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quisition we have indicated, predominates. The there ?" and was answered. “ The guest of God," greatest drawback to the professed descriptions of which means a beggar. “ You are welcome," he the book is its unreal character. We cannot sep.
said, and got up and unfastened the door ; and, havarate what may be natural and true from what is ing nothing but some remnants of the koscoussoo Urquhart.
from his supper, and the piece of mat upon which
he lay, he warmed the koscoussoo in the oven, and, What took Mr. Urquhart to Morocco, is a sort after bringing water to wash his guest's hands, he of mystery. “I was on my way,” he writes in set it before him. He then conducted him to the his preface, “ to Italy by sea ; and, passing through mat, and himself lay down on the bare ground. the Straits of Gibraltar, was so fascinated by the In the morning, when he awoke, be found the beauty and mysteries of the adjoining lands, that I door unbarred, and the poor man gone ; so he said relinquished my proposed excursion for the ex
to himself, “ He had business, and did not wish
to disturb me; or he went away modestly, being plorations which are here recorded.” At page ashamed of his poverty.” On taking up the mal 260 of the first volume, he appears in the charac- he found under it two doubloons ; so he was afraid, ter of a diplomatist in the interest of the Em- and put the money by, and determined not to touch peror of Morocco, opposed to the French ; and it, lest it had been forgotten, or lest the poor man something striking would doubtless have been done, had stolen it, and put it there to ruin him. had not France been rescued by a “ machinery” in for Mohammed Widden and the baker to repair
Some time afterwards an order came from Fez the appropriate form of a steam-engine. Urquhart thither. They were both conducted to the place was detained in the Gut“ by adverse winds, whilst before the palace to await the sultan's coming forth. steam carried the French— that is the Algerine- When he appeared they were called before him ; emissary to his destination." Unless the allusions and, addressing the first, he asked him if he recolto under-current influence are mere romancings, lected the feast at the marriage of the daughter of our politician seems 10 have succeeded in imposing the Caïd of Tangier, and a poor man whom he had himsell upon the Moors as a somebody; but as a foot. Then Caïd Mohammed knew whom he had
pushed with his left hand and kicked with his right traveller he turned his opportunities to slender thus treated, and trembled. The sultan said,“ The account. His travels, either in Spain or Morocco, arm that struck me, and the leg that kicked me, are were of limited extent-only to a few places in mine; cut them off.” The baker now said to himthe vicinity of the “ Pillars of Hercules.” self, “ If he has taken the leg and the arm off the
The substitution of a writer's reading for orig- caïd, he will surely take my head ;" so he fell inal observation or a description of existing things, down upon the earth, and implored the sultan to is not very rare in books of travel ; but we never
have mercy upon him. The sultan said to him,
My son, fear not; you were poor, and took in saw it pushed to so great an extent as by Mr. the beggar when he was thrust forth from the feast Urquhart, or a man carried so completely away of the rich. He has eaten your bread and slept on from the subject before him. National bathing, your mat. Now ask whatever you please—it shall national cookery, national clothing, are important be yours.”' The caïd returned to Tangier maimed subjects; ancient glass and Phænicia, the Spanish and a beggar, and his grandson was lately a soldier mantilla, the Roman and French systems of con
at the gate of the Sicilian consul. The baker request or colonization, are very well for an essay possessed of the wealth of the other; and the peo
turned riding on a fine mule, richly clothed, and or a paper. Presented in such a mode, they ple used to say as he passed by, “ There goes the would have been judged according to their own oven-keeper, ihe sultan's host.” character. Standing in places where they have
These stories of contemporary date throw a no business or necessary connection, they are looked upon as intruders; and an intruder's
light upon manners in Barbary, where Mahome
tanism is best studied now ; and upon the placamerit, if he happens to have any, is always over
bility of a Mahometan sovereign when not out of looked. We do not suppose that one third of the
temper. book, if so much, is really travels ; and of the travels the stories or anecdotes are the most inter
During my absence two daring crimes have been esting portion. They may not always be accurate horses from the midst of the camp. The sultan
committed ; a sheriff stole one of the sultan's as facts, but they have an oriental truth of color- sentenced him to lose his head. He then put in the ing about them, much more attractive than Mr. plea of his birth. “ Then,” said the sultan, “cut Urquhart's florid descriptions, or his interviews off his right hand, that he may be disabled from diswith persons to whom he discourses politics. gracing his blood in this way in future." There is There is something patriarchal in this story of a
no executioner—the butchers are bound to perform sultan's distribution of poetical justice.
this duty. The chief Jewish and chief Mussulman
butcher being called, they offered for a substitute by The grandfather of Ben Abou, the present gov- a sort of public auction; the crier commencing in ernor of Riff, when Caïd of Tangier, made a great this way—“Who will cut off a head (or a hand) feast at the marriage of his daughter. One his for a dollar?-one dollar offered ;" and thus they friends, Caïd Mohammed Widden, observed a poor ran up and down the street. No one offering, they man in mean attire in the court, and ordered him increased the bid to two, three dollars, &c. When out; and, he not obeying, pushed him so that he they had arrived at two doubloons (71. 10s.) a tall fell. That same night the keeper of an oven black stepped forward and said, “That' is my (there are no sellers of bread—every one makes price.” A tub of tar was brought; the black his own bread at home and sends it to the oven) hacked off the hand in a hurry, and on dipping the had barred his door and retired to rest, when some stump into the tar it proved to be cold. He had, one knocked at the door. He asked, “Who is however, bound the arm before the amputation ;
and they ran to the neighboring blacksmith's shop | And gave them golden spurs and vizors barred, for embers, which they threw into the tar, and, set- and steeds that Pheidias had turned pale to see. ting it on fire, the stump was then plunged in, and That mighty man who opened Paradise 80 scorched and burnt. The sheriff was then Harmonious far above Homeric song,
Or any song that human ears shall hear, In the other case, a culprit, a man from the inte- Sometimes was classical and sometimes not. rior, had killed a lad who was ploughing, and car- Rome chained him down, the younger Italy ried off his cattle. The sultan said to the mother Dissolved, not fatally, his Samson strength. of the lad, “ Excuse his life, and take one hundred I leave behind me those who stood around dollars ;" she said, “I want the life of him who The throne of Shakspeare, sturdy, but unclean ; took the life of my son. The sultan three times To hurry past the opprobrious courts and lanes repeated his question, doubling his offer ; she said, of the loose pipers at the Belial feasts, “ I ask what the law gives me, and that law you Past mimes obscene, and grinders of lampoons. are sultan to execute." The culprit was led out Away the petty wheel, the callous hand! to execution; the head, as we returned, was on the Goldsmith was classical, and Gray almost, market gate, and the dogs swarmed round the car. Cowper had more variety, more strength,
Gentlest of bards! still pitied, still beloved !
Romantic, classical, the female hand
And followed up, rapt in his fiery car,
The boy of Casabianca to the skies.
Wordsworth, in sonnet, is a classic too,
And on that grass-plot sits at Milton's side ; It fell upon my ear among the last
In the long walk he soon is out of breath Destined to fall upon it: but while strength
And wheezes heavier than his friends could wish. Is left me, I will rise to hail the morn
Follow his pedler up the devious rill, Of the stout-hearted who begin a work
And, if you faint not, you are well repaid. Wherein I did but idle at odd hours.
Large lumps of precious metal lie engulfed The Faeries never tempted me away
In gravelly beds, whence you must delve them out, From higher fountains and severer shades;
And thirst sometimes and hunger ; shudder not Their rings allured me not from deeper tracks
To wield the pickaxe and to shake the sieve. Left by Olympic wheels on ampler plains,
Too weak for ode or epic, and his gait Yet could Í see them and can see them now
Somewhat too rural for the tragic pall, With pleasurable warmth, and hold in bonds
Which never was cut out of duffel gray, Of brotherhood men whom their gamesome wreath He fell, entangled, “on the grunsel-edge" In youth's fresh slumber caught and still detains.
Flat on his face, " and shamed his worshippers.” I wear no cestus ; my right hand is free
Classic in every feature was my
friend To point the road few seem inclined to take. The genial Southey: none who ruled around Admonish thou, with me, the starting youth,
Held in such order such a wide domain Ready to seize all nature at one grasp,
But often too indulgent, too profuse. To mingle earth, sea, sky, woods, cataracts,
The ancients see us under them, and grieve And make all nations think and speak alike.
That we are parted by a rank morass, Some see but sunshine, others see but gloom, Wishing its flowers more delicate and fewer. Others confound them strangely, furiously;
Abstemious were the Greeks; they never strovo Most have an eye for color, few for form.
To look so fierce: their muses were sedate, Imperfect is the glory to crcate,
Never obstreperous : you heard no breath Unless on our creation we can look
Outside the flute ; each sound ran clear within. And see that all is good; we then may rest.
The fauns might dance, might clap their hands, In every poem train the leading shoot;
might shout, Broak off the suckers. Thought erases thought, Might revel and run riotous ; the nymphs As numerous sheep erase each other's print
Furtively glanced, and feared or seemed 10 fear : When spongy moss they press or sterile sand.
Descended on the lightest of light wings, Blades thickly sown want nutriment and droop, The strong though graceful Hermes mused awhile, Although the seed be sound, and rich the soil. And now with his own lyre and now with voice Thus healthy-born ideas, bedded close,
Tempered the strain ; Apollo calmly smiled. By dreaming fondness, perish overlaid.
WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR. We talk of schools . . . unscholarly; of schools. Part the romantic from the classical.
From the Spectator. The classical like the heroic age Is past; but Poetry inay reässume
HUMPHREYS' ANCIENT COINS. That glorious name with Tartar and with Turk,
The first book that treated of " coins" in a With Goth or Arab, Sheik or Paladin, And not with Roman and with Greek alone.
distinct and separate form was Budé's work on the The name is graven on the workmanship.
Roman Æs or As, which was originally published The trumpet-blast of Marmion never shook in 1516. Three centuries later, numismatic works The walls of God-built Ilion; yet what shout Of the Achaians swells the heart so high?
* Ancient Coins and Medals ; an Historical Sketch of Shakspeare with majesty benign called up the Origin and Progress of Coining Money in Greece and The obedient classics from their marble seats, her Colonies; its Progress with the Extension of the And led them through dim glens and sheeny głades, Roman Empire, and its Decline with the Fall of that And over precipices, over seas
Power. By Henry Noel Humphreys, Author of “ The
Coins of England” Illustrated by numerous Fac-simile Unknown by mariners, to palaces
Examples in actual relief, and in the metals of the reHigh-archt, to festival, to dance, to joust, spective coins. Published by Grant and Griffith.
had so multiplied that a mere list of them formed | which determines not only the existence of the 8 goodly volume. The Bibliotheca Nummaria, place, which might have been doubted, disputed or published by Lipsius in 1801, consists of 448 close forgotten, but likewise its situation, thus distinpages, exclusive of an appendix, and comprises guishing it from other places of the same name ; for under the letter A alone one hundred and sixty word, EMESELN, (in the genitive case,) of the
instance, some of the coins of Ephesus have the works. Among the writers who devoted them- Ephesians, accompanied by the personification of a selves to the task of illustrating ancient coins, and river, beneath which is the word KAIETPOZ, pointing to the facts that the coins illustrated, are which shows that Ephesus was on the banks of some of the greatest names in learning.
The the Cayster. Another instance is that of the an origin of numismatic studies, indeed, may be cient Italic city of Hatria or Hadria, now known traced to no less a person than Petrarch ; who only by its coins, which yet gave its name to
the Adriatic Sea, on the shores of which it was first formed a collection, with some perception of situated. Hundreds of other similar instances the true use of coins. His example was followed might be cited ; for it has been stated that upwards by Alphonso, King of Aragon and Naples, as well of two thousand names of places, provinces, and as by the Medici, and various crowned heads. princes, exist upon ancient coins, many of them The fashion thence descended through princes and having no other record ; and many have been disnobles to private individuals, till a mere catalogue covered since that calculation was made, every day of collections would probably form a list as long bringing with it still fresh discoveries. * as that of the works which have been written of civilization, coins have proved of the utmost
In important details relative to different stages upon them; for it is only by means of such col- interest. The vast numbers of coins existing of lections that the majority of the books on the sub- some comparatively barren but well-situated island, ject could have been written.
denote its commercial importance, and the activity These books are of infinite variety. Some of its exchanges; while the greater scarcity of the illustrate particular coins, in their history, their coins of more luxuriant districts denote that the manufacture, their metallic composition, weight, native richness of the soil, which rendered the im
system of exchanges was less active, while the value, and depreciation; for it seems the destiny of portation of other produce less necessary, is reprecoinages never to be increased in real value. Others sented on such coins by the wheat-ear, the bunch treat of the different kinds of coins, either national of grapes, and other symbols of Ceres and Bacchus. or metallic-as gold, silver, copper-at the same Seaport cities generally adopted some marine symtime that they point out their uses. Some authors | bol either for the principal or subordinate devices illustrate this use—as Vaillant in his works on
of their coins. the dynasties of the Seleucidæ, the Arsacidæ, and on Greek coins ; as, for instance, when the coins
Treaties of alliance may frequently be traced the Ptolomies. Other writers have made the of one city are countermarked by the emblem of Roman emperors their theme, and not only exhibit another, an alliance, or at all events a convention the acts from the coins, but the portraits of the that the coins of the one are by common agreement actors. Visconti, in his Iconographie Grecque allowed to pass as current money among the people and Iconographie Romaine, has illustrated ancient of the other is denoted ; a custom which became portraiture in part from ancient coins. Perhaps a so general that the mark of the allied city was in work like Lodge's Biography, in which the text imitation of a subsequent stamp:
some cases at once engraved in the original die, in and the portrait should form an equally conspic- Some interesting particularities relative to the uous place, has yet to be written from ancient early commercial importance of Marseilles have coins; though such a subject popularly treated just been elicited by the discovery of some coins. would become a standard work.
Up to the time alluded to, no coins were known of The use of coins is not limited, however, to Marseilles (the ancient Massilia) earlier than about the testimony they bear as to the character and the period of Alexander the Great ; which had led progress of art, the data they furnish as to the could not have been extensive before that compara
to the supposition that its commercial importance respective values of the precious metals in rela- tively late epoch: but the Marquis de Lagoy, in a tion to each other, or to commodities, or the feat- recent article in the “Revue Numismatique," deures they preserve of celebrated men and women, scribes some small silver coins with the well-known and frequently of celebrated monuments.
Read hollow back of the earliest periods, recently discovwith a learned eye, they throw a light on many moves the difficulty, and proves the active commerce
ered in some excavations near the port; which refacts of history, which without them would be of the place (of which the existence of coin money obscure or even unknown, and often tell a contin- is an evidence) to have been of the high antiquity uous tale of themselves. “If all our records which its situation and early colonization rendered were lost,” says Gibbon, “medals, inscriptions, probable. and other monuments, would be sufficient to record the travels of Hadrian."
The object of Mr. Humphreys Ancient Coins
and Medals is to give a summary or coup-d'ail of Geography as well as history. (writes Mr. Noel the entire subject, so as to furnish a complete inHumphreys) are both indebted to the fortunate troduction to the study, at the same time that he preservation of coins for the possession of many facts connected with the names and situation of presents the student with fac-simile specimens of cities which woula otherwise have passed into obliv- some of the most remarkable coins in actual relief, ion. Many coins might be cited bearing the name of and in the respective metals of the originals; thas a city, accompanied by that of a river or a mountain, starting the tyro with a substitute for a collection. In an introduction Mr. Humphreys gives a précis of some century later is really designed for a torof the chief writers on coins, and a brief notice toise. An early silver coin of Thasus has the of the chief collections. A chapter treats on the first attempt at a head, supposed to be of Pan or circulating medium, or rather the substitute for Bacchus ; and the unskilled observer will have to barter, that preceded the use of coined money. suppose that it is a head at all. On the same A discussion as to the people who first struck plate is the earliest coin known with a monarch's money follows ; and is settled in favor of the name, Alexander the First of Macedon; which Lydians, on the authority of Herodotus and the fixes the date with more certainty, as he reigned probabilities of the case. The earliest coinage is from about 500 to 454 B. C. The obverse is a then discussed and described. After that, the man leading a horse ; and it not only has distinct, reader is introduced to its development in Greece unmistakable forms, but reaches the idea of and her colonies, as well as in the dynasties of action, especially in the steed. Art, however, Greek origin that were established on the death was still immature. The reverse can rise no of Alexander. The Roman coinage is exhibited higher than the punch, divided into four squares, in like manner, from its obscure origin under the with a border containing the monarch's name. kings, till its decay with the name and empire These annotations are furnished by the first of Rome, and its subsidence into Byzantine art. plate. The second exhibits an advancing stage Notices of many subordinate branches of the sub- of art, rising to the true coin ; that is, the punchject are intermingled with the leading classifica- mark is superseded by a perfect reverse, though tions, whose very names were long to tell ; but the improvement in art is rather in mechanics than Carthage, Judæa, Bactria, will indicate the nature design. The succeeding plates show the rapid of these lesser chapters. There are also notices progress both in design and execution, till at last of the various metals, weights, values, &c., both the decline of art is reached with the decline of of Greek and Roman coins, with some general the empire. The massy breadth of conception, hints and directions to the collector. These and the spirited action even in groups on a small might have been fuller, and, in the choice of coin of the best period, are exchanged for an imbooks, have taken a catalogue form with advantage. becility in design which falls below that of the
A great feature of the book is its illustrations ; Lydian coinage, and a feebleness even in the mewhich, by means of a new invention, exhibits chanical parts. metallic impressions of the coin itself instead of an engraving
IMITATIVE GALVANISM.-Galvani, in the last This positive fac-simile (says the author in his century, showed that convulsions ensued in a limb preface) is very essential in a work on the coins by simply bringing into connection the muscles and
In the muscles we have a nitrogenized of classical antiquity; as no modern engraving or other imitation of some of the finest Greek coins material, which is acid; in the blood we have a of the best periods can adequately convey an idea nitrogenized material, which is alkaline ; the conof their excessive beauty, or the sculptural gran-necting part or nervous fibres are neutral. Mr deur of their general treatment. But I have not
Smee, F. R.S., says: “We may imitate such a confined my illustrations in relief exclusively to combination, by using a solution of ferrocyanate of coins of the finest periods ; I have also deemed it potash, a compound of iron, nitrogen, carbon, and advantageous to exhibit a few of the rude early potash, with a little alkali for one side, a solution coins, by the same process, in order to convey a
of the red ferrocyanate for the other side, and conmore accurate idea, than could have been afforded nect the two with a solution of chloride of sodium, by means of engravings, of the nature of the prog
or common salt."--Elements of Electro-Biology. ress which took place from the rude beginnings How CHRONOMETERS ARE TRIED AT GREENWICH. of the primitive artists to the exquisite productions -Chronometers offered to government for purchase of later periods.
are placed at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, The fac-similes are sunk in stout board, which the first or second week in January, where they is bound up with the text like a plate. These Room," and each is daily compared with an astro
are ranged upon shelves round“ the Chronometer plates are ten in number ; and every plate con-nomical clock, and its rate carefully noted. This lains from ten to a dozen specimens, sometimes is continued until the middle of July, during which of both faces of the coin, sometimes only of the time the temperature of the room is considerably obverse or reverse as the occasion requires : each varied : the windows are thrown open during six plate is accompanied by a page of description. or seven of the coldest weeks, and for about an By this means the reader has really a coup- which are attended at intervals of two hours night
equal period the heat is raised 80° or 90° by fires, d'œil of the history of coinage. The gold stater and day; for the rest of the time the chronometers of Miletus in Lydia, with its strange-looking remain in the ordinary temperatures. This conlion's head and its rude punch-mark on the stitutes the usual trial : but for such chronometers reverse, is a specimen " of one of the first coins as are subjected to the extreme trial, an iron tray ever struck,” according to received opinions, and is provided over the stove, the mean temperature of may date from 800 to 700 e. c. Yet ihe drachma which may be taken at about 100° Fahr.; and for of Egina, possibly the earliest silver coin known, north side of the building. The severity of both
the cold, they are placed outside a window on the is still ruder. A sort of resemblance to a lion's the ordinary and extreme trials with regard to the head may be traced on the golden stater ; but cold will, of course, vary in different years, acone requires to be assured that the drachma cording to the severity of the season.--Mr. Scoresby.
From the Edinburgh Review. supervened upon internal disorganization, the im Négociations de la France dans le Levant; ou Cor- perial fabric still stands—the Turkish Crescent
respondance, Mémoires, et Actes Diplomatiques still glitters on the Bosphorus—and still "the des Ambassadeurs de France à Constantinople, et des Ambassadeurs, Envoyés
, ou Résidents à divers tottering arch of conquest spans the ample regions titres d Venise, Raguse, Rome, Malte, et Jerusa- from Bagdad to Belgrade.” lem; en Turquie, Perse, Géorgie, Crimée, Syrie, Without repeating, therefore, the ominous note Egypte, etc. et dans les états de Tunis, d'Alger, of prophecy, we shall direct our remarks to the et de Maroc. Publiés pour la première fois. historical elucidation of the questions involved in Par S. CHARRIÈRE. Tome I. (1515—1547.) lit. Our wish is to illustrate the origin and estabParis, Imprimerie Nationale, 1848.
lishment of the Ottoman Empire, as one of the Three centuries ago, the first row of Chris- substantive powers of Europe ; to exhibit the tian statesmen was the expulsion of the Turks causes which conduced to its political recognition ; from the city of Constantine, and the deliverance to trace the subsequent action of so anomalous a of Europe from the scourge and terror of the state upon the affairs of Christendom ; to mark infidel. In the present age, the absorbing desire the fluctuations of fortune by which its external of the same cabinets is to maintain the misbeliev- relations were determined ; and to distinguish the ers in their settlements; and to postpone, by all stages of estimation and influence through which known expedients of diplomacy and menace, the it successively passed, until the dreaded Empire hour at which the Crescent must again give place of the Ottomans dwindled virtually, though with 10 the Cross. The causes and progress of this dominions not materially diminished, into the posicurious revolution of sentiment we now purpose tion of a Protected State-subsisting, apparently, to trace ; and to ascertain, if possible, by what by the interested patronage of those very powers sequence of events, and changes of opinion, such which had been so scared and scandalized at its conditions of public policy have at length been growth. If our inquiry should include fewer accredited among us.
exemplifications than might be expected of the It will naturally be presumed that the clouds civil institutions of this extraordinary nation, the now actually gathering on the Eastern heavens omission must be attributed to the extent of the have suggested both our disquisition and its inore immediate subject, and the imperative remoral ; nor, indeed, should we, without reason- strictions of space. A sagacious moralist once able warrant for such an introduction of the sub- said of an historian of the Turks, that he was ject. But we feel it would be here perilous to unhappy only in the choice of his matter. If the prophesy the dissolution of a state which has now course of our proposed exposition were but a little been, for five generations, in its nominal agony. less narrow, we should not distrust our ability to We believe we might venture to assert that no cancel this invidious qualification ; for there are, Christian writer has treated of Ottoman history, in reality, no known annals more striking in their who did not seek in the sinking fortunes or im- details, and often more purely romantic, than pending fall of the empire the point and commen- those of the house of Othman. Even as it is, dation of his tale. Knolles thankfully recounted we hope for some success ; for, though of all the signs of its decline two hundred and fifty kinds of history political history possesses the years ago. Cantemir discoursed of "the growth fewest superficial attractions, yet such topics as and decay of the Ottoman Empire,” while even the naturalization of a Mahometan sovereignty Poland was still a powerful kingdom. As the among the states of Christendom-the varying eighteenth century wore on, such reflections be- phases of religious zeal—the conflict of tradicame both more justifiable and more frequent; tional duties and practical policy-and the rise and, as the artificial existence of Turkey was and growth of such an element as the power of hardly yet anticipated, the close of its natural the Czars—should command their share of interest term seemed within the limits of easy calculation. and attention. Even the end of the great war, which left so It may reasonably be thought remarkable thas many crumbling monarchies repaired and strength- the establishment of an infidel power at the gates ened, brought no similar relief to the house of of Europe should not, in those ages of faith, Othman. Excluded, on the contrary, from the have provoked a prompt and effective combination arrangements of the great European settlement, of the whole Christian world for the expulsion of
Turkey remained exposed to worse perils than the intruder. In explanation, however, of this any which had yet beset her. In the great peace apathy or impotence, there are several consideraof Europe there was no peace for Constantinople. tions to be mentioned. In the first place, the Thirty years since, the historian of the Middle phenomenon coincided singularly, in point of Ages expected, “ with an assurance that none time, with the definite abandonment of the system can deem extravagant, the approaching subversion of eastern crusades. The seventh and last of of the Ottoman power;" and the progressive cur- these enterprises had resulted in scandal and Tent of events has certainly in no degree changed defeat; and had disclosed the growing reluctance since this conviction was avowed. Yet, though of state and people to contribute towards expedithe only symptom of imminent dissolution that tions which neither promoted the objects nor conwhen seemed wanting has now appeared, and duced to the credit of those engaged in them. though territorial dismemberment has partially The final and total loss of the Holy Land in