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and ftuation, is not the least memorable. We regret that we cannot extract the author's details on this interefing subject.

Η Ο Ι Ι Α Ν D. Simson in agt boeken, or Samson, a poem in eight books, Dort, 8vo. is a poetical account of the life of Samion.

Of Groot's Hedendaagshe Historie, or History of our own Times, the first volume is printed; but too prolix to meet with much attention.

Ockerle's Uitverp, &c. Sketch of the Knowledge of Characters, or project to reduce that science to general principles, Uto recht, 2 vols. 8vo. promises more than it performs.

S W E DE N. The Voyages of Mr. Thunberg, knight of the order of Wasa, and royal profesor of botany in the university of Upsal, have appeared at Upsal in three vols. 8vo. These voyages,

which occue pied nine years, chiefly regard Africa and the Asiatic islands. Mr. Thunberg's remarks extend to every object deserving of notice: government, religion, manners, oeconomy, commerce, all enter into the plan of his work: but natural history attracts his chief attention, and the reputation of the author in this branch gives the work great value. It is to be regretted that this work, which is published at the author's expence, should be deficient in plates worthy of the text. The two first volumes chiefly contain the excursions which the author made from the Cape of Good Hope into the in:erior parts of Africa. Mr. Thunberg observes that several kinds of trees transplanted from Europe to the Cape, such as the oak, the white poplar, &c. lose their leaves in winter, a phenomenon unknown to the African trees. This circumstance, says he, is so much the more fingular, as the cold of winter in these climates is far from having that intensity necessary in Europe to cause the leaves to fall. This appearance in Africa happens at the time that the trees in Europe begin to resume their verdure, and only continues for a few days, the new leaves foon bursting forth. An account of a large species of bupleurum is given, that bears leaves resembling velvet, which are split by the women and made into gloves, bonnets, &c. according to the form of the leaf. Hence a fable of the natives, that this plant bears cloaths ready made. Mr. Thunberg fails to Java, and illustrates that ifland with some curious information. His reflections on the influence of climate on mankind are very unfavourable to the torrid regions, He does not hesitate to advance that the difference between the brutes and the Indians, with respect to judgment and imagination, įs not so great as that between the Indians and Europeans: and


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he observes, that even the most intelligent and active European loses his pature in those hot climes.

The account of the Japanese is extremely curious and interesting. M. Thunberg regards them as the moft fingular people on the globe, and not contented with giving them the first rank among the nations of Africa, America, and dia, he even grants them in some respects a preference over the Europeans. The Chinese and the Dutch are the only nations allowed to visit Japan. The author arrived in a Dutch vessel at Nagasaki, the only port in the country which foreign ships are allowed to enter. The Dutch company has a factory on an ifle called Dezima, only 600 feet long, and about 280 broad. Mr. Thunberg accompanied a Dutch embaffy to the two capitals of this empire, Jedo and Miaco, and availed himself of such other opportunities of observation as presented themselves. It is false that the Dutch are obliged to trample on the cross, as many writers have asserted. We must close this brief notice, after giving an extract on the persons of the Japanese. • Their ftature is graceful, their limbs trong; they have much ease and agility. The colour yellowish, sometimes inclining to the white, fometimes to the black. The women, who are not expored to the sun, are commonly rather fair. The eyes in the Chinese form, that is very long and narrow, which gives an appear. ance of cunning, certainly not common to all. The colour of the eyes generally black, as is that of the hair and eye-brows, which last seens placed higher than in Europeans. The head ge. nerally large; the neck very short. The hair black, thick, sin. ing with oil. The nose not flat, yet short and broad.' The dress of both sexes confifts in long robes. Add that the learned use the Chinese language, because the sciences proceeded from China to Japan ; but the yolgar do not understand the Chinese, which may

be a branch of the same ļanguage.

Mr. Regner's Minne af Jonas Alstroemer, or Eulogium of Jonas Alstroemer, deserves attention as a tribute of applause to one of those valuable men who seldom appear. The bult of Mr. Alltroemer has been placed in the Exchange at Stockholm ; but this work will spread his fame more widely. It is sufficient here to ob. ferve, that this excellent citizen was the first who introduced manufactures of cloth, filk, &c. &c. ir•) his country, and many were the dangers which he encountered in accomplishing this grand detign, particularly from the Dutch government. In 1761 these establishments occupied more than 18,000 Swedish workmen, and caufed the balance of trade to incline in favour of Sweden, with a clear annual profit of about 150,000l. sterling.



POLITICAL AND CONTROVERSIAL. High Church Politics; being a feasonable Appeal to the Friends of

she British Conftitution, against the Practices and Principles of

High Churchmen. 8vo. 35. Johnson. 1792. . W can neither

commend the temper with which this bitter Philippic against the church of England is written, nor praise the accuracy of the accounts. The historical facts, by omissions and alterations, are wholly misrepresented, and the arguments are the hackneyed illiberal ones, which, where they admit of a reply, have been often satisfactorily confuted. We can reprobate the riors at Birmingham as warmly as our author, nor do we believe that the churchmen in every part of their conduct were blameless. In fact, goaded as they had been for a series of years; having been so long called interelted hypocrites, hearing continual boasts of the increase of the parıy, reiterated prophecies of the downfal of the church, perhaps of the state, it was difficult to be ' tempesate, loyal, and neutral in a moment;' in the moment when the voice of the people decided against those who at that time expected to triumph. But, that the riots were a concerted scheme of churchmen requires either a head or heart amiss to believe : after exa. mining the whole of the evidence that we can procure, and we have not been inattentive to the subject, we are convinced that there is not the smallest reason for the imputation.

The language of the Diffenters is now greatly changed; and, except from a few eager zealots, whose conduct the more moderate of their own party disapprove, we hear little of persecution. They well know that, in their attempts to disseminate this idea among their own flocks, it has been resisted by the most judicious and respectable.

We trust the time will soon return, when the former candour and harmony will be reftored between the parties at present so warmly contending. 4 Letter from the Right Hon. Edmund Burke, M. P. in the King

dom of Great Britain, to Sir Hercules Langrijhe, Bari, M. P. the Subje&t of Roman Catholics of Ireland, and the Propriety of ad. mitling ibem to the elective Franchise, confiftenily witb obe Principles of the Constitution as eftablished at the Revolution. 8vo. 25.


Debrett. 1792.

Mr. Burke's arguments are a little too flowery, and he seems rather to evade meeting the question fully and fairly.. On the whole, he appears to be of opinion that the Catholics ought to be admitted to their elective franchises. What he says on the subject of the expedience of the measure may be adduced, inftar omnium, as a specimen.


• Reduced

• Reduced to a question of discretion, and that discretion exercised solely upon what will appear best for the conservation of the state on its present basıs, I should recommend it to your serious thoughts, whether the narrowing of the foundation is always the best way to secure the building? The body of disfranchised men will not be perfectly satisfied to remain always in that state. If they are not satisfied, you have two millions of subjects in our bosom, full of uneasiness ; not that they cannot overturn the act of settlement, and put themselves and you under an arbitrary mafter ; or, that they are not permitted to spawn an hydra of wild republics, on principles of a pretended natural equality in man ; but, because you will not suffer them to enjoy the ancient, fundamental, tried advantages of a British conftitution : that you will not permit them to profit of the protection of a common father, or the freedom of common citizens : and that the only reason which can be assigned for this disfranchisement, has a tendency more deeply to alcerate their minds than the act of exclusion it. felf. What the consequence of such feelings must be, it is for you to look to. To warn, is not to menace.' *A Letter to the Societies of United Irishmen, of the Town of Belfaji,

upon the Subj? 17 of certain apprehensions which have arisen from a propojed Restoration of Catholic Rights, by William Todd Jones, Dsq. With the Declaration of the Catholic Society of Dublin, and fume Thoughts on the prejent Politics of Ireland. By Tbeobald M*Kenna, 1. D. Evo. Robinions. 1792.

When the bill for the relief of the Irish Catholics was in agitation, it was apprehended that their future in Auence in parliament might lead them to propose and carry a bill in favour of ancient claims, to resume forfeited estates. It is the object of this author to obviate such suspicions; but he does it with so much zeal and earnestness, as almost to countenance them. There is, however, little reason to dread either the political principles, or the future conduct of Catholics. We believe them to be good subjects and good men ; and, with the majority of the kingdom, we rejoice at their late emancipations. A Letter 10 the Right Hon. W. Pitt, Chancellor of his Majesty's Ex

chequer ; considering his Plan for discharging the National Delt. 410. 3d. Bell. 1792.

Our author is not a very correct financier. He calculates the difference of the price at which the stock was originally lent, and that at which it is redeemed; considering the difference as add. ing to the burthens of the public. The difference has already opesated by the disadvantageous fate of the loan, and it is not new felt, except that by increasing the price of socks it makes the re



demption more now. If he had put the subje&t in another view, and enquired whether it might not have been more advantageous to suffer the debt to remain, and lower the more oppreffive taxes, till the revenue had only a little exceeded the ordinary expences, we should have thought the Subje&t deserved a discussion. Perhaps this might appear the preferable plan. A Letter to Mr. Paine on his late Publication, 8vo. Is. Stock


1792. This antagonist of Mr. Paine errs a little in his conftitutional doctrines, when he declares “the king, lords, and commons perpetual and hereditary guardians of our civil and religious liberty;" and the democrats will receive the information with suspicion and diftruft. In other respects, the author expoftulates with the Ame. rican secretary, not without some mingled marks of indignation, and declares that he aims at supporting the new constitution of France, by raising revolutions in every neighbouring country. It is, indeed, surprising, that the apostle of liberty, who by his own modeft account saved America, is not now, by what appears from this pamphlet, in a more respectable station. America is ungrateful, or Thomas Paine has not been quite so serviceable as he dea fcribes. In fact, his talents lie in raising storms and confusions, and America is willing to be quiet. Constitutional Letters, in Answer to Mr. Paine's Rights of Man.

8vo. is. Riley 1792. We have already followed the author of these Letters, who re, plied to · Cassandra,' author of the Alarm,' under the signatore of Corrector.' The chief object of the present Letters is the af. sertion of Paine, that we have no constitution, because we have no formal written instrument of this nature. He replies with much mildness, moderation, and good sense, Rights of Citizens ; being an Inquiry into fome of the Consequences of

Social Union, and an Examination of Mr. Paine's Principles toucb. ing Government. 8vo.

25. 62, Debrett. 1792. We deem this work as the best reply to the futile absurdities of • the Rights of Man,' the most clear detection of its author's nu. merous contradictions and inconfiftencies that we have seen. But, as his arguments are not, at present, before our readers, we cannot with propriety adduce the answers. On the whole, the Rights of Citizens is a work of singular ability, and displays much acuteness, judgment, and learning. The following isolated apologue we may be allowed to transcribe.

! In I know not what century, (the reader can look into Blair's Chronology) but it was after the flood, a spirit of tumult and


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