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which he finds nothing to authorize the view terest, as may at once be inferred from the fact of the conversion of the Jewish Sabbath into that it has already reached a sixth edition. the Christian Sunday. Antiquity also is Commencing with a narrative of a private against such a view of the question. “This wrong which he sustained at the hands of the opinion that the Jewish Sabbath has been Romish priesthood, namely, the removal of simply transferred to the Sunday was entirely his wife from his protection, and his being unknown in the first ages of Christianity. denied all intercourse with her - a matter So much so, that it is never even discussed; which our readers will recollect formed the whilst the opposite opinion is always men- subject of a public trial, and in which Mr. tioned, without any appearance of partiality, Connelly obtained no redress — the writer as that which universally prevailed.”. În proceeds to call attention to the various inconfirmation of this he quotes the evidence fringements of the Church of Rome upon the of Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Irenæus, Augus- liberties of Englishmen generally, and warns tine, Jerome, Bede, Thomas Aquinas, and them that what he has himself suffered is only others successively, down to the time of the an evidence of a wide-spread and deeplyGerman Reformation, when he shows that rooted conspiracy to crush, not only our reboth the great Luther and the pious Melanc- ligious freedom, but our civil and political thon were entirely opposed to the doctrine of institutions. Mr. Connelly writes with conthe identity of the Jewish Sabbath and the siderable vigor ; but he is too much of an Christian Sunday. “ The opinion that the alarmist. We do not dread all the fearful Sabbath was transferred to the Sunday was consequences of the Emancipation Act, as set first broached in its perfect form, and with all forth by him, and we believe that England is its consequences, in the controversy which still great enough and wise enough to guard was carried on in England between the Epis- against the machinations of Italian cardinals copalians and Presbyterians. . . : The Pres- and Irish priests. With Mr. Connelly's pribyterians maintained that the fourth com- vate griefs we sympathize heartily, and, withmandment was a perpetual one, binding upon out being learned 'in the law, consider it a all ages, and that the difference between the great hardship that he should not before this Old and New Testament consisted solely in time have obtained redress. this, that at the command of God, given through the Apostles, the first day of the week was substituted for the seventh.” The The Working Man's Way in the World; writer's own opinion may be partly gathered being the Autobiography of a Journeyman Printfrom the following sentences : « On what
er. Reprinted in New York. then is our duty founded, to select Sunday as Except the " Services" and the police force, the day to be observed, since, as we have perhaps few callings exbibit so much intellishown, we cannot dispense with a fixed gence, spirit, and character among the mass of and regularly returning period, exclusively their followers, as printers. And this autobiogdevoted to the worship of God? We reply, deal of those qualities in himself, or in the per
raphy of a journeyman printer displays a good in the first place, on the same feeling which first dictated that selection. This reason
sons of some natural mark he encountered durmust have the same force as ever, since Christ ing a busy life employed in London, the country,
For he was engaged as a comis still the same Saviour, and his resurrection, positor in a Parisian office, which printed the the climax of his whole work of redemption, once celebrated piratical editions of English bew must have the same importance for us, as for books ; he witnessed the Revolution of 1830 ; those who saw him, when risen, with their and on his return he took part as a volunteer bodily eyes," &c. In his anxiety to avoid “special” in opposing the Bristol riot. When what he calls “one-sidedness, extreme views, the interest of a work depends upon its facts, the and the splitting of hairs," it is difficult to guarantee of a name is desirable ; but we see obtain from him, in brief, any decided opin- no reason to doubt the authenticity of this autoion on the subject. From a perusal of the biography. The incidents are probable, in fact, entire work, however, it may be gathered common; and the persons such as are met with that he is rather opposed to than favorable every day, besides bearing a strong look of liketowards the introduction into Germany of the ness: When the autobiographer passes beyond English doctrine of Sabbath observance.
the individual and attempts to generalize - as As
in his later sketches, such as the ** Reader," and a summary of the argument on both sides, especially the “Overseer,” — he falls into the Dr. Hengstenberg's treatise is highly valu- wordiness and effort of magazine-writing; and able, and as such we commend it to the notice in the more particular parts, he sometimes ener of our readers.
deavors to make more of a subject than it will
bear. The better portions of the narrative pce The Coming Struggle with Rome, not Relig- sess a naturalness and reality akin to the autoious but Political ; an American's Word of biography of Franklin. The book was originally Warning to the English People, by Pierce published in Tait's Magazine, and it merited Connelly, M.A., is a pamphlet of stirring in-1 republication. – Spectator.
From Chambers' Journal. | attainments were at first exaggerated, and he THE LIBERIẢN BLACKSMITH.
was represented as having made himself ac
quainted with no less than seven languages, Was there ever a person like Mrs. Stowe's and as thus being hardly inferior in learning Uncle Tom in actual existence? What we to Elihu Burritt himself. The story in this want to know is, whether an individual born form attracted the attention of some benevolent in slavery, and bred under the degrading and persons. Inquiries were made ; and the siinstupefying influences of that condition, could ple truth, divested of all embellishment, was possibly be so admirable in character, so found to be sufficiently extraordinary to awaken meek and yet so firm, so amiable, so conscien- a strong feeling in his favor, and to lead to tious, and so intelligently pious as that won- efforts which resulted in his liberation. In derful hero of romance is represented to have the year 1846, a Presbyterian minister, bebeen? Some eminent critics have boldly as- longing to the synod of Alabama, sent to a serted that the character is an impossible religious newspaper of New Orleans a short one. Even Mrs. Stowe herself seems to have biography of this remarkable slave. From been sensible of the objection, and willing to this and other sources, we learn that Ellis, admit its truth; for she declares, or, what or, as be subsequently wrote his name, Haramounts to the same thing, makes Arthur St. rison W. Ellis, was born in Pittsylvania Clair affirm, that a slave like Uncle Tom is a County, in the state of Virginia. In early ** inoral miracle.” Such an admission might life he was removed" from that place to lead one to believe that the lady's genius is Tennessee ; but whether in this removal he more powerful than her reasoning faculty. accompanied his old master, or was sold to It overmasters her; and, like a prophetess of another, is not stated. At the age of nine old, she utters higher truths than she can fully years he formed the purpose of learning to comprehend. But the reader shall judge. read, principally in order that he might be
Suppose, for a moment, that Uncle Tom had able to peruse the Bible. He had observed been depicted as not only excellent in every that ministers, in preaching, always read moral quality, but also a man of strong intel- from the Bible, and spoke of it as being the lect and great learning ; suppose that he had Word of God; and the expression, so cusbeen represented as acquiring, by his unaided toinary as to pass without notice from ordiexertions, not only the common eleinents of nary hearers, made a strong impression upon education, but a knowledge of Latin and his mind. It would be interesting to learn Greek, and even some acquaintance with He- the exact methods by which he succeeded in brew, and as exciting, by his theological dis- accomplishing his purpose ; but all his biogquisitions, the admiration of a large assembly rapher tells us is, that in despite of numerof clergyinen : here would have been an in- ous obstacles, such as would have deterred tellectual prodigy, combined with the "moral almost any one else, he succeeded in learning miracle.” Mrs. Stowe would evidently not to read, and afterwards to write. When he have ventured upon such a delineation; and was twenty-five years old another removal if she had, the critics would unanimously took place. This time he was transferred to have scouted it as outraging the utmost bounds the state of Alabama. He was still a slave, of the natural and probable. A writer of fic- laboring at the trade of a blacksmith, of tion must keep within these bounds, and the course for his master's benefit. A thirst for lady has probably gone as far as the limits of knowledge had been awakened in his mind; art would allow her. But truth is privileged, and after reading a good many books, prinand acknowledges no such artistical restric- cipally on religious subjects, he was led to tions. It is quite true, if human testimony undertake the study of the Latin language. is to be believed, that such a moral and in- He had no regular instruction, but received, tellectual prodigy as has just been described it is stated, “ some little assistance from one did exist, at no great distance from the scene person and another, as a casual opportunity of Uncle Tom's imaginary adventures and suf- afforded it." ferings. The particulars of this remarkable This statement, it may be observed, does case, as they have come to our knowledge, not altogether harmonize with the commonly may be briefly told.
received opinion, that the slaves in America About six years ago a narrative appeared are purposely kept in gross ignorance, and in some American journals which excited a that to teach one to read is treated as a crimgood deal of interest. It was an account of inal offence. The fact is, that such prohibis a learned black blacksmith,” or, in other itory and penal laws really exist, and that a words, of a negro slave, who, while working school for the instruction of slaves would not is a mechanic, had managed first to learn to be tolerated; but the efforts of individual read and write ; then to acquire a considera- slaves to acquire instruction, either from one ble proficiency in the classical tongues ; and, another or from good-natured whites, are inally, to commence the study of Hebrew. rarely if ever interfered with. The difficulties ndeed, as usually happens in such cases, his which opposed Ellis' pursuit of knowledge
do not seem to have been greater than a poor what constitutes a call to the ministry - for laboring man would have had to encounter in sound, consistent, scriptural views of the leadmost parts of Europe during the last century. ing doctrines of the Gospel, few candidates What cxcites our surprise in the case of Ellis, for the office have been known to equal him. 18 not the extent of his acquirements, or the The effect of his statements was greatly inmagnitude of the obstacles which he had to creased by the fact, that he seemed to be overcome, but that a negro, and a slave, presenting rather the results of his own reshould thus devote himself earnestly to intel- Hections than what he had learned from the lectual pursuits. The negro race is regarded investigations of others. On many points, by some as naturally deficient in mental ca- there was a striking originality in his mode pacity, and a slave has apparently no motive of exhibiting his sentiments. He also read a for attempting to improve his mind. It does sermon of his own composition, of which not appear that Ellis commenced his studies some of the members thought so highly, that with any expectation that they would procure they proposed that the presbytery should him his freedom, or in any way ameliorate order its publication. It certainly looked and his circumstances. He studied, partly that sounded very strange it was alınost incredhe might better comprehend his Bible, and ible to see and hear one who had been all partly for the mere love of learning. Having his life a slave, with none but the ordinary acquired some knowledge of Latin, he after- privileges of a slave, reading a production so wards undertook the study of Greek, and sub-correct in language, so forcible in style, so sequently of Hebrew. In the latter, however, logical in argument, and abounding in quotahe made very little progress, owing to the tions from the Bible so intelligently and perwant of books - a difficulty, indeed, which tinently applied.” So well satisfied was the had retarded his progress throughout his presbytery of his fitness for the office, that arstudies. “It cannot be said," observes the rangements were immediately made to ordain clergyman who wrote of him in 1846, “ that him as a missionary during the next session ho is a finished scholar in either the Latin or of the synod. Greek languages. He has, however, acquired Ellis was at that time between thirty and such a knowledge of both, as to be able, with forty years of age. He is described as of out any assistance, to prosecute his studies in pure negro parentage, and quite black; bis them to any length he may wish. His ac- grandfather, indeed, was a native of Africa. quaintance with his own tongue is such as to His wife was about the same age, and could enable him to speak and write it with as read. They had two children, a son and much propriety as is cominon among educated daughter. The former, a sprightly lad, sevenmen. While he has read and studied some teen years old, could not only read and write, authors on natural science, moral philosophy, but had inade some progress in the study of and the like, his reading has been contined arithmetic, geography, and other branches of for the most part to religious books. Dwight, school learning. The daughter, then eleven Dick, and Boston, are the theological writers years of age, had just commenced learning to with whom he is most familiar."
read. It must be borne in inind that the In what way the abilities and acquirements only opportunities which the children could of this remarkable slave first became known have had for receiving instruction, were such does not appear. It may be presuined, how- as occurred in the casual intervals of their own ever, that some Presbyterian minister was and their father's labor. induced to take an interest in him, and to It appears that the benevolent intentions bring his case under the notice of the ruling of the two synods were promptly carried into bodies of that church, as it appears that in effect. In looking through a series of the the year already mentioned the synods of publications of the American Colonization Alabama and Mississippi combined to purchase Society, we are enabled to trace the results. his freedom and that of his family, with the In March, 1847, a schooner arrived at Liberia view of sending them to Africa under the from New Orleans with a party of emigrants care of the American Board of Missions. It for the colony. A letter from an American was intended that Ellis should be ordained as physician, then residing in Liberia as the a missionary, and with this view he was in- agent of the United States government, gives troduced at a meeting of the presbytery of an account of the arrival of these emigrants, Tuscaloosa as a candidate for clerical orders. and thus notices the one in whom we are The impression he made is thus recorded by chiefly interested :— “I am pleased with the the writer who has been already quoted, and manners and character of Mr. Ellis, the who then apparently saw him for the first learned black blacksmith,' who came out in time :-“ I believe I utter the sentiments the schooner, and who, with his wife and two of the whole presbytery, and of the large children, was liberated from slavery by the assembly present at his examination, when I Presbyterian synods of Alabama and Missigsay, that for precision on the details of relin sippi, at an expense of 2500 dollars. Alious experience for sober, rational views of I though the accounts which have been pubs,
lished respecting his proficiency as a scholar, i by which we shall be able, after a while, to especially as a linguist, may have been exag- account better for the facts just alluded to " gerated, yet I think he is an extraordinary I think it most probable, that the lambs man ; and I hope his example and influence stop eating, because the shepherds get out of may be highly beneficial to this country." corn;' the children stop learning, when their
In the African Repository for 1848, there teacher cannot teach them any further. appears a brief letter from Mr. Ellis himself, But," he adds, alluding to the recens establish"nddressed to one of his clerical friends in ment of some good schools in Liberia, “this Alabama. He was then in excellent spirits, sad state of things does not exist at present.” well pleased with the colony, and content There is another passage in the letter with his own prospects. A few months after which deserves to be quoted, as it strikingly his arrival in Liberia, the pulpit of one of the evinces the truth of Mrs. Stowe's representiPresbyterian churches in Monrovia became tion of character. Uncle Tom's meek endurvacant, and Mr. Ellis was installed pastor of ance of all the wrongs of slavery, his refusal the church. Five members, he writes, have to make use of his "pass" for the purpose of since been added to the church, one of whom escaping, and the excuses which he finds for was his own son. A year later, we find, by his master's hard treatment of him, have been a paragraph in the same publication, that, censured by critics as indicating a state of besides performing the duties of his pastoral feeling altogether unnatural and improbable charge, Mr. Ellis had commenced his mission in a slave. Now, our learned blacksmith ary labors among the natives. "He is study had been a slave till he was past thirty years ing," we are here told, "the language of of age ; he had apparently been twice sild two wild tribes, in order to be able to preach he had certainly had to give nearly all his to them in their own tongue. He says, that earnings to his master, and to subunit entirely the Mandingoes claim him for their country- to his master's will; yet he "strove," as be man, because his grandfather was born in himself said, " to make himself agreeable and Africa. This tribe are Mohammedans ; and happy" in this condition, and he counsellud some of their priests, he says, are intelligent, all his brethren to submission. being capable of reading Hebrew when written At this time, Mr. Ellis had accepted a new in the Arabic character. Two years later, responsibility, probably more in compliance there appears a somewhat long letter from with the wishes of others, than in accordance Mr. Ellis, giving some interesting information with his own views. A high school, supconcerning Liberia, in answer to a letter of ported by the Presbyterian Board of Missions inquiry from a gentleman in Alabama, and at in New York, had been established at Monthe same time affording us a good insight into rovia, and Mr. Ellis was appointed the master the character of the writer, who certainly of it. As might have been expected, the arhears a strong moral resemblance to Uncle rangement proved to be an injudicious one. Tom. For instance, supposing the latter to Experience has shown that a person entirely have obtained an education, and afterwards to self-taught, however great his abilities and have settled in Liberia, would he have an- his learning, is rarely if ever qualified for the swered an inquiry about the general capac-office of a teacher. The art of instruction, ity of Liberian children," in terms very like other arts, must be acquired by an apdifferent from those of the following intelli- prenticeship. The self-taught man, with his gent and quaintly-expressed reply? —“The inind full of scientific truths and classical children of Liberia are exactly like the white crudition, finds himself ignorant of numerchildren in America ; and as this part of our ous important methods and essential decommunity have the best opportunity to equal tails which he could have acquired in any the corresponding part in America, their well-conducted village-school. Hence we are equality can be better seen. And as remark- not surprised to learn, from a recent report able as this branch of society is that is, on the state of education in Liberia, that the white children in America)," old persons high school had been less successful than its" [slaves) had not the opportunity of seeing patrons expected. “ The uncommon talents lauch of it where we came from, so that many and industry of its principal, the Rev. Mr. think our children have more penetrating Ellis, manifested in acquiring a knowledge of minds than those of America. This sup- the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages position arose out of the above-mentioned while a slave," adds this report, “ do not adecircumstance; but it is not well-founded. quately supply the place of that thorough and "Ibe fact is, if there be any difference, it is in careful training in the rudiments, which this - perhaps the children in Liberia learn every teacher needs, in order to teach others as fast, if not faster, for the first few years ; to the best advantage." Under these circumbut it may be that the young Americans con- stances, the proper course was taken ; a new tinue their mental improvement the longest. principal -- a graduate of an American then I think — though there may be circumstances logical seminary — was appointed to the
school, and Mr. Ellis was left free to pursue that this monstrous fragment must have bethe pastoral and missionary labors for which longed to a bird! to one at least as large as an be was best qualified.
ostrich, but of a totally different species ; and Such is the sum of our information con- consequently, one never before heard of, as an cerning this learned, sensible, and pious ostrich was by for the biggest bird known negro slave. The story is a suggestive one in From the difference in the strength of the bone, various ways, and might give occasion for the ostrich being unable to fly, so must have many reflections on slavery and its effects on anatomist came to the conclusion, that this oli,
been unable this unknown biri ; and su our Africanı civilization, distinctions of race, and shapeless bone indicated the former existence, ia so forth. We choose, however, to leave it New Zealand, of some huge bird, at least as simply as a pièce justificative — as a French great as an ostrich, but of a fur heavier and more historian would say — of the now world- sluggish kind. Professor Owen was confident of famous American romance; merely observing, the validity of his conclusions, but could commuthat ji Mrs. Stowe's fiction is strange, the ricote that confidence to no one else ; and notplain truth maintains its superiority, as usual, withstanding attempts to dissuade him from by being stranger still.
committing his views to the public, he printed his deductions in the Transactions of the Zoolog
ical Society for the year 1839, where fortuA WONDERFUL BONE.
nately they remain on record as conclusive Ix a small work on the Intellectual and evidence of the fact of his having then made this Moral Development of the Present Age, by Mr. guess, so to speak, in the dark. He caused the Samuel Warren, Recorder of Hull (Blackwood bone, however, to be engraved ; and having sent & Sons), the author touches on the subject of one hundred copies of the engraving to New Zeacomparative anatomy, and the pitch to which land, in the hopes of their being distributed, and a study of it has been carried in this country. for three years namely, till the year 1843 —
leading to interesting results, he patiently waited We gladly make room for the following pas- when he received intelligence from Dr. Buckland, sages :
at Oxford, that a great box, just arrived from The incident which I am about to mention, New Zealand, consigned to himself, was on its exhibits the result of an immense induction of way, unopened, to Professor Owen ; who found particulars in this noble science, and bears no it filled with bones, palpably of a bird, one of frint analogy to the magnificent astronomical which was three feet in length, and much more cłlculation, prediction, whichever one may than double the size of any bone in the ostrich! call it, presently to be laid before you. Let it be And out of the contents of this box the professor premised, that Cuvier, the late illustrious French was positively enabled to articulate almost the ph-siologist and comparative anatomist, had entire skeleton of a huge wingless bird, between said, that in order to deduce from a single frag- ten and eleven feet in height, its bony strukture ment of its structure, the entire animal, it was in strict conformity with the fragment in quesnecessary to have a tooth, or an entire articu- tion; and that skeleton may be at any time seen lated extremity. In his time, the comparison at the Museum of the College of Surgeons, towwas limited to the external configuration of bone. ering over, and nearly twice the height of the The study of the internal structure had not pro- skeleton of an ostrich ; and at its feet is lying ceeled so far.
the old bone, from which alone consummate anIn the year 1839, Professor Owen was sitting atomical science had deduced such an astoundalone in his study when a shabbily-dressed man ing reality ; the existence of an enormous exmade his appearance, announcing that he had tinct creature of the bird kind, in an island got a great curiosity which he had brought where previously no bird had been known to from New Zealand, and wished to dispose of it exist larger than a pheasant or a common fowl : to him. Any one in London can now see the article in question, for it is deposited in the Museum of the College of Surgeons in Lincoln's
Lectures on the Results of the Great ExhibiInn Fields. It has the appearance of an old tion. 2d series. Bogue. marrow-bone, about six inches in length, and This volume contains the lectures of Wilson on rather more than two inches in thickness, with Agricultural Products, Macadam on Flax, Tenboth extremities broken off ; and Professor Owen nant on Gems, Bazley on Cotton, Blackwell on considered, that to whatever animal it might Iron, Shaw on Glass, Wyatt on Decorative Art, have belonged, the fragment must have lain in Owen Jones on the Employment of Color, Anstel the earth for centuries. At first, he considered on the non-metallic Mineral Manufactures, Arthis same marrow-bone to have belonged to an noux on Porcelain and Pottery, and on the Genox --- at all events, to a quadruped ; for the wall eral Results of the Exhibition, to which these or rim of the bone was six times as thick as the lectures are an appropriate close. Every visitor bone of any bird, even the ostrich. He compared should read them, for thus the remembrance of it with the bones in the skeleton of an ox, a what was there beheld will be revired, and turned horse, a camel, a tapir - and every quadruped to profitable account in the knowledge of the apparently possessing a bone of that size and meaning of a great deal that was unintelligible configuration ; but it corresponded with none. to the uninitiated. We do not know two more On this, he very narrowly examined the surface instructive volumes than are these collected lecof the bony rim, and at length became satisfied tures. — Critic.