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LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 55.-31 MAY, 1845.




1. Punch-The Position of the Premier; A National

Melody; Punch for Head Pacificator; A New Cab-
inet Library; Too Bad ; Literary Peers,

393 2. The Wolves of Esthonia,

Fraser's Magazine,

395 3. Bon Gaultier's Ballads,

400 4. Bookselling Abroad,

Chambers' Journal,

406 5. Soul and Body,


408 6. Rhymes of the Scottish Highlands,

409 7. Moloch—a Song of the Furnace,

Hood's Magazine,

412 8. Plato against the Atheists,

N. Y, Churchman,

414 9. New Glass Mosaics,

Polytechnic Review,

416 10. Hildebrand,

Edinburgh Review,

417 11. Strength of England,

Britannia, .

439 12. Slavery and the Slave Trade,


440 Scraps.-Income Tax, 105–-Chess by Telegraph, 408_Punch in the Country; The Mystery

of Medicine, 416-Dr. Anthon's Æneid ; Father Mathew's Embarrassments, 440.

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From Punch. THE POSITION OF THE PREMIER. The position of Peel between the Maynooth and Anti-Maynooth parties—the former applauding him on the one hand, while the latter are condemning him on the other—may be compared to the situation of the heroes in the Greek tragedies, whose proceedings were the subject of alternate abuse and praise from the chorus ; the right of a chorus to criticise is founded on the old constitutional doctrine that the people may give their opinion, and there can be no doubt that this mode of giving votes in a song has some affinity to the vote by ballot, or vote by ballad, as some have been in the habit of calling it. The Maynooth and AntiMaynooth expressions of opinion may be likened to the strophe and anti-strophe of the chorus, of which we furnish a specimen.

Shall we for soaring high

The altered premier snub?
Who in the butterfly

Would recollect the grub?
Cheer him as up he springs,
Borne on his new-found wings;
He holds complete dominion.
Supported by 0-pinion.
Then let us sing with zeal,
Success to Premier Peel.


He has baffled our every hope :
He's surely in league with the pope !
We thought him the friend of the church,
He is leaving her now in the lurch.
I'll bet that he shortly obtains
A cardinal's hat for his pains.
To punishment let us denounce him ;

Will nobody venture to trounce him?
[The two parties approach each other, singing their

respective choruses, one against the other, and the curtain falls.]


Go on, great premier, in thy way,
No matter what the tories say;
It surely can be no disgrace
For you to try and keep your place.
They say that, by the Maynooth Grant,
To keep your place is all you want;
It is a wise and cunning plan-
The premier is a wondrous man!

How wonderful is Peel !

He changes with the time;
Turning and twisting like the eel,

Ascending through the slime.
He gives whate'er they want

To those who ask with zeal,
He yields the Maynooth Grant

To the clamor for repeal.


AIR-" Lesbia hath a beaming eye.
Inglis is a tory high,

But no one cares for what he seemeth ;
Right and left his speeches fly,

But what they aim at no one dreameth.
Better 't is to look upon

The tory premier when he rises ;
Few his plans, but every one
By some new light the house surprises.
Oh, my tory premier dear,
My artful dodging tory premier ;

Many glide

From side to side,
Bat you 're on both, my tory premier.
Inglis wears his coat of old,

But prejudice so tight has lac'd it,

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That each idea of tory mould

1. The Curiosities of Literature, chiefly seMust stay where obstinacy plac'd it. lected from intercepted correspondence. By Sir Oh, my premier's coat for me,

James Graham. Mov'd by agitation's breezes,

2. Jlow to live on Fourteen Thousand a year. Leaving every action free

By the Lord Chancellor. To twist and turn where'er he pleases. 3. Three Experiments of Living ; or, Three Yes, my tory premier dear,

Livings at Once, by way of Experiment. By the
My aritul dodging tory premier;

Bishop of Exeter.
Nature's views

4. The Outcast; The Exile's Return; and Have different hues,

other Poems. By Lord Ellenborough. And so have yours, my tory premier. 5. Natural Magic, including several new tricks;

with an Essay on Gaminon and Backgammon. Inglis has a specch refin'd,

By Sir R. Peel. But when its sounds are o'er us creeping, 6. Miscellaneous Essays. By Lord Brougham. Who can tell if it's designed

7. The Pauper's Cookery Book; including ten To wake us up, or set us sleeping ?

thousand economical recipes, amongst which will Mesmerized by Robert's art,

be found five hundred different modes of dressing Poor Britannia drowsy waxes,

oatmeal, and a plan for roasting a fowl before the Eyes scaled up-the horrid part

fire, in such a way as to make chicken-broth of Is but paying of the taxes.

the shadow. By the Poor Law Commissioners. Oh, my tory premier dear,

8. Confessions of an English Opium Eater. My cool, my crafty tory premier ;

By One who has swallowed all the dull speeches Whigs, who'd learn

that have been spoken in the House of Commons The time to turn,

for the last ten years. Should ask of you, my tory premier.

'Too Bad.—The following announcement has PUNCH FOR HEAD PACIFICATOR. appeared in various papers :-" The Rev. W. During centuries Ireland, to speak metaphori- of the Cathedral Church of Winchester, Preben

Dealtry, D. D., Chancellor of the Diocese, Canon cally, has been in a perpetual broil; though per: dary of South well, and Rector of the parish of haps we might more happily compare the state of things Irish to a stew. Peel confessed that Tre- Clapharn, Surry, has been appointed, by the Lord land was his chief difficulty; and he might also Bishop of Winchester, to the Archdeaconry of have confessed that he did not know what to do Surrey, void by the elevation of the venerable with her. It is quite clear that he does not under. Samuel Wilberforce to the deanery of Westminstand her case. He began by antiphlogistic treat

Poor Dr. Dealtry! We feel for him deeply. ment--10 wit, the state prosecutions—and now he is trying the Maynooth Soothing Syrup, which How will he ever get through the work which he soine call Bobby's Elixir. This is mere empiri- four several offices in the church, and saddled with

will now have to do? He was already laden with cism ; no better ihan what might be expected from Holloway or Old Parr. Let the premier practise the obligation of being in three different places at on principle, if he knows what that is. But in

He had to pray, preach, exhort, console, fact, the case of Ireland would puzzle any state convert, and go about visiting the sick and doing doctor but Punch, who, amongst many other good at Winchester, Southwell

, and Clapham ; notions, has one for her pacification, which he besides all which, he had his chancellor's business

to attend to. hereby offers to the conservatives and all others

And now, in addition, an archdeawhom it may concern, if they will have it. His conry is clapped upon liis shoulders. suggestion is as follows :

Really, this is working a willing horse to death. He would advise them to get up a Joint Stock There is not, we are persuaded, a negro in all Company, for the purpose of negotiating with Mr. Kentucky fagged to the extent that Dr. Dealtry Daniel O'Connell, a sale of the whole Irish people. I deserve such treatinent? How, we would wish to

will be. What has the poor clergyman done to As the repeal agitation cannot last forever, and as it may be difficult to get up any other humbug, a himself? It is much more like a Turk than a

know, would the Bishop of Winchester like it good round sum in the lamp may prove an adequate temptation. Instead, therefore, of voting bishop to make a fellow-creature toil in this way.


it is noney wo Maynooth, vote a “consideration” to

great deal too bad of his lordship, Daniel O'Connell. So sure will this plan for the and recommend him to be more considerate in

We shall be told that Dr. Dealıry will tranquillization of Ireland he to answer, that Punch be well paid for his labor. Yes : but what has considers that by inerely proposing it, he has cut that to do with the matter? What pay can comTom Steele out, and will therefore trouble that gentleman to return to him the title of " Head Paci- pensate a man for exertions which must necessarily

kill him? ficator of Ireland.”

LITERARY Peers. It is, we believe, in contem

plation by the English government to follow the A NEW CABINET LIBRARY.

example of France, and raise a few writers to the Ministers intend shortly, we understand, issu- peerage. The following will, we are told, be ing a series of volumes on various subjects, for among the earliest elevations : the purpose of enlightening the people, to be Mr. W. H. Ainsworth, to be Baron of Blueskin. -called the New Cabinet Library. The work will Mr. Benjamin D'Israeli, to be Marquis of ConI be written chiefly by the ministers themselves, so ing shy. Mr. James Grant, to be Earl of Cornthat there will be great variety in the style, and hill, in the Great Metropolis, and Baron of Heyin the mode of treating the various topics handled. down-hey-down-derry, in Ireland. Other titles

The following will be a few of the volumes that will, it is expected, be soon conferred, but the will shortly appear :

above are all at present decided on.



From Fraser's Magazine. twigs the beautiful flowers which had been, or THE WOLVES OF ESTHONIA.

were to be, and shifting and reshifting their places

on the fresh bare earth till they assumed that Tuere is a kind of savage luxury, however position which her taste or fancy approved—just gorgeous and costly, which perfectly assimilates as a fine London or Paris lady may be seen in a with savage life, and where the eye may pass at | jeweller's shop shifting her loose diamonds upon one glance, from the pampered inmate of the a ground of purple velvet into the order in which palace to the wild beast in the woods, without any they are to be finally sel. A younger lady was sense of inconsistency to the mind. This may be with her—a cousin by birth and a coinpanion by remarked, more or less, with all Oriental nations. choice-one of those ** friends who sticketh closer The Indian prince is in keeping with the tiger in than a brother," and who had recently joined her, his jungle, the Russian noble with the bear in his after a long separation, in a home foreign to each. forests. But it is a different and very strange Her two children were there also, beautiful and sensation to find yourself in a country where in- happy creatures; the elder one glad to be of use, ward and outward life are at variance; where the the younger one delighted to think herself so ; social habits of the one by no means prepare you while Lion, an enormous dog, the living image, in for the rude eleinents of the other; where nature size, color, and gentleness, of Vandyke's splendid is wild, and man tame. This is conspicuously the mastiff in his picture of the children of Charles I., case in the northwestern part of Russia, where a lazily followed their steps, putting up his huge German colony, although lords of the soil for hun head whenever a child stooped hers, and laying dreds of years, are still as foreign to it as they himself invariably down exactly where a flower were at first ; having originally brought a weak was to be planted. offset of civilized life into a country for which only After spending some time in this occupation, the lineal descendants of the savage were fitted, and having at length marked out the summer garand having since then rather vegetated upon the den to their satisfaction, the party turned their gradually impoverishing elements they trans- steps towards the house, where some beds, close planted with them than taken root in the gradu- under the windows, had been planted the preceding ally improving soil around them. Life, therefore, evening. in this part of the world passes with a monotony “Lion, Lion!" exclaimed the eldest child, and security which remind you of what, in point you should know better than to come across the of fact, it really is, viz., a remote and provincial fresh-raked beds,” showing us a track of large, state of German society of the present day. Both clumsy footmarks, which had gone directly over the inclinations and occupations of the colonists it. “Yes, look at the mischief you have done, confine them to a narrow range of activity and old dog, and be ashamed of yourself; but keep off idea. The country is too wild, the population too now! keep off!” for Lion was pressing forward scattered, the distances too great, the impedi- with all his weight, snuffing at the prints with ments, both of soil and season, too many for them quick-moving nostrils. The lady stooped eagerly to become acquainted with the secrets of the wild over the animal. nature around them; or rather, not without a “ These are no dog's footprints," she said ; and trouble which no one is sufficiently interested to then, pointing to more distant traces further on, overcome. They travel much, from place to No, no. Oh, this is horrible! And so fresh, place, upon roads bad enough, it is true, but too. A wolf has been here !!! always beaten ; they have no pursuit but mere She was right; the footmarks were very differbusiness or mere pleasure, and no interest except ent from a dog's-larger and coarser even ihan the in what promotes the one or the other; and, in largest dog's, longer in shape, and with a deeper short, know as little of what goes on in the huts indentation of the ball of the foot. It was truly a of the native peasantry, or in the forest and morass painful and a fearful feeling to look at that bed, on haunts of the native animals, as if they were which the hand of man had been so recently emstrangers in the land, instead of its proprietors. It ployed, now tracked over by the feet of one of the is, therefore, as we before remarked, a strange most savage animals that exist; and the lady and most unpleasant feeling, while spending your drew back shuddering. And Louisa, for that was days in a state of society which partakes of the the cousin's name, shuddered too, if not with so security and ease of the present day, to be sud- real a sense of fear, yet with a inuch more undenly reminded by some accidental circumstance limited impression of terror. She was a stranger of a state of nature which recalls the danger and as much to the idea as to the sight, and, as she adventure of centuries back.

looked up at the window just above-her own bedIt was early in the spring, after a long and very room window-with its peaceful white curtains severe winter, when the earth was just sufficiently and swallow's nest at the corner, and remembered softened to admit its stock of summer flowers, that she had been sleeping within while the wildthough not sufficiently warmed to vivify them, beast was trampling beneath, she felt as if she that ihe garden belonging to a country-house situ- should never rest easily there again. As for the ated in this part of Russia had become the scene children, they both looked terrified at first, chiefly of great activity. Hundreds of leafless plants and because their elders did, and then each acted shrubs, which had passed their winter in the dark- according to the character within her-Olga, the ness and warmth of the house-cellar, were now elder, holding quietly by her mother's hand, and brought out to resume their short summer station, afraid even to look at the footprints, though apand lay strewed about in various groups, roughly proaching them docilely when she was bidden ; showing the shape of the bed or border they were while little Miss Constance, unscrewing her rosy to occupy. The balmy air had also summoned face from its momentary alarm, trotted with great forth the lovely mistress of the mansion, a delicate glee over the fresh-raked bed, delighted to make flower, more unsuited to this wintry land even the most of a privilege usually forbidden her, and than those which lay around her, who went from discovered new wolf's steps in all directions as fast one plant to another, recognizing in the leafless as Lion made them.

They now called some of the workmen, who never at all in the direction of the morass ; the instantly confirmed their verdict.

children were not allowed to wander a step alone ; “This is an old wolf, Prauer,” said a rough, doors and windows, which otherwise, at this time long-haired shrewd-looking old peasant, scruti- of the year, are very much left to please themnizing the tracks with Indian-like closeness and selves by night as well as by day, were now every sagacity—“this is an old wolf, he walked so evening punctiliously closed ; and one door espeheavily; and here's a wound he has got to this cially, next Louisa's bedroom, at the end of a long paw, who knows when, from some other wolf, or corridor which communicated with an unfinished maybe from Lion-I dare say they are ac-addition to the house then in progress, was always quainted,” pointing out to the party a slight eyed with great distrust. li had no means of irregularity in the print of one of the hind feet, as shutting whatsoever. Nightly a bar was talked if from a distorted claw. “He was here the be- of, and daily forgotten ; but “ Dreist wie ein wolf!ginning of the morning, that I can see."

sounded in Louisa's ears, and she pushed a heavy “But where was Lion?" said the lady, eagerly. box firmly against it.

“I went to the mill, Prauer, at sunrise, and Several days passed away, and the episode of took Lion with me, and by the time we got back the wolf's footprints was almost forgotten, when the beast must have been off. I saw the old dog suddenly a scream and a shout were heard from a snuffing about, but the heavy dew would stop any kind of baking-house within view of the windows. scent. The wolves are hungry now; the waters Lion started up from the cool drawing-room floor, have driven them up together, and the cattle are where he lay stretched at full length, and leaped not let out yet. He is not far off, either ; we out of the open window. Workmen from the new must keep a sharp look-out. An old wolf like building rushed across the lawn, each with such this will prowl about for days together round the implements in their hands as they had been worksame place till he picks up something.”

ing with ; and out of the baking-house, followed by " Heavens! how dreadful! Constance, come a lad, sprung an imniense wolf. At first, he back this moment,” said the young mother, with bounded heavily away, and was evidently making an expression of anxiety which would have for the wood ; but Lion came close upon him, touched the roughest heart. “Who knows where overtook him in a few seconds, and attacked him the creature may be now?"

with fury. The wolf turned, and a struggle be“ Never fear, Prauer; he's off to the woods by gan. For awhile the brave dog was alone : each this lime--plenty of his footmarks to be found alternately seemed to hang with deadly gripe upon there, I warrant," pointing to a low, disinal-look- the other, and yells, and snorts, and sharp howls, ing tract of brushwood, which formed the frontier filled the air. "But now the foremost of the purto an immense morass, about a werst off. “ Never suers reached the spot ; dog and wolf were so fear, old Pertel and old Lion will take care of rolled together, that at first he stayed his blows; the little Preilns. Polle üchtige' nothing at all, but soon a terrible stroke with the hatchet was not a hair on their heads, shall be hurt, bless given-another, and another. The animal relinthem !"

quished the dog, tried to turn upon the man, and “Yes, yes, good Pertel,” said the lady, with a soon lay dead at his feet. nod and a smile, to the rough creature, “I know Meanwhile, the ladies from the mansion were that. But under our very windows !-I never also hurrying forward, full of horror for the scene, knew them come so near before."

and of anxiety for Lion, but unable, in the exciteDreist wie ein wolf-bold as a wolf," said the ment of the moment, to keep back. There lay the phlegmatic head-gardener, a German ; " that's an animal, the ground ploughed up violently around old proverb."

it, a monstrous and terrific sight. Death had They now returned to the house with minds caught it in the most savage posture—the claws ready to take alarm at any sight or sound. The all extended—the hind feet drawn up, the fore cousin knew not how much there was or was not ones stretched forward—the head turned sharp to fear; and, though the lady did, the voice of her round, and the enormous jaws, which seemed as maternal anxiety amply made up for all the silence if they would split the skull asunder, wide open. of her imagination. The children, of course, were Nature could hardly show a more repulsive-looknot slow in catching the infection ; and, what with ing creature-one which breathed more of the fear and what with sun, there was no end to the ferocity of the wild beast, or excited less of the wolves that were seen in the course of the next humanity of man; and, as Louisa looked down at four-and-twenty hours. Any and every object the lifeless carcass, all lean, starved, and timeserved their turn : sheep, foals, and calves ; old worn, with ghastly gashes, where late every nerve men and old women ; stunted trees in the distance, had been strained in defence of that life which God and round grey stones near ; not to mention in- had given it, entangling doubts came over her numerable articles of furniture in various corners mind of the justice of that Power which could of the house, all stood for wolves ; not only suc-nake an animal to be hated for that which His cessively, but over and over again. Lion, how- Will alone had appointed it to be. But, foriuever, was the greatest bugbear of all, and the good nately for her, she came from a land where, with old dog could not push open the door, and come all its faults, the stone of sophistry is not given for lazily in, with all his claws rattling on the smooth the bread of faith ; quickly, therefore, came that parquête floor, without setting the children scream- antidote thought, which all who seek will find ing, and startling the two ladies much more than the sole key to all we understand not in the moral they liked to confess.

world-leaving only a pardunable pity for a creaBut this state of things was too inconvenient to ture born to hunt and be hunted, ordained neither last. A succession of false alarms is the surest to give nor to find quarter, and to whom life had cure for false fears ; and, to quote the fable for apparently been as hard as death had been cruel. once in its literal sense, they were weary of hear- Poor beast ! It was a savage wolf all over; ing“ Wolf!" called. Nevertheless, they did not rough, coarse, clumsy, and strong; the hair, or undertake long walks without protection, and rather bristles, dusky, wiry, and thin ; and not one

or the "

beauty about it, except, perhaps, those long, white, with the hot bread in his jaws. “I have heard the sharp leeth, which had drawn so much blood, and old woman often tell the tale,” said the speaker; were now tinged with that of the fine old dog. " and she invariably added, ' And so I lost my Lion lay panting beside his dead enemy, the blood biggest loaf, but never was there a guest more weltrickling down his throat, on which the wolf had come to it." fixel a gripe which life could not long have sus- Another time, a kitchen-maid, whose office it is tained.

to bake the common rye bread, was carrying the The whole history was now heard from the lad. hot loaves, towards night, across the court, when There had been baking that morning in the out- she met a large animal whom she mistook in the house, and he went in to light his pipe. As he dark for one of the huge cattle-dogs. But it rose blew up the ashes, he saw a great animal close upon her, and she felt the claws upon her bare arm, beside him. In the dark, he mistook it for Lion, ready, at the next moment, to slit the skin, as is and put out bis hand ; but it rose at once against their wont, and rend her down. In her terror, she him with an action not to be mistaken by a native of crammed a loaf into the creature's jaws, and he these climes, on which he screamed as loud as he made off with the sop, perfectly content. could, for his breath stood still, the poor boy as- Upon the whole, it is very difficult to procure sured them, with fright; and the creature, taking information about the wolf's habits, or even tialarm, rushed out of the door.

dings of its depredations. The common peasant, “The Prauer may let the little ladies run about who alone knows anything about the animal, is dow," said old Periel. “That's the same wolf withheld by superstition from even mentioning the that crossed the bed last Thursday ; I know him name of wolf; and, if he mentions him at all, deby this left hind foot ;' and he held up a grim signates him only as the “old one,"

grey limb where an old wound had turned ihe claw one,” or the " great dog," feeling, as was also 3side. “He got this in some of his battles; many the case in parts of Great Britain with regard to a foal yet unborn would have felt it this summer. " the fairies, that to call these animals by their true And the old man stroked the dead animal with sat- name is a sure way to exasperate them. This isfaction.

caution may be chiefly attributed, however, to the They now all left the scene of battle, and re- popular and very ancient belief in the" wär wolf ;'** freshments were given to those who had assisted noi a straightforward, open-mouthed, plain spoken at it. Olga proposed giving the boy, who was beast, against which the catile may plunge, and still all trembling with fright, a glass of sugar and fight, and defend themselves as best they may, water, this being what the ladies of this country and which either wounds or kills its prey in a fair invariably take when their nerves are shaken ; but and ferocious way; but that odious combination of her mother suggested that a glass of brandy would human weakness and decrepitude, with demoniacal be much more to his taste; and accordingly he re- power and will, which all nations who have beceived a dose, which not only restored the courage lieved in have most unjustly persecuted and most he had lost, but lent him a large temporary stock naturally hated—in other words, a bad, miserable in addition. Lion, too, was well cared for, and old woman leagued body and soul with Satan, who, immensely pitied. The wound on his throat, which under the form of a wär wolf, paralyzes the cattle was too close under his own long tongue to be with her eye, and from whom the slightest would reached by it, was washed with certain balsams is death. Be this as it may, the superior intelliwith which this country abounds; after whicli, gence of the upper classes is to this day occasionthe old dog employed himself in slobbering over ally puzzled to account the fate

a fine young various rents and scratches in more accessible parts ox, who will be found in the morning breathing of his body, and finally went fast asleep, which hard, his hide bathed in foam, and with every sig! the children hoped would do him inuch good, and, of fright and exhaustion, while, perhaps, only one for about two minutes, spoke over him in whispers, trifling wound will be discovered on the whole and went round him on tiptoe.

body, which swells and inflames as if poison had Since the day of the footprints, the lady and her been infused, the animal generally dying before cousin had carefully refrained from any subject night. Nor does the mystery end here; for, on connected with wolves, or wild beasts in general ; examining the body, the intestines will be found to for the children's imaginations required to be stu- / be torn as with the claws of a wolf, and the whole diously tranquillized, and even their own were animal in a state of inflammation, which sufficiently quite lively enough without additional stimulus. accounts for death. But now nothing else was discussed ; everything This same superstition also favors the increase was à propos of wolves; and some acquaintances of this dreadful animal, for the peasant has a strong from a distant part of the country, coming in for feeling against destroying a wolf; says that, if the evening, the whole time was passed in telling you disturb them, they will disturb you, and genwolf anecdotes,

erally attributes the loss of his foal, or of foal and The fact of the animal being discovered in the mother together, (a too frequent occurrence,) to the baking-house was soon explained ; for it appeared plunder of a wolf's nest by his less superstitious that the wolf, like the bear, is excessively fond of neighbor. Nevertheless, the destruction of their bread, and that after the smell of fresh blood, that young is the only way in which an efficient warof fresh baking is surest to attract himn. A peas- fare with the wolf can be carried on, and the ant woman, who had drawn her hot rye loaves out of the oven, quitted her cottage for a few minutes, the ware wolf of England, the loup garron of France-was

*« This mysterious and widely spread superstition-leaving her two young children playing at the same especially current in Germany, where many tales of its bench on which the smoking bread was laid. terror still exist. Two warlocks were executed in the Scarcely had she turned her back, when an enor-year 1810, at Liege, for having, under the form of ware mous wolf sprang in, took no notice of the scream- wolves, killed several children. They had a boy of twelve ing children, but snatched a loaf from the bench. years of age with them, who completed the Satanic trio, The mother, hearing screams, hastened back, and and, under the form of a raven, consuined those portions of

the prey which the warlocks left.”—Grimu's Deutsche as she reached the door the wolf bounded out of it Sagen.

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