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TULIP-TULIP-TREE.

cups, clear in the bottom. Plants raised from the seed of the finer variegated sorts form poor, weak breeders, of no value. The seed is sown on fine, light soil, thinly covered, and protected and shaded by a frame. At the end of the second year, the bulbs are taken up, and replanted three inches apart; and again at the end of the fourth year. Some will bloom the fourth year, most the fifth, and all the seventh year. TULIP-TREE (lyriodendron tulipifera); one of the most remarkable o: of the North American forest. Among our deciduous trees, it is second in size only to the button-wood; and the fine form of the trunk, the beauty and singularity of the foliage and flowers, entitle it to rank among the most magnificent vegetables of temperate climates. It is, besides, one of our most valuable trees, from the numerous and useful applications of its wood. The tulip-tree is readily recognised by the peculiar truncated leaves. It belongs to the same natural family with the magnolias. The flowers are large and showy, variegated with different colors, among which yellow predominates, and somewhat resemble those of the tulip. The fruit is a cone two or three inches in length, composed of a number of long, thin, narrow scales, attached to a common axis. The leaves are alternate, supported on long foot-stalks, smooth, and of a pleasing green color. They are divided into three lobes, the middle one of which is truncated, and slightly notched at the summit. In most parts of the U. States, this tree is known only by the improper denomination of poplar: sometimes it is called white-wood, or canoe-wood; but the more appropriate name which we have adopted is used chiefly in European gardens. It is unknown, in the wild state, east of the Connecticut river, although occurring as far north as latitude 45°, at the southern extremity of lake Champlain. It is most common, and attains the largest size, in the Middle and especially in the Western States. Its comtive rareness in the lower parts of the outhern States is owing to the nature of the soil, which is either too arid or too watery. Every where it is less abundant than the oaks, walnuts, ashes and beeches, for it delights only in deep, loamy, and extremely fertile soils, such as are found in the rich alluvial flats which lie along the rivers, and on the borders of the #. swamps that are enclosed in the Srests. In some parts of the Western States, it constitute, alone, pretty exten

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sive tracts of the forest, and here attains its largest dimensions: stocks have been measured more than twenty feet in circumference, and whose height was estimated at from 120 to 140 feet; and sometimes the trunk is perfectly straight, and uniform in diameter, for more than f

feet. The heart, or perfect wood, is yeslow, approaching to a lemon color, and the sap white. Though classed among the light woods, it is much heavier than the poplars: the grain is equally fine, and more compact: . it is easily wrought, polishes . and is sufficiently strong and stiff for purposes requiring great solidity. The heart, if perfectly seasoned, long resists the action of the atmosphere, and is said to be rarely attacked by worms. Its greatest defect is, that, when employed in wide boards, and exposed to the weather, it is liable to shrink and warp, from the alternations of dryness and moisture. The nature of the soil has such an influence upon the color and quality of the wood, that mechanics distinguish two varieties, the white and yellow poplar, the former of which is always neglected when the other can be procured. At New York, Philadelphia, and in the adjacent country, this wood is employed in the construction of houses, for ers and the joists of the upper stories, for which purposes it is esteemed on account of its lightness and strength. In other parts of the Middle States, in the #. parts of the Carolinas, and especially in the Western States, it is more generally used in building, and is considered the best substitute for the pine, red cedar and cypress. Wherever it abounds, it serves for the interior work of houses, and sometimes for the exterior covering in situations where it is difficult to procure pine boards. The panels of doors and wainscots, and the mouldings of **. pieces, are made of this wood. . In the upper part of North Carolina, Ohio, Kentucky, &c., the shingles of this wood are preferred, because they are the most durable, and are not liable to split by the effect either of intense frosts or a hot sun. In all the large towns of the U. States, the boards, which are often two or three feet wide, are exclusively used for the panels of coaches and chaises. When perfectly dry, they receive paint well, and admit of a brilliant polish. They are exported to the Southern as well as the Eastern States for this purpose. The seat of Windsor chairs, which are made in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, &c., is always of this wood. A very large quanti

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ty of the timber is consumed in this way, as also in the manufacture of trunks and bedsteads, which last are stained in imitation of mahogany. The circular board and wings of fanning-mills are of this wood. As it is very light, and easily wrought in the lathe, it is much used for wooden bowls: it is also preferred for the head of hair-brooms or sweeping-brushes: farmers select it for the eating and drinking troughs of their cattle: in Kentucky, it is sometimes employed for rails: it is found useful in the construction of wooden bridges,from uniting lightness withstrength and durability: the Indians of the Middle and Western States preferred this tree for their canoes, which are made of a single trunk, are very light and strong, and sometimes carry twenty persons:—in fine, the tulip-tree affords excellent charcoal, which is employed by smiths in districts which furnish no stone-coal. These are some of the more common purposes to which this wood is applied. The lumberyards of New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore contain a great quantity of this wood in different forms. It is very cheap, being sold at half the price of black . nut, wild cherry and curled maple. In all the country watered by the Monongahela, this tree is extremely abundant, and large rafts, composed wholly of its timber, are floated down the stream to Brownsville, where the logs are sawed into boards, and used in the environs, and even at Pittsburg, in the construction of houses. TULLUs Hostilius; according to the common statement, king of Rome and successor of Numa Pompilius, B.C. 672; a warlike monarch, in whose reign took place the combat of the Horatii and Curiatii. (See Horatii.) He afterwards subdued the Albans by treachery. He likewise conquered the Fidenates and Sabines. In his old age he became superstitious. His death, after a reign of thirtythree years, is ascribed by some to lightning, by others, to Ancus Martius, his successor. (See Neibuhr's Roman History.) TULLY. (See Cicero.) TUMUL1, or BARRows, are the most ancient and general of all monuments to the dead. The earliest barrow of which we read is that which Homer mentions as having been formed over the remains of Patroclus. That of Achilles is still, as it was originally designed to be, a distant sea mark. By the Athenian customs, earth was heaped on the dead by the nearest relations, and corn was then sown on the barrow. The Scythians heaped

TULIP-TREE-TUMULI.

huge barrows over the bodies of their kings. The height of the mound was in proportion to the honor intended to be id to the deceased. The steppes of artary are thickly covered with barrows. In vol. 2d of the Archaeologia, a Tartarian barrow is mentioned, in which were found two corpses wrapped in four sheets of gold. The weight of the gold was forty pounds. The famous Irish barrow at New Grange, described by governor Pownall (Archaeologia, 2d, 236), is in the county of Meath. It consists of small bbles. The base covers two acres. he circumference at the top is 300 feet, height 70. There is a so within it sixty-two feet long, leading to a cave, which intersects the gallery transversely, so as to form a cross. The length and height of the cave are each twenty feet, the breadth eleven feet six inches. Barrows of loose stones or of dark mould and flints are very common in England. Ashes, urns, spears, swords and shields, bracelets, beads, mirrors, combs, and hairho among the principal contents. enmark, Sweden, Lower Saxony, and many other countries on the continent, abound with sepulchral monuments of this kind. To the north of the Hottentots, innumerable barrows are described as having been seen by doctor Sparrow o: 2d, 264). In New Caledonia, r. Forster met with a barrow four feet high, surrounded by an enclosure of stakes. Mr. Oxley, in 1817–1818, found in the interior of New South Wales two native burial-places. The principal one showed much labor. The form was semicircular. Three rows of seats formed one half; the grave and an outer row of seats, the other. The seats constituted segments of circles of from forty to fifty feet, and were raised by the soil being trenched up between them. The grave was an oblong cone, five feet high and nine long. The barrow was supported internally by a sort of wooden arch. The body was wrapped in a great number of opossum skins, covered with dry barb grass and leaves, and lay about four feet below the surface. In the valley of the Mississippi, tumuli, ormounds of earth, are found in great numbers, of the origin and uses of which we are yet ignorant. Similar constructions are also found in Mexico. (See Humboldt's Monuments q the Natives of America.) The mounds in the Mississippi valley have been found to contain bones, and are said to be composed of earth different from that of the surrounding country. They exhibit no trace of tools, and are, in fact, merely regular piles of earth, without brick or stone. They are commonly situated in rich ains and prairies. There is one near eeling, seventy feet in height, and thirty or forty rods in circumference at base, and 180 feet at top. There is a numerous up near Cahokia, stated at about in all, . ... which is a elogram, about ninety feet high,and §. #. circuit. It has been . the skulls found in these mounds bear a striking resemblance to those found in Peru. TUNBRIDGE WELLs; a town of England, in Kent; thirty-five miles from London. It is an appellation given to a series of scattered villages, which are nearly two miles in length, and owe their origin and importance to the celebrated mineral waters in the vicinity, consisting of four divisions, Mount Ephraim, Mount Pleasant, Mount Sion, and the Wells, properly so called. The air of this district is remarkably pure and salubrious, the appearance of the country inviting, and the aspect of the villages picturesque, appearing like a large town in a wood, interspersed with rich meadows, and enclosing a large common, in which are walks, rides, handsome rows of trees, and various other objects. Here are excellent accommodations for visitants, also assembly rooms, a theatre, libraries, chapel, market place, &c. The waters are chalybeate (see Mineral Waters), extremely clear and pellucid at the fountain head, and the taste is strongly impregnated with iron. They are of great use in removing complaints arising from sedentary habits, weak digestion, and nervous and chronic disorders. The discove of their virtue is ascribed to Dudley lo North, a courtier in the reign of James I, who was restored to health by drinking them. A variety of toys in wood of various kinds is manufactured here, and known by the name of Tunbridge ware. The high rocks, one mile and a half from the wells, are much celebrated. In some parts they are seventy-five feet high, and form a very striking and romantic picture. TUNE. (See Tone, and Melody.) TUNgsTEN ; one of the metals, so named from the Swedish word tung, heavy, in allusion to the great specific gravity of the mineral in which it was first detected as an ingredient. The ores of this metal are three, viz. wolfram, tungsten, and yellow oride of tungsten...l., Wolfram occurs in short, highly modified prisms, whose primary form is a right oblique-angled

TUMULI–TUNGSTEN. 369

prism, the larger angle of the lateral planes being 117° The secondary forms are produced through the replacement of the lateral edges and of the longer terminal edges. Cleavage lel to the primary form, perfect; surface of the crystals streaked parallel to the axis ; lustre metallic adamantine, or imperfect metallic; color dark grayish, or brownish-black; streak dark reddish-brown ; opaque; not very brittle; hardness between apatite and feldspar; specific grayity 7.15. Besides occurring in single crystals, it occasionally presents itself under the form of twin-crystals, and massive. The massive varieties are irregularly lamellar, sometimes columnar. It is also found in pseudomorphs, in the shape of tungsten. It consists of

Tungstic acid, . . . . . . . . . . . 78.77 Protoxide manganese, . . . . . . 6.2.2 Protoxide iron, . . . . . . . . . . 18.32 Silex, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.25

It decrepitates before the . but may be melted, in a sufficiently elevated temperature, into a globule, having its surface covered with crystals o metallic lustre. It is easily soluble in borax. Wolfram occurs very frequently along with tin ore, in veins and in beds. It is met with also in veins along with alena. Its localities are the Saxon and hemian tin mines, as at Schlackenwald, Zinnwald, Ehrenfriedersdorf and Geyer; also many places in Cornwall. It is also found in France and Siberia. It has one locality in the U. States, at Munroe, Connecticut, where it is found in a bed of quartz, both crystallized and udomorphous, accompanied by galena, j native bismuth, and the other ores of tungsten. 2. Tungsten is found in crystals of an octahedral figure, and depending upon a primary form, which is an acute octahedron, the upper pyramid inclining to the lower one under an angle of 128° 40', parallel with whose faces it cleaves, and also with the faces of an octahedron less acute. The surfaces of the crystals are commonly drusy; lustre vitreous, inclining to adamantine; color generally white, often inclining to and passing into yellowish-gray, yellowish and reddish-brown; streak white; semitransparent to translucent; brittle ; hardness a little above that of fluor; specific gravity 6.07. Besides the crystals, tungsten is found massive. It consists of lime 1940 and tungstic acid 8042. Alone upon charcoal, it is infusible before the blow-pipe, except that the thinnest edges

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are converted, in a very strong heat, into a semitransparent vitrified mass. It gives a white glass with borax. It is found in similar repositories with wolfram. The

rincipal localities of tungsten are §.m. and Zinnwald in Bohemia, Ehrenfriedersdorf in Saxony, and Cornwall, England. Splendid specimens have lately been found at Carrock in Cumberland. In the U. States it occurs at Munroe, Connecticut, along with wolfram, in large imperfect crystals imbedded in quartz, and massive, in pieces of considerable dimensions. 3. Yellow oride of too." is found in the state of an orangeyellow powder investing tungsten, from whose decomposition it appears to result. It is readily soluble in warm liquid ammonia, and is precipitated white by acids; the precipitate, by standing, reacquiring the yellow color. It has only been met with at Munroe, Connecticut. The easiest method of obtaining tungsten in the metallic state is the following:—Fuse together a mixture of wolfram and carbonate of potash in a crucible. Then di the fused mass in water, which will dissolve the tungstate of potash formed. To this solution add a quantity of solution of salammoniac in water, and evaporate the whole to dryness. Put the dry saline residue into a Hessian crucible, and heat till the sal-ammoniac is entirely dissipated. The residual matter being now dissolved in hot water, a heavy black powder separates, which is oxide oftungsten. Let it be boiled in a weak solution of potash, and, finally, in pure water. When this powder is heated in an open crucible, it takes fire, and is converted into tungstic acid. The affinity of tungsten for oxygen not being very strong, it is easily reduced to the metallic state by passing a current of dry hydrogen gas over tungstic acid, heated to redness in a glass tube. Thus purified, tungsten (scheelium of the Germans) is of a grayishwhite color, or rather the color of steel, and is possessed of considerable brilliancy. It is one of the hardest of the metals, it being almost impossible to make an impression upon it by the file. It seems also to be brittle. Its specific gravity is 17.6. It is therefore the heaviest of the metals after gold, platinum and iridium. It requires for fusion a very high temperature. . It is not attracted by the magnet. When heated in an open vessel, it gradually absorbs oxygen, and is converted into an oxide. Tungsten seems capable of combining with oxygen in two different proportions, and of forming the

TUNGSTEN-TUNGUSEs.

brown or black oride, and the yellow, or tungstic acid. The first of these is obtained by putting a quantity of tungstic acid in a glass tube, heating it to a very low red heat, and passing through it, while in that state, a current of hydrogen gas. Water is formed, and the acid is deprived of a portion of its oxygen. The oxide has a flea-brown color, and, when heated in the open air, takes fire, and burns like tinder, and is converted into tungstic acid. This oxide has the power of uniting with soda, and would appear to play the part of an acid. The tungstic acid, obtained as described above, has a pale lemonjo color. When strongly heated, it comes en, as it does when exposed to the rays of the sun. Its specific gravity is 5.6. It is tasteless, insoluble in water, but is very soluble in the caustic alkalies. It has the property of combining with other acids. When precipitated from tungstate of ammonia by an acid, the precipitate is always a compound of tungstic acid and of the acid employed to throw it down. Tungsten forms three compounds with chlorine, all of which are chlorides. It combines also with phosphorus and sulphur. According to the trials of Gmelin, tungsten, even when in the state of an acid, has no injurious effect on the animal economy, when taken internally. TUNguses; a numerous people in Siberia, of Mantchoo origin (see Mandshures), dwelling in the lower regions of the Yenisei, on the Tungusca, the Lena and the Amour. Those beyond the Amour are under the protection of China; those to the north under that of Russia. Some of the Tunguses are converted to Christianity, and practise agriculture; but the most are §. to Shamanism, and rove about with horses, reindeer, or dogs, which draw their sledges and serve them for food, rarely spending more than one or two nights in the same place. Hunting, fishing, and in some cases the breeding of cattle, are their employment. They are divided, according to the nature of the country which they occupy, into the Tunguses of the steppes and the Tunguses of the forests. . The former are shepherds, and own horses, neat cattle, sheep, goats and camels. They are active and vigorous, and are remarkable for the flatness of their faces, and the smallness of their eyes. They have no money, and are unacquainted with the use of silver and gold. They pay their tribute to the Russian government in furs. Some of the small tribes serve as light troops on the Mongolian frontiers, and are exempt from tribute. All the Tunguses have a common language, and, although so much dispersed, are to be considered as forming one nation. Their number is unCertain. TUNic; a garment worn by the Romans of both sexes, under the toga and next to the skin. It was oil, of wool, of a white color, and reaching below the knee. Several tunics were worn one above another. Only slaves and the lower class of the people appeared abroad in the tunic; but at home, the Romans generally wore only the tunic, which they girded up when going out, or when engaged ho The senators wore a tunic with a broad stripe (clavus) of purple sewed on the breast: the equites had narrow stripes. Hence the terms laticlavii and angusticlarii, top. to persons of these orders. A sort of tunic worn by the women under another made of linen, and having sleeves, was called indusium, and much resembled the modern shirt. TUNIs; one of the Bar states in Africa, bounded north by the Mediterranean, east by the Mediterranean and Tripoli, south by Tripoli and the deserts, and west by Algiers. It consists chiefly of a large peninsula, stretching into the Mediterranean in a north-east direction, and coming within a hundred miles of the coast of Sicily. It has an extent of about 500 miles of coast on the Mediterranean; and the cultivated part reaches200 or 250 miles into the interior, till it terminates with the chain of Atlas and desert plains. Square miles, about 72,000; population variously estimated from one to two millions, of which about 100,000 are Jews. (See Barbary § Tunis is watered by the river Mejerdah, or Bagrada, on the banks of which are many towns and large villages. Its banks, and the country to the eastward, are fertile, of t natural beauty, and are the best cultivated parts of the country. The western part is more thinly inhabited, and, in many places, is almost a desert. The mountains of Tunis contain mines of silver, copper, lead and quicksilver, but they are not wrought. The situation of the country is very favorable for commerce, and the amount is considerable. The exports consist of grain, the principal article, next olive oil, wool, soap, sponge and orchilla weed; also, gold dust, ivory, and ostrich feathers, brought by caravans from Timbuctoo. The imports are European manufactures,

-TUNGUSES-TUNIs.

colonial produce, and East India cottons.

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Tunis, the capital, has a population estimated at from 100,000 to 150,000, of which about 30,000 are Jews. It is 300 miles east of Algiers. It is situated at the bottom of a large bay, about ten miles south-west of the site of ancient Carthage, on a plain, surrounded on all sides, except the east, by considerable heights, encircled by lakes and marshes. It is built in a most irregular manner, and the streets are extremely narrow and filthy. The principal structure is the palace of the bey. There is one great mosque, and a number of smaller ones, with several colleges and schools; and near the centre is a piazza of vast extent, said to have formerly contained 3000 shops for the sale of woollen and linen manufactures. The houses be.# to European consuls are all insulated habitations, resembling prisons. The Moorish houses are of only one story, with flat roofs, and cisterns for the purpose of collecting rain water. The city is well supplied with water, by an aqueduct. Large sums have been ex

nded in the construction of forts, and in surrounding the city with a high wall; yet it is by no means a strong place. The citadel, called El Gassa, is much out of repair. Six miles to the west is the Goletta, the harbor and citadel of Tunis, and the naval and commercial depot of the state. It is strongly fortified. A basin has been formed sufficient to receive all the vessels of war and merchant ships belonging to Tunis. A lake extends from the city to the Goletta. Tunis has a more extensive commerce than any other town in Barbary. After Tunis, Cairwan is the chief commercial place: it contains a large mosque, considered the most holy in Northern Africa. At Bersach (perhaps Byrsa, the ancient citadel of Carthage) are seen the ruins of a Carthaginian aqueduct. After the destruction of Carthage, the Romans built a new city, near the site of the modern Tunis: it was [. with Roman colonists, and soon became one of the most important cities of the ancient world. This being destroyed by the Saracens, Tunis, before an insignificant place, rose to importance. The Normans of Sicily afterwards possessed themselves of the city, but they were driven out of the country by Abdalmamum of Morocco. In 1530, the state was disturbed by domestic troubles, of which Charles V availed himself to undertake his celebrated expedition to Africa. He defeated the Turks, who “had made themselves masters of Tunis under Hayradin Barbarossa, and forced his way into the city. (See Barba

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