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This Company furnishes ALL DESIRABLE FORMS of LIFE and ENDOWMENT INSURANCE at actual NET COST. It is PURELY MUTUAL; has ASSETS of nearly TEN MILLIONS and a SURPLUS of about TWO MILLIONS.

Its policies are NON-FORFEITABLE and INCONTESTABLE. SAMUEL C. HUEY, President.

HENRY C. BROWN, Secretary.

THE UNION TRUST COMPANY,

611 & 613 CHESTNUT ST., PHILADELPHIA. AUTHORIZED CAPITAL $1,000,000. | PAID UP CAPITAL

$500,000 Acts as Executor, Administrator, Assignee, etc., alone or in connection with an individual appointee. Executes trusts of every description knowu to the law. All trust assets kept separate from those of the Company. Burglar-Proof Safes to rent at $5 to $60 per annum. Wills kept in Vaults without charge. Bonds, Stocks and other valuables taken under guarantee. Paintings, Statuary, Bronzes, etc., kept in Fire-Proof Vaults. Money received on deposite at interest.

JAMES LONG, President; JOHN G. READING, Vice President; MAHLON H. STOKES, Treasurer and Secretary; I. R. PATTERSON Trust Officer.

DIRECTORS :-James Long, Alfred S. Gillett, Dr. Charles P. Turner, William S. Price, John T. Monroe, W. J. Nead, Thomas R. Patton, John G. Reading, James S. Martin,

D. Hayes Agnew, M.D., Jos. 1. Keefe, Robert Patterson, Theodore C. Engel, Jacob Naylor, Thomas G. Hood, Edward L. Perkins, PHILADELPHIA; Samuel Riddle, GLEN RIDDLE, Pa.; Dr. George W. Roiley, HARRISBURG, Pa.; J. Simpson Africa, HUNTINGDON ; Henry S. Eckert, READING; Edmund S. Doty, MIFFLINTOWN; W. W. H. Davis, DOYLESTOWN; R. E. Monaghan, WEST CHESTER; Charles W. Cooper, ALLENTOWN.

GIRARD LIFE INSURANCE, ANNUITY AND TRUST CO.

OF PHILADELPHIA,

2080 CHESTNUT STREET. INSURES LIVES, GRANTS ANNUITIES, ACTS AS EXECUTOR, ADMINISTRATOR, GUARDIAN, TRUSTEE

COMMITTEE OR RECEIVER, AND RECEIVES DEPOSITES ON INTEREST.
INCORPORATED 1836.
CHARTER PERPETUAL.

CAPITAL, $150,000.

SURPLUS, $827,338. (By Report of State Insurance Department, 1880.) President, John B. Garrett.

Treasurer, Henry Tatnall.

Actuary, William P. Huston.

THE PROVIDENT LIFE AND TRUST COMPANY,

OF PHILADELPHIA,
409 CHESTNUT STREET.

Capital, $1,000,000, fully paid.
INSURES LIVES, GRANTS ANNUITIES, RECEIVES MONEY ON DEPOSIT, ACTS AS EXECUTOR, ADMINISTRA-

TOR, GUARDIAN, TRUSTEE, ASSIGNEE, COMMITTEE, RECEIVER, AGENT, ETC.

ALL TRUST FUNDS and INVESTMENTS are kept separate and apart from the ASSETS of the COMPANY. PRESIDENT, SAMUEL R. SHIPLEY. VICE PRESIDENT, T. WISTAR BROWN. VICE PRESIDENT AND ACTUARY, ASA S. WING

MANAGER OF INSURANCE DEPT., JOS. ASHBROOK. TRUST OFFICER, J. ROBERTS FOULKE.

Reuben Wilson

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109 N. Tentb Street, Philadelphia.

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S. W. COR. FRANKLIN & GREEN STS., PHILADA.

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PTFORD SCHOOL.- FOR BOTH SEXES.

WOODBURY, NEW JERSEY. The Fall Term of this School will open 9th month 7th, 1885. For Circulars and further particulars, address, (until 8 mo. 12), HENRY R. RUSSELL, PRINCIPAL,

College City, Mass.

IF $5.(0 is sent us, either by Registered Letter, Postal Note, Bank Check, or Post-Office Order, we will send any one of the following orders :-Order No. 1; We will send 6 pounds of good Black, Green, Japan or Mixed Tea, and 18 pounds of good mild or strong roasted Coffee. Order No. 2 ; We will send 30 pounds of good mild, or strong roasted Coffee. Order No. 3 ; We will send 5 pounds of real good Black, Green, Japan or Mixed Tea, and 15 pounds of fine mild or strong roasted Coffee. Order No. 4; We will send 25 pounds of real good mild or strong roasted Coffee. Persons may club together and get one of these orders, and we will divide it to suit the club, sending it all to one addrest. To those who wish to purchase in larger quantities, we will sell at a still further reduction. The Tea and Coffee will be securely packed and sent by express or freight, whichever is ordered. Samples of any of the above orders will be sent free by mail to examine. In ordering, please state whether Order No. 1, 2, 3 or 4 is desired. Call on or address, WM. INGRAM & SON, TEA DEALERS,

31 X. Second Street, Philadelphia.

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CLEMENT A, WOODNUTT,

UNDERTAKER.

Removed to No. 1215 North 15th Street,

PHILADELPHIA, PENNA.

ADIES' FINE SHOES, HAND-SEWED. ORders taken and executed with promptness.

S. DUTCHER,

915 Spring Garden St., Phila.

FRIENDS' WEDDING INVITATIONS. Send for Samples. No Charge.

N

NO. 908 ARCH STREET, DIXON PHILADELPHIA, PENNA.

FRIENDS' MARRIAGE CERTIFICATES, Correctly and Handsomely Engrossed.

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BY ALFRED J. HOUGH.

AN interesting and very able essay showing the

DUTY.

means to be avoided, condemned and abolished, it is of all thinys war, than which nothing is more impious, more calamitous, more widely pernicious, more

inveterate, more base, or, in sum, more unworthy of a PEAK the word God bids thee! SPF

man, not to say of a Christian."
No other word can reach

If Biblical texts are a justification of war, they
The chords that wait in silence
The coming of thy speech.

are clearly a justification of slavery; whilst, on the

other hand, the general spirit of the Christian reDo the work God bids thee!

ligion, to say nothing of several positive passages, is One-only one still loom

at least equally opposed to one custom as to the other. Awaits thy touch and tending

If, then, the abolition of slavery is one of the services In all this lower room.

for which the world is mainly indebted to ChrisSing the song God bids thee!

tianity as an influence in history, its failure to abolish The heart of earth's great throng

the other custom must in fairness be set against it; for Needs for its perfect solace

it were as easy to defend slave-bolding out of the The music of thy song.

language of the New Testament, as to defend military White River Junction, Vt.

service, and more, indeed, is actually said there to

inculcate the duty of peace than to inculcate the WAR AND THE CHURCH.

principles of social equality,

The different attitude of the Church towards these

two customs in modern times, her vehement conhistoric action of the Church in relation to war, demnation of the one, and her tolerance or encouragepublished in the Gentlemen's Magazine (London), and ment of the other, appears all the more surprising written by J. A. Farrer, will be read with interest. when we remember that in the early centuries of our We give some extracts which should stimulate to

era her attitude was exactly the reverse, and that, greater faithfulness to the Christian standard in this

whilst slavery was permitted, the unlawfulness of war

was denounced with no uncertain or wavering voice. regard.—Eds.)

When Tertullian wrote his treatise De Corona (201) Whether military service was lawful for a Chris- concerning the right of Christian soldiers to wear tian at all, was, at the time of the Reformation, one laurel crowns, he used words on this subject which, of the most keenly debated questions; and consider- even if at variance with some of his statements, made ing the force of opinion arrayed on the negative side, in his Apology thirty years earlier, may be taken to its ultimate decision in the affirmative is a matter of express his maturer judgment. “Shall the son of more wonder than it is generally thought to deserve. peace” (that is, a Christian), he asks “act in battle Sir Thomas More charges Luther and his disciples when it will not befit him even to go to law ? Shall with carrying the doctrines of peace to the extreme he administer bonds, and imprisonments, and torlimits of non-resistance; and the views on this sub- tures, and punishments, who may not avenge even ject of the Mennonites and Quakers were but what his own injuries ?

The very transference of at one time seemed not unlikely to have been those his enrolment from the army of light to that of darkof the Reformed Church generally.

ness is sin.” And again:“What if the soldiers did go By far the foremost champion, on the negative to John and receive the rule of their service, and what side, was Erasmus, who, being at Rome at the time if the Centurion did believe; the Lord by his diswhen the League of Cambray, under the auspices of arming of Peter disarmed every soldier from that time Julius II., was meditating war against the Republic forward.” Tertullian made an exception in favor of of Venice, wrote a book to the Pope entitled Antipo- soldiers whose conversion was subsequent to their enlemus, which, though never completed, probably ex- rolment (as was implied in discussing their duty with ists in part in his tract known under the title of regard to the laurel-wreath), though insisting, even in Dulce bellum inexpertis, and printed among his Adagia. their case, that they ought either to leave the service, In it he complained that “If there be anything in the as many did, or to refuse participation in its acts, affairs of mortals which it is the interest of men not which were inconsistent with their Christian profesonly to attack, but which ought by every possible sion. · So that at that time, Christian opinion was

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clearly not only averse to a military life being entered fore they should have ceased to commit murder and upon after baptism (of which there are no instances robbery under the fiction of hostilities. But it proves on record), but in favor of its being forsaken if the the strength of the original impetus, that Ulphilas, enrolment preceded the baptism. The Christians who the first apostle to the Goths, should purposely, in his served in the armies of Rome were not men who translation of the Scriptures, have omitted the Books were converts or Christians at the time of enrolling, of Kings, as too stimulative of a love of war. but men who remained with the colors after their Praiseworthy were the efforts of the Church from conversion. If it is certain that some Christians re- the tenth century onwards to check that system of mained in the army, it appears equally certain that no private war which was then the bane of Europe, as Christian at that time thought of entering it.

the system of public and international wars has been This seems the best solution of the much-debated since. In the south of France several bishops met question, to what extent Christians served at all in and agreed to exclude from the privileges of a Christthe early centuries. Irenæus speaks of the Christians ian, in life and after death, all who violated their orin the second century as not knowing how to fight, dinances directed against that custom (990). In 1032,

nd Justin Martyr, his contemporary, considered a bishop of Aquitaine declared himself the recipient Isaiah's prophecy about the swords being turned into of a message from heaven, ordering men to cease ploughshares as in part fulfilled, because his co-relig- from fighting; and not only did a peace, called the ionists, who in times past had killed one another, did Truce of God, result for seven years, but it was renot then know how to fight, even with their enemies. solved that such peace should always prevail during The charge made by Celsus against the Christians, the great festivals of the Church, and from every that they refused to bear arms even in case of neces- Thursday evening to Monday morning. And the regsity, was admitted by Origen, but justified on the ulation for one kingdom was speedily extended over ground of the unlawfulness of war. This was the Christendom, confirmed by several Popes, and endoctrine expressed or implied, by the following forced by excommunication. If such efforts were not Fathers, in chronological order :- Justin Martyr, Ta- altogether successful, and the wars of the barons contian, Clemens of Alexandria, Tertullian, Cyprian, Lac- tinued till the royal power in every country was tantius, Archelaus, Ambrose, Chrysostom, Jerome and strong enough to suppress them, it must none the Cyril; and Eusebius says that many Christians in the less be recognized that the Church fought if she third century laid aside the military life rather than fought in vain, against the barbarism of a military abjure their religion. Of 10,050 pagan inscriptions society, and with an ardour that is in striking conthat have been collected, 545 were found to belong to trast with her apathy in more recent history. pagan soldiers, while of 4,734 Christian inscriptions It must also be granted that the idea of what the of the same period, only 27 were those of soldiers : Papacy might do for the peace of the world, as the from which it seems rather absurd to infer, as a French supreme arbiter of disputes and mediator between writer has inferred, not that there was a great dispro- contending powers, gained possession of men's minds, portion of Christian to pagan soldiers in the imperial and entered into the definite policy of the Church armies, but that most Christian soldiers, being sol- about the twelfth century, in a manner that might diers of Christ, did not like to have it recorded on suggest reflection for the nineteenth. The name of their epitaphs that they had been in the service of Gerolus de Reigersperg is connected with a plan for any man.

the pacification of the world, by which the Pope was On the other hand, there were certainly always to forbid war to all Christian princes, to settle all dissome Christians who remained in the ranks after putes between them, and to enforce his decisions by their conversion, in spite of the military oath in the the greatest powers that have ever yet been devised names of the pagan deities, and the quasi worship of for human authority-namely, by excommunication the standards which constituted some part of the and deposition. And the Popes attempted someearly Christian antipathy to war.

thing of this sort. For instance, Innocent III. reA love of peace and dislike of bloodshed were the fused to consider the destruction of places and the principal causes of this early Christian attitude slaughter of Christians as a matter of no concern to towards the military profession, and the idolatry and him; and Honorius III. forbade an attack upon Denother pagan rites connected with it only acted as mi- mark, on the ground that that kingdom lay under nor and secondary deterrents. Thus, in the Greek the special protection of the Papacy. The clergy, Church, St. Basil would have excluded from commu- moreover, were even in the most warlike times of nion for three years any one who had shed an ene- history the chief agents in negotiations for peace, and my's blood; and a similar feeling explains Theodo- in the attempt to set limits to military reprisals. sius' refusal to partake of the Eucharist after his great In these respects it must be plain to every one victory over Eugenius. The canons of the Church that the attitude and power of the Church have enexcluded from ordination all who had served in an tirely changed. She has stood apart more and more, army after baptism; and in the fifth century Innocent as time has gone on, from her great opportunities as I. blamed the Spanish churches for their laxity in ad- a promoter of peace. Her influence, it is notorious, mitting such persons into holy orders.

no longer counts for anything, where it once was so The anti-military tendency of opinion in the early powerful, in the field of negotiation and reconcileperiod of Christianity appears therefore indisputable, ment. She lifts no voice to denounce the evils of and Tertullian would probably have thought but war, nor to plead for greater restraint in the exercise lightly of the prophet who should have predicted that of reprisals and the abuse of victory. She lends no Christians would have ceased to keep slaves long be- aid to teach the duty of forbearance and friendship

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