAVITATION (from the Lat. graris, heavy) save my country. 0, Lord, be merciful is a force which binds the universe to- to

and here his speech gether. It causes the falling of heavy failed him, and he fell back and expired. boilies to the earth's surface, and, by a HARVEY, W., a celebrated physician, b. in wonderful balancing of the same force, the England 1578, d. 1658. He discovered heavenly bulies are kept within their the circulation of the blood, of which he proper paths. See Newton.

published an account in 1628. Gray, Thomas, an English poet, b. 1716, d. Hastings, WARREN, born in England in

1771. His Elegy (p. 272) is the most cele- 1733, d. 1818. He was appointed by the brated of his poems. It is related by Lord East India Company guvernor of their Mahon, that the evening before the cap- possessions : but, being accused of having ture of Quebec (1759) Gen. Wolfe, while governed tyrannically, and extorted large on the St. Lawrerce in a boat with some sums of money, he was impeached by the of his officers, repeated this elegy, then British House of Commons, but finally new, aloud, and said, “Now, gentlemen, acquitted, 208. I would rather be the author of that HAWTHORNE, NATBANIEL, an American

poem then take Quebec.” See Curfew. author, born about 1509 ; in 1853 apGREECE. The effects of Grecian art, litera- pointed consul to Liverpool by President

ture, and philosophy, upon the world, Pierce.
promise to be as enduring as its civiliza- A Rill from the Town Pump, 231.

tion. They can hardly be estimated. HAZLITT, WM., an English critic and essayGREGA'Riors (Lat. grex, a herd), going in

ist, who died in 1830. He was a vigorous flocks or herds ; not liking to live alone. writer, but apt to be borne away by vioGRIFFIN, GERALD, an Irish poet and miscel- lent prejudices.

laneous writer, who died young, about the HEBREWS, Literature of the, 389. year 18+0.

HECTOR, the chief hero of the Trojans in Love due to the Creator, 179.

their war with the Greeks. He was slain GUATEMALA, pronounced Gwa-te-ma'la ; by Achilles.

the a in the first and third syllables like HEMANS, FELICIA DOROTHEA, the most poputhat in fither.

lar poetess of Engluud, was born at Liver. GUILLOTINE (sil-lo-tēn'), a machine for be- pool in 1795, died 1835. She married

heading in France, named from its in- young, but her marriage was infelicitas. ventor, Dr. Guillotin.

She wrote much for the magazines of the GUINEA, a piece of money, so called because day; and many of her lyrics are of a

it was originally coined of gold brought high order of merit. from the coast of Guinea.

The Graves of a Household, 105. GUTTIEREZ, pronounced Goot-ti-â'reth.

Hymn of the Mountaineers, 239. GYGES (jy'jës), according to Plato, was a The Captive's Dreams, 310.

shepherd of Lydia, who had a ring, with HENDERSON, Joux, Account of, 167. which, by turning a stone in it, he could HENRY, Patrick, an American orator and become invisible.

statesman, born in Virginia 1736, died GYMNAS'TIC, pertaining to athletic exer- 1799. His early opportunities of educa

cises. The Greek root gymnos means tion were very limited, but be rose above naked, the ancients being naked in their all impediments into great distinction and exercises.

one of the most eloquent men of any age.

Ile was a strenuous advocate for AmeriHABITATION. The root of this word is the can independence. Extract from, 271. Latin habeo, I have.

HERSCHEL, Sir Jonx, born in England 1790, HALFPENNY, pronounced haf-penny (the a & son of the celebrated astrouomer, Wm. as in father), or hapēn-ne.

Herschel, and eminent for his mathematiHall, JAYS, Prairies, The, 203.

cal and literary atenjuments. HALL, ROBERT, an eloquent Baptist preach- On a Taste for Reading, 399.

er and theological writer, b. in England Wonders of the Universe, 406. 1764, d. 1831. IIis sermon on Modern HES'PERUS, a name given to the planet Infidelity established his fame. See p. Venus when she follows the sun or ap316.

pears in the evening; when she appears HALLECK, Fitz-GREENE, an American in the morning before sunrise, the same poet, born 1795.

planet is called Lucifer. Ou a Friend's Death, 358

HET-E RO UK'NEOUS (Gr. eteror other, and

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