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eloquence which their writings contained, and to all the pleasure which their perusal could afford: and by imitating such beautiful models, they acquired the art of communicating their own thoughts to the world in a perspicuous, elegant, and pleasing manner. In this art, some of the revivors of learning, both in Britain and on the Continent, succeeded to admiration, and wrote in Latin with a classical purity, not unbecoming the Augustan age. The success and example of those eminent men, brought the study of the Latin language into fashion. To speak and to write pure and classical Latin, was considered as a valuable, and even polite, accomplishment, to which persons of high rank, and both sexes, aspired.
In order to assist youth in the acquisition of this accomplishment, the greatest scholars of the age, as Erasmus*, Linacret, and many others, did not disdain to spend their time in writing rudi, ments, grammars, vocabularies, colloquies, and other books. The haughty monarch, Henry VIII., and his no less haughty minister, Cardinal Wolsey, stooped to employ their pens in writing instructions to youth, in the study of this favorite language. The king wrote an introduction to grammar; and the Cardinal composed a system of instruction to be observed by the masters of the school he founded at Ipswich, his native town, The Cardinal had been a schoolmaster, and was well qualified for giving these instructions, Erasmus bestows high encomiums on the Cardinal, as a patron of letters and of learned men. “ This extraordinary man,” says he, “ had a genius and taste for learning, in which he had made great proficiency in his youth, and for which he retained a regard in his highest elevation, Politer learning, as yet struggling with the patrons of the ancient ignorance, he upheld by his authority, adorned by his splendor, and cherished by his kindness. He invited all the most learned professors by his noble salaries. In furuishing libraries with all kinds of authors of good learning, he contended with Ptolemy Philadelphus himself, who was inore famous for this, than for his kingdom. He recalled the three languages, without which all learning is lame." T.H. K.
• Though Erasmus was not a native of Britain, he resided several years in England at different times, and by his teaching, conversation, and writings, contributed as much, if not more, than any other man to inspire a taste for the study of the Roman and Greek classics, which was the first stage in the restoration of learning. He was born at Rotterdam, in 1467; and having received a liberal education, made very great progress in his studies. His masters predicted that he would sometime prove the envy and wonder of all Germany. After taking priest's orders, he came over to England, where he met with the greatest encouragement from Henry VIII., Sir Thomas Moore, and all the learned Englisbmen of those days. He was one of the most correct and elegant Latin writers among the moderns. The New Testament was first printed in Greek, at Basil, under his inspection, in the year 1515. He died in 1536, and was buried in the Cathedral of Basil. His works were printed at Leyden, in 1706, in ten volumes folio, under the direction of John Le Clerc.
+ Dr. Thomas Linacre, born in 1460, was physician to both the Henrys, and the most elegant scholar of his age. When he was advanced in life, he applied to the study of theology, was ordained a priest, and obtained several preferments in the church. He died in 1524. His virtues were, at least, equal to his abilities. In a word, he was a benefactor to mankind, an honor to literature, and an ornament to human nature.
A HINT TO THE LONDON UNIVERSITY. One of the striking characteristics of the present age is the general diffusion of knowledge. There are, indeed, many who imagine, that to improve the education of the lower orders can answer no good end; that it tends only to make them dissatisfied with their condition; and that while it puts into their hands the power of doing mischief, it renders them totally unfit for being useful in the station which Providence has assigned them. But it is contended, on the other hand, that, besides the increase of moral strength which the nation cannot fail to derive from the progress of intellectual improvement, it
may also be fairly expected that men will be more likely to succeed in their respective callings, and to improve the existing state of trade and manufactures, if to their practical experience they join theoretical knowledge; than if, as is too much the case at the present moment, they go through their work merely by rule, scarcely less ignorant of the principles on which they act, than a horse which turns a mill. Let but a man of discernment examine into the state of almost any one of our great manufactories, and he will in general find the human beings with whom it is crowded, degraded to a condition but little superior to the machinery at which they work. If, however, the understandings of these men were cultivated, it may safely be predicted, that in the course of a few years we should, on comparing their improved state with that to which they are at present doomed, find as marked a difference, as there is between a being endowed with reason, and the parrot that repeats by rote the words which it has learned. Agreeing, as I do, with those who maintain that the acquisition of science must tend to the improvement of art, I cannot help thinking that the establishments which have been formed for placing useful instruction within the reach of all classes of society, however they may be in their general tenor entitled to high approbation, are nevertheless in one point greatly deficient; the information to be derived from them is too general and vague. The mathematical knowledge of a builder must be useless to a baker; and the dyer's acquaintance with chemistry as unimportant to a carpenter, as the study of law to a physician, or of physic to a lawyer. The plan, therefore, that I would venture to propose, as the one by which this evil might be most effectually remedied, is to chalk out a particular line of instruction for the members of each individual trade or business. Not that I would have the energies of the people confined within the narrow limits of their several occupations, but that besides storing their minds with a competent fund of general information, their particular studies should be so directed, as to lead them towards eminence in their respective paths of life. It might, on the first view, be apprehended that, by being diverted into such a multitude of paltry rills, the grand stream of knowledge would be totally lost; but it sbould be considered, that it is only by dispersing it through a vast number of small channels, that its waters can flow to the root of every plant. A superficial observer might also object that many occupations consist entirely of a mere knack, that can be acquired only by practice; that they depend simply on the wit of the fingers, and, consequently, require no other education than what may be picked up in the course of an apprenticeship; but a farther exainination of the case will show that there is no employment, however simple it may appear, that does not, in a greater or less degree, call for the exertion of talent, and the application of knowledge. But I will illustrate my meaning by an anecdote. I was coming up from Brighton the other day by the Union, and on entering into conversation with one of my fellow travellers, a dapper bandy-legged little man, with rather delicate features and an insinuating smile, I soon discovered him to be a tailor; one of those who advertise in the newspapers,“ Clothes cut on scientific principles." The mean opinion which I had entertained of those on whom vulgar prejudice has fixed the contemptuous appellation of “ ninth part of a man, gradually wore away, as he enlarged on the dignity of his profession, and descanted upon the education which a young man ought to receive before he presumes to enter upon it. He explained to me, that the making of a coat, no less than the building of a ship, requires great mathematical knowledge. “ The proportions of the lapelles in front,” he said, “ depend upon trigonometrical principles ; and the curvature of the seams behind can be regulated by those only who have studied the conic sections. But what makes the business far more complicated, is, that we must so cut our coats, as that they shall adjust themselves to the various motions of the body; this is one of the perfections of our art, and can be acquired only by a thorough knowledge of anatomy, and of the structure of the human frame. All this, sir,” he continued emphatically, “ cannot be learned without genius, diligence, and application. But, sir, this is not all; no man can be a complete tailor, or ever take upon himself to give a turn to the dress of the day, until he has studied with attention the source of the beautiful, and the general principles of grace, and has moreover made himself critically acquainted with all the fashions that have ever been in vogue in our own country, as well as with those which flourish at the present day among the most civilized nations of the world.” He then pointed out the almost insurmountable difficulties which a young tailor has to encounter in the prosecution of his studies. He observed, that there was no plan laid down for him, no treatises written with reference to the object he has in view, but that he was forced, with no other guide than his own judgment, to wade through an infinity of ponderous and often expensive volumes, and then to clip and collect, and stitch together, as well as he could, the fragments which appear to serve his purpose.-" The way to legal knowledge,” he added, “was Macadamized by Blackstone; in other pursuits there is at least a beaten track, which, however rugged and circuitous, leads to the end proposed; but we, sir, we," he exclaimed, with vehemence, “ we are doomed to find our way as we can through a rough and pathless country, without so much as a finger-post to direct us. This ought to be remedied : and my idear is," he added, in a dogmatical tone, “ my idear is this ;--that the science of fashion can never be put upon a proper footing in this country, until an extensive branch of the new London University is dedicated to the education of tailors."
Now, although doubts may perhaps be entertained as to the feasibility of the specific plan proposed by my intelligent fellowtraveller, yet it must be acknowledged by every well-wisher to the marck of intellect, that the existing state of society calls for the establishment of some system calculated to remedy the evils complained of, and to facilitate the progress of youthful tailors in the acquisition of the knowledge necessary to the exercise of their science.
It would be tedious to examine at present how far every other line of business requires its peculiar scheme of education ; but I hope at some future time to submit a few observations on the state of one or two species of employment, which appear the most simple and the most independent of science.
TO ADA ON HER BIRTHDAY.
Belov’d, indeed, art thou !
like the night's unwholesome shade,
Fare thee well awhile !
To soothe thy cares, and smooth thy path to heav'n!
A FIRST ARRIVAL AT CALCUTTA. After a pleasant and rather speedy passage of four months from the Downs in the H. C. S. Timandra, we came to an anchor off Sangora. I will pass over my delightful passage from thence in an open paunchway, a sort of floating conveniency about a hundred and fifty times inferior to the vilest Peter boat on the Thames, and transport myself at once to Champaul Ghaut, another edition of the Tower Stairs, inasmuch as from this spot are debarked into the City of Palaces a thousand castes and classes of adventurers, of all climes, nations, and language. My powers of description cannot convey the faintest idea of the imposing and animated spectacle that here burst on my view. Far as the eye could reach, numberless vessels crowded the bosom of the river, and closer in shore, myriads, aye, myriads ! of smaller craft, sloops, doneas, beaulieus, burras, budgerows, and Bengalee wherries, called dingees, seemed packed so closely, as utterly to defy any attempt to thread their mazy phalanx. To the right, till lost in the distance, arose the stately buildings of the city; and at the VOL. I.